Journal of Chromatography B (v.782, #1-2)
Editorial Board (iii).
Sequence variation and the biological function of genes: methodological and biological considerations by Peter J Oefner (3-25).
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are expected to facilitate the chromosomal mapping and eventual cloning of genetic determinants of complex quantitative phenotypes. To date, more than 2.5 million non-redundant human SNPs have been reported in the public domain, of which approximately 100 000 have been validated by either independent investigators or by independent methods. Equally impressive is the myriad of methods developed for allelic discrimination. Nevertheless, reports of successful applications of SNPs to genome-wide linkage analysis of both mono- and polygenic traits are rare and limited to a few model organisms, that provide affordable platforms to test both novel methodological and biological concepts at a whole-genome scale under conditions that can be reasonably controlled. Progress in the analysis of SNPs needs to be complemented by methods that allow the systematic elucidation of both primary and secondary phenotypes of genes. Importantly, observations made in one species may very well be of immediate applicability to other species including human. This is particularly true for conserved biological processes such as mitochondrial respiration and DNA repair.
A decade of high-resolution liquid chromatography of nucleic acids on styrene–divinylbenzene copolymers by Peter J Oefner; Christian G Huber (27-55).
The introduction of alkylated, nonporous poly-(styrene–divinylbenzene) microparticles in 1992 enabled the subsequent development of denaturing HPLC that has emerged as the most sensitive screening method for mutations to date. Denaturing HPLC has provided unprecedented insight into human origins and prehistoric migrations, accelerated the cloning of genes involved in mono- and polygenic traits, and facilitated the mutational analysis of more than a hundred candidate genes of human disease. A significant step toward increased sample-throughput and information content was accomplished by the recent introduction of monolithic poly(styrene–divinylbenzene) capillary columns. They have enabled the construction of capillary arrays amenable to multiplex analysis of fluorescent dye-labeled nucleic acids by laser-induced fluorescence detection. Hyphenation of denaturing HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, on the other hand, has allowed the direct elucidation of the chemical nature of DNA variation and determination of phase of multiple alleles on a chromosome.
Keywords: Nucleic acids; Styrene–divinylbenzene copolymers;
Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, alone or after liquid chromatography, for analysis of polymerase chain reaction products in the detection of genomic variation by James J Walters; Karen F Fox; A Fox (57-66).
The availability of the sequences of entire bacterial and human genomes has opened up tremendous opportunities in biomedical research. The next stage in genomics will include utilizing this information to obtain a clearer understanding of molecular diversity among pathogens (helping improved identification and detection) and among normal and diseased people (e.g. aiding cancer diagnosis). To delineate such differences it may sometimes be necessary to sequence multiple representative genomes. However, often it may be adequate to delineate structural differences between genes among individuals. This may be readily achieved by high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis of polymerase chain reaction products.
Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction products;
Pyrosequencing for microbial typing by Mostafa Ronaghi; Elahe Elahi (67-72).
Pyrosequencing is a real-time DNA sequencing technique generating short reads rapidly and inexpensively. This technology has the potential advantage of accuracy, ease-of-use, high flexibility and is now emerging as a popular platform for microbial typing. Here, we review the methodology and the use of this technique for viral typing, bacterial typing, and fungal typing. In addition, we describe how to use multiplexing for accurate and rapid typing.
Genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry by Sascha Sauer; Ivo G. Gut (73-87).
In recent years matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI) has emerged as a very powerful method for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms. The accuracy, speed of data accumulation, and data structure are the major features of MALDI. Several SNP genotyping methods have been implemented with a high degree of automation and are being applied for large-scale association studies. Most methods for SNP genotyping using MALDI mass spectrometric detection and their potential application for high-throughput are reviewed here.
Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping by on-line liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in forensic science of the Y-chromosomal locus M9 by Burkhard Berger; Georg Hölzl; Herbert Oberacher; Harald Niederstätter; Christian G Huber; Walther Parson (89-97).
