Current Drug Metabolism (v.16, #5)

Meet Our Editorial Board Member: by Hiroshi Yamazaki (333-333).

A Synopsis of Nano-Technological Approaches Toward Anti-Epilepsy Therapy: Present and Future Research Implications by Nasimudeen R. Jabir, Shams Tabrez, C. K. Firoz, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Saleh S. Baeesa, Siew Hua Gan, Shazi Shakil, Mohammad Amjad Kamal (336-345).
Epilepsy is a non-communicable central nervous system disorder that affects over 60 million people worldwide. The developments in epilepsy treatment face major hurdles due to drug resistance and disease recurrence after reduction in medication. Nano-technological anti-epileptic drug (AED) delivery systems have recently garnered attention due to their ability to cross the blood brain barrier, improved selectivity and potential for sustained drug delivery to the brain. This review focuses on several nano-based AED delivery systems, including liposomes, nano-emulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, solid-lipid nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles. Their limitations and future prospects in terms of AED delivery to the brain are also highlighted. It is hoped that the present communication will be helpful in the identification of potential AED delivery systems based on their advantages and disadvantages.

Therapeutic Interventions for the Suppression of Alzheimer's Disease: Quest for a Remedy by Naveed Ahmad Fazili, Aabgeena Naeem, Ghulam Md. Ashraf, Siew Hua Gan, Mohammad A. Kamal (346-353).
Protein aggregation is facilitated by the generation of partially folded intermediates that lack most of the tertiary interactions, but retain the complete secondary structure. These partially folded states cross-link each other to form protein aggregates. Protein aggregates in an advanced stage result in the formation of amyloid fibrils, which have high tensile strength. These amyloid fibrils are associated with a number of pathologies, especially Alzheimer's disease, which involves the aggregation of the Aβ peptide. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the generation of potent therapeutics to reduce Aβ peptide fibrillation. This review summarizes the range of molecules used for this therapy, showing their potency against Aβ amyloids, and suggests a positive future for the eradication of this dreaded disease.

Nanoparticle-Based Therapy in Genomics by Mahmood Rasool, Arif Malik, Abdul Manan, Shakeel Ahmed Ansari, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Mahmood Husain Qazi, Muhammad Asif, Siew Hua Gan, Mohammad Amjad Kamal (354-361).
In the modern era, humankind is making daily progress through industrialization. As various types of diseases are prevailing worldwide, scientists are using many approaches to manage these diseases, such as gene therapy. A nanoparticle (NP)-based approach is an example of a modern method used to address several pathologies. This modern therapeutic approach aims not only at safely transferring the drug of choice to the site of interest in a biological system but also at ensuring the biocompatibility of these NPs. Hence, various coating methodologies are being employed to avoid NP toxicity as well as immunoreactivity. This short review covers the latest approaches and advances in this biomedical field. Among nanomaterials, gold NPs (GNPs) are comprehensively employed as a diagnostic tool for the treatment and management of diseases such as cancer.

Nanobiotechnological Approaches Against Multidrug Resistant Bacterial Pathogens: An Update by Sibhghatulla Shaikh, Shazi Shakil, Adel M. Abuzenadah, Syed Mohd. Danish Rizvi, Philip Michael Roberts, Gohar Mushtaq, Mohammad Amjad Kamal (362-370).
Multiple drug resistant bacteria remain the greatest challenge in public health care. Globally, infections produced by such resistant strains are on the rise. Recent advent of genetic tolerance to antibiotics in many pathogens such as multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a matter of concern, prompting researchers and pharmaceutical companies to search for new molecules and unconventional antibacterial agents. Recent advances in nanotechnology offer new opportunities to develop formulations based on metallic nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes and variable antimicrobial properties. This article is an extensive literature review that covers the latest approaches in the development of new and unconventional antibacterial agents using nanobiotechnological approaches which will better equip scientists and clinicians to face the challenges in view of dwindling stocks of effective and potent antimicrobial agents and formulations.

