Current Drug Delivery (v.13, #2)

Meet Our Editorial Board Member by Huae Xu (171-171).

Nanobiotechnology Perspectives on Prevention and Treatment of Ortho-paedic Implant Associated Infection by Vivek Borse, Vaishali Pawar, Gautam Shetty, Arun Mullaji, Rohit Srivastava (175-185).
Implants are an inevitable part of orthopaedic surgery. However, implant associated infection remains a major challenge for orthopaedic surgeons and researchers. This review focuses on current options available for prevention of implant associated infection, their drawbacks and future promising applications of nanotechnology-based approaches. Nanobiotechnology has shown remarkable progress in recent years especially in biomaterials, diagnostics, and drug delivery system. Although several applications of nanobiotechnology in orthopaedics have been described, few have elaborated their role in the prevention of implant related infection in orthopaedics. Novel “smart” drug delivery systems that release antibiotics locally in response to stimuli such as pH, temperature, enzymes or antigens; implant surface modification on a nanoscale to inhibit bacterial adhesion and propagation at the surgical site and biological approaches such as gene therapy to neutralize bacterial virulence and biomolecules to inhibit the quorum sensing adhesion of bacteria and disruption of biofilms can be used effectively to prevent orthopaedic implant related bacterial infection.

A Review on Chemical Profile of Coumarins and their Therapeutic Role in the Treatment of Cancer by K. Venkata Sairam, B. M. Gurupadayya, R. S. Chandan, Dattatri K. Nagesha, B. Vishwanathan (186-201).
Coumarin class of organic compounds consists of 1,2-benzopyrone ring system as a basic parent scaffold. These benzopyrones are subdivided into alpha-benzopyrones and gammabenzopyrones; with coumarin class of compounds belonging to alpha-benzopyrones. Since the last few years, coumarins were synthesized in many of their derivative forms. Their pharmacological, therapeutic and biochemical properties depend upon their pattern of substitution. Coumarins exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities, which includes anti-diabetic, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anticancer, anti-oxidant, anti-parasitic, anti-helminthic, anti-proliferative, anti-convulsant, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive activities. Among these properties, the present review article compiles the detailed research findings of coumarins as anti-cancer agents. Research reports reveal that coumarins inhibit human malignant tumor cell lines in vitro and also show anti-proliferative activity against many mammalian tumors in vivo. Clinical trials conducted on these coumarin class of compounds showed promising activity against several types of cancer such as breast cancer, lung cancer, malignant melanoma, prostate cancer and metastatic renal cell carcinoma etc. This review presents a comprehensive and up to date literature survey on coumarins as anti-cancer agents. Furthermore, a detailed overview of various clinical trials conducted on coumarin class of compounds tested for various types of malignancies has been described.

Antimicrobial peptides, also called body defense peptides, are chemical structures widely distributed across the animal and vegetal kingdoms that have a fundamental role as part of the immune system. These peptides are used against a wide range of pathogens, such as Gram-negative and - positive bacteria, fungi and viruses, etc. Their action spectrum makes them important for the pharmaceutical industry, as they could represent templates for the design of new and more potent structures by using drug design and drug delivery systems. Here we present the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration values) for 33 mastoparan analogs and their new derivatives by quantitative structure-activity relationship method (2D, aligned and also non-aligned 3D-QSAR). We establish the contribution to antimicrobial activity of molecular descriptors like hydrophobicity, hydrogen bond donor and steric hindrance, correlated with contributions from the membrane environment (sodium, potassium, chloride ions). Also the studies of HIV-1 fusion inhibitor sifuvirtide and its analogs are presented in context of interaction with lipid structures during fusion and delivery of these drugs.

The objective was to develop chitosan atorvastatin (ATR) nanocrystals loaded into Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) injectable in situ gel (ISG) system that can minimize initial drug burst and enhance hypolipidemic effect. ATR nanocrystals were successfully characterized for size, morphology, crystallinity and drug-excipients interaction. The effects of varied polymer concentration and gelling solvents were evaluated for initial burst release and in vivo efficacy. Short term stability study was also conducted for the promising formulation. Nanocrystals of size 254 nm were prepared using low molecular weight chitosan and were of smooth surface with multiple scaffolds like structures. X-ray powder diffraction revealed the crystalline structure of the prepared nanocrystals while no drug-excipients interactions were observed. Addition of nanocrystals did not significantly alter gelation property of the ISG system that showed acceptable syringeability. The promising ISG formulation was achieved with 45% PLGA in N-methyl pyrrolidone: benzyl benzoate (1:3). In-vitro dissolution study illustrated lower initial ATR burst and prolonged drug release from nanocrystal based ISG when compared to plain ATR ISG. The pharmacokinetic and hypolipidemic biochemical parameters were comparable in the two formulations. The promising formulation exhibited minimum drug degradation at 4 °C and so could be considered as an ideal ISG delivery system.