A method is described for genotyping alleles of the Y-chromosomal locus M9, incorporating DNA extraction, amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sample purification by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC), and allele identification by on-line hyphenation to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI–MS). The alleles G and C were differentiated in 114 base pair amplicons on the basis of intact molecular mass measurements with a mass accuracy between 0.007 and 0.017%. The accuracy of mass determination was significantly reduced to less than 0.0036% upon amplification of a short, 61 bp fragment. The application of steep gradients of acetonitrile in 25 mM butyldimethylammonium bicarbonate not only enabled the efficient separation of non-target components from the PCR product in a monolithic, poly-(styrene–divinylbenzene)-based capillary column, but also allowed the high-throughput analysis of the PCR products with cycle times of 2 min. The new method was compared to a conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism assay with capillary gel electrophoretic analysis. In a blind study, 90 samples of unrelated individuals were genotyped. The high accuracy (<0.004%) and small relative standard deviation (<0.007%, n=20) of mass measurements, which enables even the differentiation of A and T alleles with a mass difference of 9 mass units, make IP-RP-HPLC–ESI–MS a potent tool for the routine characterization of SNPs in forensic science.
Keywords: Y-chromosomal locus M9;
Establishing a control population to screen for the occurrence of nineteen unclassified variants in the BRCA1 gene by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography by Norbert Arnold; Henric Peper; Katrin Bandick; Maike Kreikemeier; Doris Karow; Birgit Teegen; Walter Jonat (99-104).
Numerous missense mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are detected during clinical screening of breast and ovarian cancer patients. Because of the lack of a functional protein assay to determine the functional consequence of these mutations, patients are often frustrated by inconclusive results due to unclassified variants (UV). To determine whether a reported UV is also present in a control collective and therefore more likely be a rare polymorphism than a deleterious mutation, we collected a control population consisting of 95 females and 25 males aged over 60 years (mean 73 years) without a family history of BRCA associated cancers. The age of the control group is beyond the median onset of breast and ovarian cancer with a hereditary background. These controls were analysed for the presence of 19 known UVs in BRCA1 with the DHPLC technique. Only four of the 19 variants (R496H, R866C, S1040N and M1652I) were detected and can be considered polymorphims. However, no firm conclusion can be drawn about the functional relevance of the other 15 variants.
Keywords: BRCA1 gene;
Polymerase chain reaction fidelity and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography by Daniela Muhr; Teresa Wagner; Peter J Oefner (105-110).
Incorporation of non-complementary nucleotides during polymerase chain reaction can result in ambiguous denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography profiles that reduce both sensitivity and specificity of mutation analysis. The use of proofreading DNA polymerases increases the fidelity of polymerase chain reaction and, consequently, reduces background noise in the chromatograms. This is demonstrated for several BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations hat had yielded previously chromatograms of poor quality using non-proofreading enzyme for amplification. Interestingly, despite the reduced level of background heteroduplices, the ability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to detect mutant alleles at a frequency <10% in pools of chromosomes did not improve significantly.
Keywords: DNA polymerase;
Monolithic capillary columns for liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in proteomic and genomic research by Wolfgang Walcher; Herbert Oberacher; Sonia Troiani; Georg Hölzl; Peter Oefner; Lello Zolla; Christian G Huber (111-125).
