Journal of Chromatography B (v.787, #1)

The notion of functional proteomics (description of changes in protein expression during differentiation of cells) and structural proteomics (elucidation of the primary structure of the components in the proteomic pattern) is reviewed. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the proteome analysis are discussed and evaluated. A list of projects is given that are of high priority for the elucidation of the proteome. This includes, e.g., the study of the repertoire of the proteome and the description of molecular pathways during the clonal cell replication. The paper re-evaluates a number of methodological issues, such as the comparison of the use of Ampholines and Immobilines, various staining procedures and labeling procedures.
Keywords: Proteins; Ampholines; Immobilines;

This review covers recent developments towards the implementation of multi-dimensional (MuD) liquid phase based systems for proteome investigations. Although two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) has been used as a standard approach in proteomics, its drawbacks including the limited dynamic range and molecular mass range, together with lack of on-line integration with biological mass spectrometery (Bio-MS) have limited its widespread use and applications in proteomics. In the meantime, various liquid-phase based multi-dimensional separation techniques have been explored. Especially, with the emergence of the combination of nanoflow capillary high-performance liquid chromatography (cHPLC) and Bio-MS, attention is again refocused on utilizing multi-dimensional liquid-phase based separation of proteins. Some remarkable applications of on-line analysis of intact proteins and on-column digested proteins, and the emergence of approaches such as multiple HPLC–electrospray ionization tandem MS and capillary array electrophoresis-matrix assisted laser desorption ionization MS, have stimulated thinking towards developing a automated multi-dimensional system (MuDSy) that integrates liquid phase based separation, digestion and identification of proteins in complex biological mixtures.

Protein micro- and macroarrays: digitizing the proteome by Mary F. Lopez; Malcolm G. Pluskal (19-27).
The early applications of microarrays and detection technologies have been centered on DNA-based applications. The application of array technologies to proteomics is now occurring at a rapid rate. Numerous researchers have begun to develop technologies for the creation of microarrays of protein-based screening tools. The stability of antibody molecules when bound to surfaces has made antibody arrays a starting point for proteomic microarray technology. To minimize disadvantages due to size and availability, some researchers have instead opted for antibody fragments, antibody mimics or phage display technology to create libraries for protein chips. Even further removed from antibodies are libraries of aptamers, which are single-stranded oligonucleotides that express high affinity for protein molecules. A variation on the theme of protein chips arrayed with antibody mimics or other protein capture ligand is that of affinity MS where the protein chips are directly placed in a mass spectrometer for detection. Other approaches include the creation of intact protein microarrays directly on glass slides or chips. Although many of the proteins may likely be denatured, successful screening has been demonstrated. The investigation of protein–protein interactions has formed the basis of a technique called yeast two-hybrid. In this method, yeast “bait” proteins can be probed with other yeast “prey” proteins fused to DNA binding domains. Although the current interpretation of protein arrays emphasizes microarray grids of proteins or ligands on glass slides or chips, 2-D gels are technically macroarrays of authentic proteins. In an innovative departure from the traditional concept of protein chips, some researchers are implementing microfluidic printing of arrayed chemistries on individual protein spots blotted onto membranes. Other researchers are using in-jet printing technology to create protein microarrays on chips. The rapid growth of proteomics and the active climate for new technology is driving a new generation of companies and academic efforts that are developing novel protein microarray techniques for the future.
Keywords: Proteins; Proteomes;

Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), followed by protein extraction and characterization with chemical sequencing or mass spectrometry (MS), is the most commonly used method to analyze complex protein systems such as cells and organelles. However, it is claimed that 2-D PAGE is a slow and labor-intensive technique and also needs subsequent efforts for one-by-one identification of proteins. Recently, the combined methods of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry, with preceding separation techniques such as capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) or liquid chromatography, have been demonstrated as high-throughput techniques suitable for proteomic analysis of protein systems. The studies which employ FTICR MS, aimed at the analysis of complex protein systems, have been reviewed, comparing their performance with that of 2-D PAGE. Also, the possibilities of combining 2-D PAGE and the FTICR MS method to analyze and reconstruct the structures and functions of complex systems are discussed.
Keywords: Protein–polypeptide systems;