Recent Advances in Nanotechnology-Based Diagnosis and Treatments of Diabetes by Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao, Siew Hua Gan (371-375).
Nanotechnology is a field encompassing nanostructures, nanomaterials and nanoparticles, which are of increasing importance to researchers and industrial players alike. Nanotechnology addresses the construction and consumption of substances and devices on the nanometer scale. Nanomedicine is a new field that combines nanotechnology with medicine to boost human health care. Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that includes various areas of biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. The most important problems related to diabetes management, such as self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and insulin injections, can now be conquered due to progress in nanomedicine, which offers glucose nanosensors, the layer-by-layer technique, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, oral insulins, microspheres, artificial pancreases and nanopumps. In this review, the key methodological and scientific characteristics of nanomedicine related to diabetes treatment, glucose monitoring and insulin administration are discussed.

Application of Proteomic Tools in Modern Nanotechnological Approaches Towards Effective Management of Neurodegenerative Disorders by Ashraf Ali, Ishfaq Ahmed Sheikh, Zeenat Mirza, Siew Hua Gan, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Adel M. Abuzenadah, Ghazi A. Damanhouri, Ghulam Md. Ashraf (376-388).
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons leading to neuronal death, usually associated with ageing. Some of the common neurodegenerative disorders include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and Huntington's disease. Due to recent advancements in highthroughput technologies in various disciplines such as genomics, epigenomics, metabolomics and proteomics, there has been a great demand for detection of specific macromolecules such as hormones, drug residues, miRNA, DNA, antibodies, peptides, proteins, pathogens and xenobiotics at nano-level concentrations for in-depth understanding of disease mechanisms as well as for the development of new therapeutic strategies. The present review focuses on the management of agerelated neurodegenerative disorders using proteomics and nanotechnological approaches. In addition, this review also highlights the metabolism and disposition of nano-drugs and nano-enabled drug delivery in neurodegenerative disorders.

Recent Developments in Nanomedicines for Management of Various Health Issues Via Metabolism and Physico-Chemical Properties by Mahmood Rasool, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Arif Malik, Abdul Manan, Ikram Ullah, Noman Bin Abid, Myeong Ok Kim, Mahmood Husain Qazi, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Fehmida Bibi (389-396).
During the last decade the nanotechnologists began research on applications of nanomaterials for medicine and therapeutics. Various nanoparticles (nanomedicines) are being used worldwide for the diagnosis and management in a number of disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. The successful non-viral gene therapy is now possible with the advancements in nanotechnology. Mostly nanoparticles are divided into two main classes: organic and inorganic nanoparticles. Diverse features of nanomedicines with surface modification help to make them biocompatible with addition of varying polymer that facilitates targeted delivery of drug and its controlled release into the cells, tissues and organs. Liposomes, quantum dots, silver and gold nanoparticles are the most common examples of nanomedicines.

Role of Graphene Nano-Composites in Cancer Therapy: Theranostic Applications, Metabolic Fate and Toxicity Issues by Mahfoozur Rahman, Mohammad Zaki Ahmad, Javed Ahmad, Jamia Firdous, Farhan Jalees Ahmad, Gohar Mushtaq, Mohammad A. Kamal, Sohail Akhter (397-409).
Graphene and its modified nano-composites have gained much attention in recent times in cancer therapy as nanotheranostics due to low production cost, ease in synthesis and physicochemical properties (ultra-large surface area with planar structure and π-π conjugation with the unsaturated and aromatic drugs/biomolecules) being favorable for multiple payloads and drug targeting. Yet, graphene nano-composites are a relatively new and rapid development. The adoption of graphene nano-composites in cancer nanobiomedicine research raises questions about in vivo metabolism and disposition as well as biological interaction and safety profile of these nano-particles. Limited in-vitro and in-vivo findings are available in literature, indicating the inconsistencies about the factors affecting in-vivo bio-interaction and toxicity. Presently, there is a lack of anticipated biodistribution and toxicity pattern of graphene. It appears that surface functionalization, biocompatible coating, and size are the key factors in determining the metabolic fate of graphene nano-composites. In-vitro and in-vivo toxicity data suggests that graphene nano-composites exhibit dose and size dependent toxicity. This review summarizes up-to-date research outcome of this promising inorganic nanomaterial for cancer therapy. Moreover, the metabolic fate and toxicity issues of graphene and its nano-composites shall also be discussed in detail.