Peptides, proteins, single-stranded oligonucleotides, and double-stranded DNA fragments were separated with high resolution in micropellicular, monolithic capillary columns prepared by in situ radical copolymerization of styrene and divinylbenzene. Miniaturized chromatography both in the reversed-phase and the ion-pair reversed-phase mode could be realized in the same capillary column because of the nonpolar character of the poly-(styrene/divinylbenzene) stationary phase. The high chromatographic performance of the monolithic stationary phase facilitated the generation of peak capacities for the biopolymers in the range of 50–140 within 10 min under gradient elution conditions. Employing volatile mobile phase components, separations in the two chromatographic separation modes were on-line hyphenated to electrospray ionization (tandem) mass spectrometry, which yielded intact accurate molecular masses as well as sequence information derived from collision-induced fragmentation. The inaccuracy of mass determination in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer was in the range of 0.01–0.02% for proteins up to a molecular mass of 20 000, and 0.02–0.12% for DNA fragments up to a molecular mass of 310 000. High-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry utilizing monolithic capillary columns was applied to the identification of proteins by peptide mass fingerprinting, tandem mass spectrometric sequencing, or intact molecular mass determination, as well as to the accurate sizing of double-stranded DNA fragments ranging in size from 50 to 500 base pairs, and to the detection of sequence variations in DNA fragments amplified by the polymerase chain reaction.
Keywords: Proteins; Peptides; Nucleic acids;
Single-molecule reader for proteomics and genomics by Jan Hesse; Christian Wechselberger; Max Sonnleitner; Hansgeorg Schindler; Gerhard J Schütz (127-135).
Recent developments in ultrasensitive fluorescence microscopy enabled the detection and detailed characterization of individual biomolecules in their native environment. New types of information can be obtained from studying individual molecules, which is not accessible from ensemble measurements. Moreover, this methodological advance matches the need of bioscience to downscale the sample amount required for screening devices. It is envisioned that concentrations as low as ∼1000 molecules contained in a sample of 1 nl can be detected in a chip-based assay. In this review, we overview state-of-the-art single molecule microscopy with respect to its applicability to ultrasensitive screening. Quantitative estimations will be given, based on a novel apparatus designed for large area screening at single molecule sensitivity.
Combining proteomic and genetic studies in plants by Hervé Thiellement; Michel Zivy; Christophe Plomion (137-149).
Plant proteomics is still in its infancy, although numerous experiments have been undertaken since the end of the 1970s. In this review we focus on the interactions between proteomics and genetics. A given genome can express various proteomes according to differentiation, development, tissues, cells and subcellular compartments, and proteomes are modified in function of biotic and abiotic environment. These different proteomes and the way they respond to environment can be compared between genotypes, allowing the characterization of mutants or lines, the study of mutation pleiotropic effects, the genetic mapping of expressed genes. These comparisons also permit to hypothesize for “candidate proteins” that might be involved in the genetic variation of traits of economic or agronomic interest.
Gene function on a genomic scale by Lars M Steinmetz; Adam M Deutschbauer (151-163).
The ability to obtain experimental measurements for thousands of genes has revolutionized our view of biological systems. While traditional studies of gene function evaluated many different properties for a single gene, genomic approaches can measure a single property for thousands of genes. Over the last years, genomic approaches have been developed to measure many different properties, including gene expression, deletion phenotype, and protein characteristics. The promise of integrating these datasets has made it attractive to test whether genomic approaches can determine gene function with accuracy comparable to single gene approaches.
The functional proteomics toolbox: methods and applications by Thomas C. Hunter; Nancy L. Andon; Antonius Koller; John R. Yates; Paul A. Haynes (165-181).
Two-dimensional liquid separations–mass mapping of proteins from human cancer cell lysates by David M Lubman; Maureen T Kachman; Haixing Wang; Siyuan Gong; Fang Yan; Rick L Hamler; Kimberly A O’Neil; Kan Zhu; Nathan S Buchanan; Timothy J Barder (183-196).
A review of two-dimensional (2D) liquid separation methods used in our laboratory to map the protein content of human cancer cells is presented herein. The methods discussed include various means of fractionating proteins according to isoelectric point (pI) in the first dimension. The proteins in each pI fraction are subsequently separated using nonporous (NPS) reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The liquid eluent of the RP-HPLC separation is directed on-line into an electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) mass spectrometer where an accurate value of the protein intact M r can be obtained. The result is a 2D map of pI versus M r analogous to 2D gel electrophoresis; however the highly accurate and reproducible M r serves as the basis for interlysate comparisons. In addition, the use of liquid separations allows for the collection of hundreds of purified proteins in the liquid phase for further analysis via peptide mass mapping using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization TOF MS. A description of the methodology used and its applications to analysis of several types of human cancer cell lines is described. The potential of the method for differential proteomic analysis for the identification of biomarkers of disease is discussed.