Development of a two-dimensional protein–peptide separation protocol for comprehensive proteome measurements by George M. Janini; Thomas P. Conrads; Timothy D. Veenstra; Haleem J. Issaq (43-51).
We have developed an effective two-dimensional fractionation protocol of complex proteome mixtures that extends the ability to conduct more comprehensive proteome measurements. A sample containing intact proteins extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was fractionated by liquid phase isoelectric focusing, followed by tryptic digestion and solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and reversed-phase liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS) of the resultant peptides. The clean-up step is designed to desalt the fractions and rid them of urea and ampholytes prior to analysis by LC–MS–MS. Fifty milligrams of protein were separated into 20 fractions by liquid-phase isoelectric focusing, spanning a pH range of 3–10. The effectiveness of the removal of ampholytes was monitored by capillary zone electrophoresis and LC–MS–MS. The ability to analyze all of the 20 fractions without any noticeable decrease in the separation efficiency demonstrates the overall effectiveness of the SPE clean-up step. The results show that the separation strategy is effective for high throughput characterization of proteins from complex proteomic mixtures.
Keywords: Proteins; Peptides;

Analysis of state-specific phosphorylation of proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach by Hana Kovarova; Marian Hajduch; Mark Livingstone; Petr Dzubak; Ivan Lefkovits (53-61).
In this paper we focus on the detection of specific state of protein phosphorylation within a complex protein mixture separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting. The availability of antibodies that specifically recognize the phosphorylated residue(s) of proteins make this approach feasible as exemplified by the study of the regulatory mechanisms of the cell cycle. The major advantage of the presented approach is its relative simplicity and sensitivity that allows specific detection of protein phosphorylation and distinguishes different phosphorylation sites of target protein. Current findings demonstrate that this method represents a reasonable alternative to the use of other tools to study protein phosphorylation.
Keywords: Roscovitine;

Proteomic database of wool components by Jeffrey E Plowman (63-76).
The separation, classification and identification of wool fibre proteins has been of interest for many years. The purposes of this review are to summarise past work in this area and to evaluate the application of modern proteomic techniques to the identification and characterisation of wool proteins. The current state of knowledge of the wool proteome will also be presented.
Keywords: Wool fibre proteins; Keratins;

Proteomics as a subset of applied genomics technologies will be a key area of biology during the first decade or two of the new Millennium, and that it will have major impact, both directly and indirectly, on nutritional science. The aim of this review is to summarize information about general strategies of proteome and its application to important food proteins (plant, animal, and microbial). Methods are also described for protein separation, identification and determination. This article covers papers published within the last decade.
Keywords: Proteins;

Protein database of Caenorhabditis elegans by Hiroyuki Kaji; Toshiaki Isobe (91-99).
Whole genome sequencing of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent achievement in genomics and uncovers the existence of enormous known and unknown gene products. Characterization and linking of all gene products are the next challenging theme of biology. Genome-wide researches are already progressing on C. elegans and the fruits of these efforts are accessible through the internet. To link the sequence–function relationship, proteomic research has been applied to provide comprehensive information of the worm proteins. In addition to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis for visualization of the proteome, recent advances in liquid chromatography (LC)-based technologies have allowed the large-scale analysis of proteins and are at cutting-edge of high-throughput analysis of focused proteome.
Keywords: Proteins;

Analysis of the Candida albicans proteome by Aida Pitarch; Miguel Sánchez; César Nombela; Concha Gil (101-128).
The alarming incidence of invasive candidiasis, predominantly among the recent expanding immunocompromised population, the appearance of antifungal-drug resistance, and the lack of specific diagnostic tests for it have demanded more impactful research into Candida albicans pathogenicity. Proteomic approaches can provide accurate clues about its biological complexity. Indeed, initial C. albicans proteome analyses have focused on the understanding of dimorphism, host responses, the cell wall, virulence factors and drug resistance, among others. This review aims to briefly outline the technology available for proteomics-based studies, surveying the main proteomic approaches applied to C. albicans research. Prefractionation techniques, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry continue to be the backbone of proteomic projects. Emerging strategies for protein separation, quantification and identification may, however, challenge the pivotal position of 2D-PAGE. Regardless of this, since we are now approaching the completion and annotation of C. albicans genome sequencing, systematic characterization of the proteome of this fungal pathogen, although still in its early stages, heralds an exciting expansion of our knowledge in years to come.

