Journal of Chromatography B (v.778, #1-2)

Preface (1-2).

Synthetic pesticides have been used since in the early to mid twentieth century. In the US alone, over 800 pesticide active ingredients are formulated in about 21 000 different commercial products. Although many public health benefits have been realized by the use of pesticides, their potential impact on the environment and public health is substantial. For risk assessment studies, exposure assessment is an integral component, which has unfortunately, often been weak or missing. In the past several decades, researchers have proposed to fill these missing data gaps using biological monitoring of specific markers related to exposures. In this paper, we present a review of existing analytical methodology for the biological monitoring of exposure to pesticides. We also present a critical assessment of the existing methodology and explore areas in which more research is needed.
Keywords: Pesticides;

Evaluation of 2,5-hexanedione in urine of workers exposed to n-hexane in Brazilian shoe factories by Claudia Regina dos Santos; Miriam Meyer Passarelli; Elizabeth de Souza Nascimento (237-244).
Urinary 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) is used as a biomarker for biological monitoring of workers exposed to n-hexane. The purpose of this study was to compare two types of treatment of urine samples during clean-up (with and without acidic hydrolysis) and to study the exposure situation of workers exposed to n-hexane during shoe manufacturing. There, various glues containing n-hexane are used. Quantification of 2,5-HD was carried out by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (GC–FID). Fifty-two urine samples taken from workers of seven shoe factories were analyzed. Thirty-four persons from the administrative staff of the same factories served as controls. They were not known to be exposed to n-hexane. The samples treated with acidic hydrolysis showed levels (average 0.94 mg/l) ∼10 times higher than samples without acidic hydrolysis (0.09 mg/l). The difference is predominantly caused by the conversion of other metabolites of n-hexane (e.g. 4,5-dihydroxy-2-hexanone) to 2,5-HD in the presence of acids. Our results also show, that exposure to n-hexane is different between various industries. Levels of 2,5-HD in urine are predominantly dependent on the type of operation (how the glue is applied on the leather during shoe manufacturing). Simple measures, e.g. using a glue handgun instead of a paintbrush significantly decreased exposure to n-hexane.
Keywords: 2,5-Hexanedione; Hexane;

Protein adducts: quantitative and qualitative aspects of their formation, analysis and applications by M. Törnqvist; C. Fred; J. Haglund; H. Helleberg; B. Paulsson; P. Rydberg (279-308).
Keywords: Protein adducts;

Applications of mass spectrometry for quantitation of DNA adducts by Hasan Koc; James A Swenberg (323-343).
DNA adducts are formed when electrophilic molecules or free radicals attack DNA. 32P-postlabeling has been the most commonly used assay for quantitation of DNA adducts due mainly to its excellent sensitivity that allows quantitation at concentrations as low as ∼1 adduct per 109 normal bases. Such methods, however, do not have the specificity desired for accurate and reliable quantitation, and are prone to produce false positives and artifacts. In the last decade, mass spectrometry in combination with liquid and gas chromatography has presented itself as a good alternative to these techniques since it can satisfy the need for specificity and reliability through the use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards and highly specific detection modes such as selected reaction monitoring and high-resolution mass spectrometry. In this article, the contribution of mass spectrometry to the quantitation of DNA adducts is reviewed with special emphasis on unique applications of mass spectrometry in the area of DNA adduct quantitation and recent applications with improvements in sensitivity.
Keywords: DNA adducts;

Exposure-dependent accumulation of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)valine in hemoglobin of F344 rats exposed to propylene oxide by the inhalation route by Melva N Rı́os-Blanco; Asoka Ranasinghe; Patricia Upton; Moung S Lee; Johannes G Filser; James A Swenberg (383-391).
The detection of hemoglobin adducts by mass spectrometry is a very sensitive and specific measurement of the extent of covalent binding of electrophilic chemicals. The exposure-dependent accumulation of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)valine (N-HPVal) in globin of rats exposed to propylene oxide (PO) (0, 5, 25, 50, 300 or 500 ppm) by the inhalation route was measured to assess the utility of Hb adducts as biomarkers of exposure. Analysis of N-HPVal by gas-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry showed a linear exposure-dependent response for adduct accumulation in globin of rats exposed to PO for 3 days (6 h/day). After 20 days of exposure (6 h/day; 5 days/week), the exposure–response curve was slightly sub-linear. DNA adducts had been measured in several organs of the same animals in a companion study. The dose–response for accumulation of DNA adducts was similar to that obtained for Hb adducts. However, the number of DNA adducts varied by 17-fold between different tissues. The highest number of DNA adducts was found in respiratory nasal tissue, followed by lung and then liver. These data demonstrate that hemoglobin adducts provide a sensitive dosimeter for systemic exposure, but cannot be used to predict the extent of DNA binding in individual tissues. Furthermore, the exposure–response curve for both hemoglobin and DNA adduct accumulation does not reflect the tumor incidence curve for PO, providing evidence that the assessment of risk to cancer is more complex than simple biomarker measurements. When the present rat data were compared with recent N-HPVal measurements in humans, similar binding was found.
Keywords: N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)valine; Hemoglobin; Propylene oxide;

Biological monitoring of chemical exposure in the workplace has become increasingly important in the assessment of health risk as an integral part of the overall occupational health and safety strategy. In environmental medicine biological monitoring plays also an important role in the assessment of excessive, acute or chronic exposure to chemical agents. To guarantee that the results obtained in biological monitoring are comparable with threshold limit values and results from other laboratories, the analysis must be carried out with tested and reliable analytical methods and accompanied by a quality assurance scheme. Confounding influences and interferences during the pre-analytical phase can be minimised by recommendations from experienced laboratories. For internal quality control commercially available control samples with an assigned concentration are used. External quality control programs for biological monitoring are offered by several institutions. The external quality control program of the German Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine has been organised since 1982. In the meantime the 27th program has been carried out offering 96 analytes in urine, blood and plasma for 47 substances. This program covers most of the parameters relevant to occupational and environmental medicine. About 350 laboratories take part in these intercomparison programs. At present, ten German and 14 international laboratories are commissioned to determine the assigned values. The data evaluated from the results of the intercomparison programs give a good overview of the current quality of the determination of analytes assessed in occupational and environmental toxicological laboratories. For the analysis of inorganic substances in blood and urine the tolerable variation ranges from 7.5 to 43.5%. For organic substances in urine the tolerable variation ranges from 12 to 48%. The highest variations (36–60%) were found for the analysis of organochlorine compounds in plasma. The tolerable variations for the determination of solvents in blood by head space gas chromatography range from 26 to 57%. If the recommendations for the pre-analytical phase, the selection of reliable analytical methods by the laboratory and the carrying out of adequate quality control are observed, the pre-requisites for reliable findings during biological monitoring are fulfilled