Proteomic analysis of the rat liver by Michael Fountoulakis; Laura Suter (197-218).
Rat is a useful, widely used animal model for biological and toxicity studies. We analyzed total and cytosolic rat liver proteins by applying proteomics technologies. The proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis employing broad and narrow range immobilized pH gradient strips, followed by MALDI-MS analysis of the tryptic digests. Two hundred and seventy-three different gene products were identified, of which approximately 60% were enzymes with a broad spectrum of catalytic activities. Most of the identified proteins were detected in other rat protein samples as well, which were analyzed in our laboratory. Fifteen gene products were detected for the first time. These were represented by one spot each, whereas most of the frequently detected proteins were represented by multiple spots. In average, approximately five to 10 spots corresponded to one gene product. The database includes a large number of proteins known to be involved in toxicology-relevant pathways and may be useful in toxicity prediction studies.
Keywords: Proteins, rat liver;
Proteomic study of non-typable Haemophilus influenzae by Kajsa Thorén; Elisabet Gustafsson; Annica Clevnert; Thomas Larsson; Jörgen Bergström; Carol L Nilsson (219-226).
Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are small, gram-negative bacteria and are strictly human pathogens, causing acute otitis media, sinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia. There is no vaccine available for NTHi, as there is for H. influenzae type b. Recent advances in proteomic techniques are finding novel applications in the field of vaccinology. There are several protein separation techniques available today, each with inherent advantages and disadvantages. We employed a combined proteomics approach, including sequential extraction and analytical two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis (2D PAGE), and two-dimensional semi-preparative electrophoresis (2D PE), in order to study protein expression in the A4 NTHi strain. Although putative vaccine candidates were identified with both techniques, 11 of 15 proteins identified using the 2D PE approach were not identified by 2D PAGE, demonstrating the complementarily of the two methods.
Global analysis of a “simple” proteome: Methanococcus jannaschii by Carol S Giometti; Claudia Reich; Sandra Tollaksen; Gyorgy Babnigg; Hanjo Lim; Wenhong Zhu; John Yates; Gary Olsen (227-243).
The completed genome of Methanococcus jannaschii, including the main chromosome and two extra-chromosomal elements, predicts a proteome comprised of 1783 proteins. How many of those proteins are expressed at any given time and the relative abundance of the expressed proteins, however, cannot be predicted solely from the genome sequence. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with peptide mass spectrometry is being used to identify the proteins expressed by M. jannaschii cells grown under different conditions as part of an effort to correlate protein expression with regulatory mechanisms. Here we describe the identification of 170 of the most abundant proteins found in total lysates of M. jannaschii grown under optimal fermentation conditions. To optimize the number of proteins detected, two different protein specific stains (Coomassie Blue R250 or silver nitrate) and two different first dimension separation methods (isoelectric focusing or nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis) were used. Thirty-two percent of the proteins identified are annotated as hypothetical (21% conserved hypothetical and 11% hypothetical), 21% are enzymes involved in energy metabolism, 12% are proteins required for protein synthesis, and the remainder include proteins necessary for intermediary metabolism, cell division, and cell structure. Evidence of post-translational modification of numerous M. jannaschii proteins has been found, as well as indications of incomplete dissociation of protein–protein complexes. These results demonstrate the complexity of proteome analysis even when dealing with a relatively simple genome.
Identification of two proteins induced by exposure of the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata to fluconazole by Masakazu Niimi; Yuki Nagai; Kyoko Niimi; Shun-ichi Wada; Richard D Cannon; Yoshimasa Uehara; Brian C Monk (245-252).