Analysis of the Candida albicans proteome by Aida Pitarch; Miguel Sánchez; César Nombela; Concha Gil (129-148).
Candida albicans is an important fungal model organism of noteworthy clinical interest in modern medicine. Different initiatives addressing its sequencing and physical mapping have been carried out. The C. albicans genome sequence is currently near to completion at Stanford University, heralding new challenges in proteomic research and functional analyses of its gene products. This review presents an update of the most relevant data resources that are available through the World Wide Web to scientists working in the area of the analysis of the C. albicans proteome. An overview of the current status of the main universal protein sequence databases and specialized data collections for C. albicans is given. Various issues of the single public C. albicans 2D-PAGE database are also described, highlighting the significance of setting up graphical query interface-based databanks to visualize 2D-PAGE images through the Net. Finally, we also emphasize the pressing need to create a “cyber-bioknowledge library” that will integrate all the databases developed at the different levels for the understanding of life processes as well as bioinformatic tools for interpreting this deluge of data generated through the Internet.

Towards proteome database of Francisella tularensis by Martin Hubálek; Lenka Hernychová; Jana Havlasová; Irena Kasalová; Věra Neubauerová; Jiřı́ Stulı́k; Aleš Macela; Margaretha Lundqvist; Pär Larsson (149-177).
The accessibility of the partial genome sequence of Francisella tularensis strain Schu 4 was the starting point for a comprehensive proteome analysis of the intracellular pathogen F. tularensis. The main goal of this study is identification of protein candidates of value for the development of diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. In this review, the current status of 2-DE F. tularensis database building, approaches used for identification of biologically important subsets of F. tularensis proteins, and functional and topological assignments of identified proteins using various prediction programs and database homology searches are presented.

Proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus—current state and future challenges by Michael Hecker; Susanne Engelmann; Stuart J Cordwell (179-195).
This paper presents a short review of the proteome of Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive human pathogen of increasing importance for human health as a result of the increasing antibiotic resistance. A proteome reference map is shown which can be used for future studies and is followed by a demonstration of how proteomics could be applied to obtain new information on S. aureus physiology. The proteomic approach can provide new data on the regulation of metabolism as well as of the stress or starvation responses. Proteomic signatures encompassing specific stress or starvation proteins are excellent tools to predict the physiological state of a cell population. Furthermore proteomics is very useful for analysing the size and function of known and unknown regulons and will open a new dimension in the comprehensive understanding of regulatory networks in pathogenicity. Finally, some fields of application of S. aureus proteomics are discussed, including proteomics and strain evaluation, the role of proteomics for analysis of antibiotic resistance or for discovering new targets and diagnostics tools. The review also shows that the post-genome era of S. aureus which began in 2001 with the publication of the genome sequence is still in a preliminary stage, however, the consequent application of proteomics in combination with DNA array techniques and supported by bioinformatics will provide a comprehensive picture on cell physiology and pathogenicity in the near future.

The proteome is the entire protein complement of the genome expressed in a particular cell, tissue, or organism at a given time under a specific set of environmental conditions. Proteomics is a combinatorial methodology to comprehensively analyze the proteome. The general protocol of the expression proteomics consists of advanced methods of high-resolution protein separation, high-quality image analysis and high-throughput protein identification. Although Epstein–Barr virus-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) have long been believed to be immortalized, recent studies have provided ample evidence that a large proportion of LCLs have limited life spans due to shortening of telomeres, and that part of them are truly immortalized by developing strong telomerase activity to maintain telomeres. Differential proteome analysis of pre- and post-immortal LCLs would provide a powerful tool to analyze proteins participating in the process of immortalization. We focus in this review on cumulative data of proteomic information on pre- and post-immortal LCLs.
Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus; B-lymphoblasts;

Protein expression profiling in human lung, breast, bladder, renal, colorectal and ovarian cancers by Ayodele A Alaiya; Uwe J Roblick; Bo Franzén; Hans-Peter Bruch; Gert Auer (207-222).

Proteomic approach to apoptotic thymus maturation by Takao Kawakami; Takuya Nagata; Atsushi Muraguchi; Toshihide Nishimura (223-229).
Apoptosis is an essential process for selection of T lymphocytes specific for foreign antigen in the process of mammalian thymus maturation. Proteomics, a comprehensive study of proteins expressed in a cell, will facilitate the systematic analysis of protein molecules related to such a complicated biological system. Protein expression profiles including information about protein signatures, localization and their quantitative changes with extracellular stimulations are extremely useful to construct intracellular pathway models resulting in the apoptotic cell death.