Polymer-based Drug Delivery Systems Applied to Insects Repellents Devices: A Review by Thaís Nogueira Barradas, Juliana Perdiz Senna, Eduardo Ricci Júnior, Claudia Regina Elias Mansur (221-235).
Insects-borne diseases constitute a public health concern. Since there is no vaccine or curative treatment for many of these diseases, individual protection is the main approach to prevent them. Nowadays, the search for replacing synthetic molecules for insect repellents from natural sources, such as essential oils, is increasing. However, most of them present low efficiency compared to synthetic repellents. Therefore, decreasing skin permeation of synthetic repellents or yet, increasing effectiveness of natural repellents are challenges that must be overcome during the development of novel insect repellent formulations. In this context, polymer-based formulations allow entrapping active ingredients and provide release control. Encapsulation into polymeric micro/nanocapsules, cyclodextrins, polymeric micelles or hydrogels constitutes an approach to modify physicochemical properties of encapsulated molecules. Such techniques, applied in topical formulations, fabrics modification for personal protection, or food packaging have proved to be more effective in increasing repellency time and also in reducing drug dermal absorption, improving safety profiles of these products. In this work, the main synthetic and natural insect repellents are described as well as their polymeric carrier systems and their potential applications.

Oral Delivery of Antidiabetic Polypeptide-k: Journey so far and the Road Ahead by Puneet Kaur, Varun Garg, Monica Gulati, Sachin Kumar Singh (236-244).
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is growing rapidly. According to the global report of International Diabetes Fedration (IDF), about 382 million people are suffering from diabetes and among them, 90% cases were of type-II. By 2035, it is expected that this number will reach to 592 million. In the last 5 decades, various efforts have been put towards the development of synthetic medicines or synergistic combination of herbal and synthetic medicines to treat diabetes mellitus. Polypeptide-k is an antihyperglycaemic protein isolated from dried seeds collected from ripened fruits of Momordica charantia. Extensive research has been carried out in the last fifteen years on polypeptide-k to explore its potential applications for the treatment of both types of diabetes mellitus. This review highlights the available marketed formulations and research investigations conducted on humans to prove the potential of polypeptide-k as an antihyperglycaemic agent. This article also marks the reasons and need for oral delivery of polypeptide-k.

In our previous study, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used both as a binder and a pore-former to prepare ethylcellulose (EC)-coated pellets to deliver topiramate (TPM) for a controlled release profile. The objective of this work was to further optimize the formulation and evaluate the in vivo profiles of TPM sustained-release pellets. Similar to the previous formulation with no binder, the in vitro drug release of TPM sustained-release pellets with 50% PVP binder in drug layer was sensitive to pore-former PVP level ranged from 27.0% to 29.0%. The higher the level of PVP was, the quicker release rate in vitro was. Moreover, when the proportion of poreformer PVP decreased, the Cmax decreased, and the tmax and mean residence time of TPM coated pellets were both prolonged. The in vitro release profile of optimal formulation showed biphasic release characteristics similar to reference formulation Trokendi XR®, i.e., involving immediate release of TPM in initial release stage followed by a sustained release up to 24 h. Moreover, the impact of the pH of release medium on the drug release rate of TPM sustained-release pellets was not significant. The release mechanism of TPM from the sustained-release pellets might be the interaction of diffusion (coating-film) and corrosion (drug layer). The in vivo pharmacokinetics results showed the TPM sustained-release pellets had the similar in vivo pattern compared with Trokendi XR®. These studies provide valuable basis for further development of TPM sustained-release pellets.

Killing Rates of Caspofungin in 50 Percent Serum Correlate with Caspofungin Efficacy Against Candida albicans in a Neutropenic Murine Model by Marianna Domán, Renátó Kovács, Gábor Kardos, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Béla Juhász, Aliz Bozó, Tamás Kardos, Qasem Saleh, László Majoros (255-264).
Previous studies suggested that caspofungin dose escalation against Candida species is more beneficial than currently used lower daily doses. Thus, we determined in vitro and in vivo activity of caspofungin against six wild-type C. albicans clinical isolates, the ATCC 10231 strain and an echinocandin resistant strain. MIC ranges of clinical isolates in RPMI-1640 with and without 50% serum were 0.125-0.25 and 0.015-0.06 mg/L, respectively. Two and three isolates showed paradoxical growth in MIC and time-kill tests, respectively, in RPMI-1640 but not in 50% serum. Caspofungin killing rate (k) in RPMI-1640 at 1 mg/L was higher than at 16 and 32 mg/L for all isolates (p<0.001). Killing rates for five of six isolates were concentration independent between 1-32 mg/L in 50% serum (p>0.05 for all comparisons), but for one isolate k value at 32 mg/L was significantly lower than at 1-16 mg/L. Although k values at 1-32 mg/L showed a great variability in 50% serum (the lowest and highest k value ranges were 0.085-0.109 and 0.882-0.985 1/h, respectively), daily 3, 5 and 15 mg/kg caspofungin was effective in a neutropenic murine model against all isolates, without significant differences between the effective doses. This study confirms that paradoxical growth does not affect the in vivo efficacy of caspofungin. We demonstrated that dose escalation did not increase the efficacy of caspofungin against C. albicans either in vitro or in vivo. These results are in concordance with the clinical experience that efficacy of echinocandins does not increase at larger doses.