Candida glabrata is an increasingly important cause of opportunistic fungal infection of humans and appears to be intrinsically resistant to the triazole antifungal fluconazole. However, the mechanisms responsible for reduced susceptibility to azole drugs are not understood. Fluconazole exposure rapidly induced expression of a 169-kDa protein band in plasma membrane fractions of C. glabrata cells. Mass spectrometry of trypsin-digested peptide fragments showed that the induced protein band comprised the ATP binding cassette-type drug efflux transporter CgCdr1p. CgCdr1p was also functionally overexpressed in S. cerevisiae and similarly identified by mass spectrometry. A 61-kDa protein band in the plasma membrane fraction from C. glabrata was also induced by fluconazole exposure. Mass spectrometric peptide fingerprinting identified this band as lanosterol 14α-demethylase, the enzyme in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway targeted by fluconazole. The rapid induction of a multidrug efflux pump and/or overproduction of lanosterol 14α-demethylase are mechanisms that could make C. glabrata appear intrinsically resistant to fluconazole. Mass spectrometric fingerprint analysis of SDS–PAGE separated plasma membrane fractions combined with heterologous hyper-expression provides a convenient method for protein identification and functional evaluation of induced proteins, even in an organism where the genome sequence database is incomplete.
Keywords: Proteins; Fluconazole;
Enhanced analysis of human breast cancer proteomes using micro-scale solution isoelectrofocusing combined with high resolution 1-D and 2-D gels by Xun Zuo; Peter Hembach; Lynn Echan; David W Speicher (253-265).
Current methods for quantitatively comparing proteomes (protein profiling) have inadequate resolution and dynamic range for complex proteomes such as those from mammalian cells or tissues. More extensive profiling of complex proteomes would be obtained if the proteomes could be reproducibly divided into a moderate number of well-separated pools. But the utility of any prefractionation is dependent upon the resolution obtained because extensive cross contamination of many proteins among different pools would make quantitative comparisons impractical. The current study used a recently developed microscale solution isoelectrofocusing (μsol-IEF) method to separate human breast cancer cell extracts into seven well-resolved pools. High resolution fractionation could be achieved in a series of small volume tandem chambers separated by thin acrylamide partitions containing covalently bound immobilines that establish discrete pH zones to separate proteins based upon their pIs. In contrast to analytical 2-D gels, this prefractionation method was capable of separating very large proteins (up to about 500 kDa) that could be subsequently profiled and quantitated using large-pore 1-D SDS gels. The pH 4.5–6.5 region was divided into four 0.5 pH unit ranges because this region had the greatest number of proteins. By using very narrow pH range fractions, sample amounts applied to narrow pH range 2-D gels could be increased to detect lower abundance proteins. Although 1.0 pH range 2-D gels were used in these experiments, further protein resolution should be feasible by using 2-D gels with pH ranges that are only slightly wider than the pH ranges of the μsol-IEF fractions. By combining μsol-IEF prefractionation with subsequent large pore 1-D SDS–PAGE (>100 kDa) and narrow range 2-D gels (<100 kDa), large proteins can be reliably quantitated, many more proteins can be resolved, and lower abundance proteins can be detected.
Multidimensional chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as an alternative to two-dimensional gels for the identification and analysis of complex mixtures of intact proteins by Hongji Liu; Scott J Berger; Asish B Chakraborty; Robert S Plumb; Steven A Cohen (267-289).
The limitations of 2-D gels for global proteomics have encouraged the development of alternative approaches for identifying proteins in complicated mixtures, and determining their modification state. In this work, we describe the application of multidimensional liquid chromatography (SCX-RPLC) coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry and off-line fraction collection to analyze complex intact protein mixtures. Methods were developed using both standard proteins and an enriched yeast ribosomal fraction sample containing ∼100 proteins, which permitted assessment of the effectiveness of the individual separation dimensions, as well as investigation of the interplay between separation capacity and electrospray MS performance.
Inverse labeling–mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of differentially expressed protein markers/targets by Y.Karen Wang; Douglas F Quinn; Zhixiang Ma; Emil W Fu (291-306).
Comparative proteomic studies can lead to the identification of protein markers for disease diagnostics and protein targets for potential disease interventions. An inverse labeling strategy based on the principle of protein stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometric detection has been successfully applied to three general protein labeling methods. In contrast to the conventional single experiment approach, two labeling experiments are performed in which the initial labeling is reversed in the second experiment. Signals from differentially expressed proteins will distinguish themselves by exhibiting a characteristic pattern of isotope intensity profile reversal that will lead to the rapid identification of these proteins. Application of the inverse labeling method is demonstrated using model systems for protein chemical labeling, protein proteolytic labeling, and protein metabolic labeling. The methodology has clear advantages which are illustrated in the various studies. The inverse labeling strategy permits quick focus on signals from differentially expressed proteins (markers/targets) and eliminates ambiguities caused by the dynamic range of detection. In addition, the inverse labeling approach enables the unambiguous detection of covalent changes of proteins responding to a perturbation.
Keywords: Protein markers;
Surface-enhanced laser desorption–ionization retentate chromatography™ mass spectrometry (SELDI–RC–MS): a new method for rapid development of process chromatography conditions by S.R Weinberger; E Boschetti; P Santambien; V Brenac (307-316).
Protein biochip arrays carrying functional groups typical of those employed for chromatographic sorbents have been developed. When components of a protein mixture are deposited upon an array’s functionalized surface, an interaction occurs between the array’s surface and solubilized proteins, resulting in adsorption of certain species. The application of gradient wash conditions to the surface of these arrays produces a step-wise elution of retained compounds akin to that accomplished while utilizing columns for liquid chromatography (LC) separations. In retentate chromatography™–mass spectrometry (RC–MS), the “retentate” components that remain following a wash are desorbed and ionized when a nitrogen laser is fired at discrete spots on the array after treatment with a laser energy-absorbing matrix solution. Ionized components are analyzed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS). The present study demonstrates that protein biochips can be used to identify conditions of pH and ionic strength that support selective retention–elution of target proteins and impurity components from ion-exchange surfaces. Such conditions give corresponding behavior when using process-compatible chromatographic sorbents under elution chromatography conditions. The RC–MS principle was applied to the separation of an Fab antibody fragment expressed in Escherichia coli as well as to the separation of recombinant endostatin as expressed in supernatant of Pichia pastoris cultures. Determined optimal array binding and elution conditions in terms of ionic strength and pH were directly applied to regular chromatographic columns in step-wise elution mode. Analysis of collected LC fractions showed favorable correlation to results predicted by the RC–MS method.
Low-mass proteome analysis based on liquid chromatography fractionation, nanoliter protein concentration/digestion, and microspot matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry by Bernd O. Keller; Zhengping Wang; Liang Li (317-329).
HPLC fractionation combined with mass spectrometry can become a powerful tool for analyzing the proteome in the mass range below 15 kDa where efficient protein separation by gel electrophoresis can be difficult. For sensitive and high-resolution separation of the low-mass proteome, the use of analytical rather than preparative HPLC columns is preferred. However, individual fractions collected by a conventional HPLC separation usually contain a small amount of proteins whose concentrations may not be sufficiently high for subsequent enzyme digestion and protein identification by mass spectrometry. In this work, we present a high sensitivity nanoliter sample handling technique to analyze proteins fractionated by HPLC. In this technique, an individual HPLC fraction in hundreds of microliter volume is pre-concentrated to several microliters. About 700 pl of the pre-concentrated fraction is then drawn into a 20-μm I.D. capillary and dried in a small region near the capillary’s entrance. This process can be repeated many times to concentrate a sufficient amount of protein to the small region of the capillary. After protein concentration, protein digestion is achieved by drawing 1 nl of chemical or enzymatic reagent into the capillary and placing it in the same region where the dried protein sits. The resulting peptides are then deposited onto a microspot in a MALDI probe for mass analysis. The performance of this technique is demonstrated with the use of a standard protein solution. This technique is applied to the identification of low-mass proteins separated by HPLC from a complex mixture of an E. coli extract.