Design and Testing of Electric-Guided Delivery of Charged Particles to the Olfactory Region: Experimental and Numerical Studies by Jinxiang Xi, Jiayao Eddie Yuan, Mohammad Alshaiba, Dongxue Cheng, Zachary Firlit, Aaron Johnson, Alex Nolan, Wei-Chung Su (265-274).
Neurological drugs delivered to the olfactory region can enter the brain via olfactory pathways and bypass the blood-brain barrier. However, clinical applications of the direct nose-to-brain delivery are rare because of the extremely low olfactory doses using conventional nasal devices. This poor bioavailability is mainly caused by two factors: the complex nasal structure that traps particles in the anterior nose and the complete lack of control over particle motions after their release at the nostrils. In this study, the feasibility of electric-guided delivery to the olfactory region was tested in an anatomically accurate nasal airway model both experimentally and numerically. The nose replicas were prepared using 3-D printing and could be dissembled to reveal the local deposition patterns within the nasal cavity. A test platform was developed that included a dry powder charging system and a particle point-release nozzle. Numerical modeling was conducted using COMSOL and compared to corresponding experiments. Compared to conventional nasal devices, electric-guidance of charged particles noticeably reduced particle losses in the anterior nose and increased depositions in the olfactory region. The thickness and relative permittivity of the wall were observed to affect the electric field strength and olfactory dosages. Consistent deposition patterns were obtained between experiments and numerical simulations in both 2-D and 3-D nose models. Two conceptual designs were proposed to generate, charge, and control aerosols. Results of this study indicate that it is feasible to use an electric field to control charged particles in the human nose. Both electric-guidance and point-release of particles are essential to achieve targeted olfactory delivery. Future studies to refine the aerosol charging and release systems are needed for further enhancement of olfactory dosages.

Objectives: This study aimed to develop and evaluate chitosan (CTS) solid dispersion particulate matrix (SDPM) for sustained oral delivery of ketorolac tromethamine (KT). Methods: SDPM formulations were prepared by freeze drying method and characterized for their effectiveness and biological activities via in vitro and in vivo assessment. Key findings: Powder's flowability and bioadhesion of SDPM increased compared to KT-CTS physical mixtures and the raw materials. DSC analysis proved that the extent of drug crystallinity in matrix particles reduced as the amount of CTS content increased. FT-IR spectroscopy suggested drug-polymer interaction that was prominent in SDPM (1:7). In vitro drug release and simulated plasma profiles showed the superiority of SDPM (1:7) in sustaining drug release up to 12h. The optimized formula was stable during the storage time whereas the similarity factor (f2) for in vitro release data before and at the end of the study was 92%. Furthermore, in vivo bioactivity studies confirmed that the ulcerogenic property of SDPM (1:7) remarkably decreased compared to the standard drug while the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties were maintained. Conclusion: Results suggested freeze-dried chitosan based SDPM (1:7) as a potential candidate for sustained oral administration of KT.

Polymeric Nanostructured Systems for Liquid Formulation of Praziquan-tel: Development and in vitro Assessment by Vania E.B. de Campos, Julia A. Silva, Eduardo Ricci-J&#250;nior, Claudia R.E. Mansur, Denise S. Conti, Sandro R.P. da Rocha (287-297).
Praziquantel (PZQ) is widely used in the treatment of several parasitic infections in both humans and animals, and is the first choice in the treatment of Schistosomiasis in humans. However, PZQ is a hydrophobic drug, and its low aqueous solubility has been a significant barrier to the development of oral liquid formulations that may provide improved bioavailability, pharmacokinetic profile, and compliance. The aim of this study was thus (i) to develop an oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion(NE)-based platform for the delivery of PZQ in liquid form; (ii) to study the transport of PZQ formulated in NEs across an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium; and (iii) to determine the toxicity profile of the NEs and their individual components on the model epithelium. We also sought to compare the toxicity and transport profiles of the proposed formulations, with those of PZQ in a solid nanostructured particle system - PZQ encapsulated within poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). Two essential oils were selected as the oil phase in the NEs, namely clove and orange. The NEs were prepared with selected non-ionic surfactants and had high solubilization capacity towards PZQ, and average diameters well below 100nm. The NEs also showed long term physical stability at both simulated physiological and gastric conditions. NEs with clove oil (NEC-PZQ) were observed to have a lower cytotoxic profile when compared to the orange oil NEs (NEO-PZQ). The results also showed that the transport of PZQ formulated within such nanostructured systems was much greater and larger rates across confluent and polarized Caco-2 monolayers when compared to free PZQ. Interestingly, little difference in PZQ transport between the NEs and NPs was observed. These results point to NEs as potentially viable strategies for the liquid formulation of PZQ in particular, and more broadly to the formulation of other hydrophobic therapeutics that may be employed in the fight against important neglected diseases such as Schistosomiasis, which alone affects more than 240 million people worldwide.