Keywords: Low-mass proteomes;
Multiplexed on-column protein digestion and capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput comprehensive peptide mapping by Yan He; Wenwan Zhong; Edward S Yeung (331-341).
A novel scheme based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been developed for high-throughput, low-cost and comprehensive peptide mapping. Orthogonal peptide maps of the protein of interest were obtained by using multiple reaction conditions with three different enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin), and multiple separation conditions with six zone electrophoresis buffers and two micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) buffers. Fifteen nanoliters of two protein samples (β-lactoglobulin A and β-lactoglobulin B) were separately mixed on-column and digested independently at 37 °C for 10 min to produce peptides in a 20-capillary system. The resulting peptides were detected simultaneously at 214 nm by a photodiode array detector. The overall analysis time from reaction to detection was about 40 min.
Development of high-throughput liquid chromatography injected ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight techniques for analysis of complex peptide mixtures by Young Jin Lee; Cherokee S Hoaglund-Hyzera; Catherine A Srebalus Barnes; Amy E Hilderbrand; Stephen J Valentine; David E Clemmer (343-351).
The development of a multidimensional approach involving high-performance liquid chromatography (LC), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and tandem mass spectrometry is described for the analysis of complex peptide mixtures. In this approach, peptides are separated based on differences in their LC retention times and mobilities (as ions drift through He) prior to being introduced into a quadrupole/octopole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The initial LC separation and IMS dispersion of ions is used to label ions for subsequent fragmentation studies that are carried out for mixtures of ions. The approach is demonstrated by examining a mixture of peptides generated from tryptic digestion of 18 commercially available proteins. Current limitations of this initial study and potential advantages of the experimental approach are discussed.
Keywords: Peptide mixtures;
High-resolution peptide mapping of cerebrospinal fluid: a novel concept for diagnosis and research in central nervous system diseases by Gabriele Heine; Hans-Dieter Zucht; Martin U Schuhmann; Katharina Bürger; Michael Jürgens; Matthias Zumkeller; Carsten G Schneekloth; Harald Hampel; Peter Schulz-Knappe; Hartmut Selle (353-361).
Peptides, such as many hormones, cytokines and growth factors play a central role in biological processes. Furthermore, as degradation products and processed forms of larger proteins they are part of the protein turnover. Thus, they can reflect disease-related changes in an organism’s homeostasis in several ways. Since two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is restricted to analysis and display of proteins with relative molecular masses above 5000, we developed Differential Peptide Display (DPD), a new technology for analysis and visualization of peptides. Here we describe its application to cerebrospinal fluid of three subjects without a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) undergoing routine myelography and of two patients suffering from a primary CNS lymphoma. Peptides with a relative molecular mass below 20 000 were extracted and analysed by a combination of chromatography and mass spectrometry. The peptide pattern of a sample was depicted as a multi-dimensional peptide mass fingerprint with each peptide’s position being characterized by its molecular mass and chromatographic behaviour. Such a fingerprint of a CNS sample consists of more than 6000 different signals. Data analysis of peptide patterns from patients with CNS lymphoma compared to controls revealed obvious differences regarding the peptide content of the samples. By analysing peptides within a mass range of 750–20 000, DPD extends 2D gel electrophoresis, thus offering the chance to investigate CNS diseases on the level of peptides. This represents a new approach for diagnosis and possible therapy.
Artifacts and unassigned masses encountered in peptide mass mapping by Jonathan A. Karty; Marcia M.E. Ireland; Yves V. Brun; James P. Reilly (363-383).
In peptide mass mapping of isolated proteins, a significant number of the observed mass spectral peaks are often uninterpreted. These peaks derive from a number of sources: errors in the genome that give rise to incorrect peptide mass predictions, undocumented post-translational modifications, sample handling-induced modifications, contaminants in the sample, non-standard protein cleavage sites, and non-protein components of the sample. In a study of the stalk organelle of Caulobacter crescentus, roughly one-third (782/2215) of all observed masses could not be assigned to the proteins identified in the gel spots (Karty et al., J. Proteome Res., 1 (2002) 325). By interpreting these masses, this work illuminates a number of phenomena that may arise in the course of peptide mass mapping of electrophoretically separated proteins and presents results from a number of related studies.
Peak capacity of ion mobility mass spectrometry: by Brandon T. Ruotolo; Kent J. Gillig; Earle G. Stone; David H. Russell (385-392).
Advances in the field of proteomics depend upon the development of high-throughput separation methods. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry is a fast separation method (separations on the millisecond time-scale), which has potential for peptide complex mixture analysis. Possible disadvantages of this technique center around the lack of orthogonality between separation based on ion mobility and separation based on mass. In order to examine the utility of ion mobility-mass spectrometry, the peak capacity (φ) of the technique was estimated by subjecting a large dataset of peptides to linear regression analysis to determine an average trend for tryptic peptides. This trend-line, along with the deviation from a linear relationship observed for this dataset, was used to define the separation space for ion mobility-mass spectrometry. Using the maximum deviation found in the dataset (±11%) the peak capacity of ion mobility-mass spectrometry is ∼2600 peptides. These results are discussed in light of other factors that may increase the peak capacity of ion mobility-mass spectrometry (i.e. multiple trends in the data resulting from multiple classes of compounds present in a sample) and current liquid chromatography approaches to complex peptide mixture analysis.
Keywords: Peptides; Helium buffer gas;
Structural characterization of monomeric folding intermediates of recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating factor β (rhM-CSFβ) by chemical trapping, chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric peptide mapping by H Peter Happersberger; Cynthia Cowgill; Michael O Glocker (393-404).
We have developed a strategy for the characterization of protein folding intermediates that combines selective modification of bis-cysteinyl thiol groups with melarsen oxide (MEL), chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric characterization of the resulting protein derivatives. In the unfolding reaction of recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating-factor β (rhM-CSFβ) we observed monomeric M·4MEL and dimeric D·2MEL intermediates. The major locations of the MEL groups in D·2MEL were at C157 and C159. In M·4MEL, MEL groups were predominantly located at C31 and C102. These results indicate the presence of highly structured dimeric and monomeric intermediates. In the completely reduced R·4MEL derivative, MEL groups were distributed such that the smallest ring structures resulted.
Keywords: Recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating factor β; Monomeric folding intermediates;
Use of a lectin affinity selector in the search for unusual glycosylation in proteomics by Li Xiong; Fred E Regnier (405-418).
The purpose of the work described in this paper was to develop a new approach to the identification of glycoprotein with particular types of glycosylation. The paper demonstrates N-glycosylation sites in a glycoproteins can be identified by (1) proteolysis with trypsin, (2) lectin affinity selection, (3) enzymatic deglycosylation with peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) in buffer containing 95% H2 18O, which generates deglycosylated peptide pairs separated by 2 or 4 amu, (4) reversed-phase separation of the peptide mixture and MALDI mass analysis, (5) MS–MS sequencing of the ion pairs, and (6) identification of the parent protein through a database search. This process has been tested on the selection of glycopeptides from lactoferrin and mammaglobin, and the identification of the ion pairs of fetuin glycopeptides. Glycosylation sites were identified through PNGase hydrolysis in H2 18O. During the process of hydrolyzing the conjugate, Asn is converted to an aspartate residue with the incorporation of 18O. However, PNGase F was observed to incorporate two 18O into the β-carboxyl groups of the Asp residue. This suggests that the hydrolysis is at least partially reversible.
Author Index to Vol. 782 (419-421).
Compound Index to Vol. 782 (423-424).