Current Drug Metabolism (v.13, #6)
Editorial (Hot Topic: Pregnancy and Pediatrics) by Saskia N. de Wildt (693-693).
Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models for Assessing the Kinetics of Xenobiotics during Pregnancy: Achievements and Shortcomings by G. Lu (695-720).
The physiological changes that occur in the maternal body and the placental-foetal unit during pregnancy influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of xenobiotics. These include drugs that are prescribed for therapeutic reasons or chemicals to which women are exposed unintentionally from the surrounding environment. The pregnancy physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (p-PBPK) models developed for theoretical assessment of the kinetics of xenobiotics during pregnancy should take into account all the dynamic changes of the maternal and embryonic/foetal physiological functions. A number of p-PBPK models have been reported for pregnant animals and humans in the past 3 decades which have mainly been applied in the risk assessment of various environmental chemicals. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the current state of the art in p-PBPK modelling and to recommend potential steps that could be taken to improve model development and its application particularly in drug discovery and development for pregnant women, with potential implications for optimal drug treatment in pregnancy. The pregnancy-induced changes in physiology and pharmacokinetics, including metabolism, are reviewed to illustrate the basic alterations essential for pregnancy model development. A systemic search of the literature for existing p-PBPK models is carried out and the model structures, governing equations, methods of modelling growth, model validation/verification as well as model applications are highlighted. This review discusses benefits and limitations of the reported p-PBPK models so far and suggests areas for model improvement. The need for establishing databases on the system-related (biological, anatomical and physiological) and drug-related (physiochemical, affinity to enzymes and transpoorters) parameters for healthy and unhealthy pregnancies is particularly emphasized.
Pharmacogenetics of Opioids for the Treatment of Acute Maternal Pain During Pregnancy and Lactation by Parvaz Madadi (721-727).
There have been an increasing number of clinical studies investigating the relationship between interindividual genetic variability and the safety and efficacy of opioid analgesics. Despite the widespread use of opioids in pregnant and lactating women for the treatment of acute pain, few studies have investigated the interplay of genetic factors and pregnancy-related physiological alterations in relation to opioid metabolism and response. Some interesting avenues of research require further pursuit- including evidence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) induction during pregnancy and its effect on the generation of the active opioid metabolites morphine, oxymorphone, O-desmethyltramadol, and hydromorphone following the administration of codeine, oxycodone, tramadol, and hydrocodone respectively. Studies investigating the duration of maternal CYP2D6 induction after delivery are also needed to shed light on genotype to phenotype correlations in breastfeeding mothers using opioid analgesics in the postpartum period.
Ontogeny of Hepatic Glucuronidation; Methods and Results by Elke H.J. Krekels (728-743).
The onset and maturation, or so-called ontogeny, of hepatic glucuronidation is important for the clearance of a number of drugs in children. The current review discusses methods for studying the ontogeny of liver enzyme systems and specifically focuses on the results obtained with these methods for uridine 5’-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The number of contributing components in the biological system increases in going from mRNA transcription, to enzyme expression, in vitro enzyme activity, and in vivo glucuronidation clearance. This may result in different conclusions on UGT ontogeny when different methods are used. Various metrics to quantify glucuronidation activity, like linear or allometric scaling based on bodyweight, further disperse the conclusions on UGT ontogeny. Generally, it can be concluded that the onset of UGT expression and activity occurs after 20 weeks of gestation with a boost in expression and activity occurring in the first weeks of life. Maturation rates vary between the UGTs, but may well extend beyond the age of two years. Compared to adults, absolute doses of drugs eliminated via glucuronidation should be reduced in children. However, since the UGT isoenzymes mature differently, since substrate specificities are overlapping and since many external factors influence drug glucuronidation, it is not possible to derive general dosing recommendations for the pediatric population for these drugs. This can be improved by obtaining system specific information on each UGT isoenzyme on the basis of validated in vivo models that describe the ontogeny of glucuronidation and the influence of other patient characteristics like genetic polymorphisms and co-morbidities on the (intrinsic) clearance of isoenzyme specific probe drugs.
Pharmacokinetic Considerations of Perinatal Antiretroviral Therapy by Natella Y. Rakhmanina (744-759).
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnant women represents a unique combination of therapy and prophylaxis of HIV infection. Until the global epidemic of HIV and the discovery of efficient prevention of perinatal transmission through ART, the world has not witnessed a pharmacologic intervention of such a scale during pregnancy and delivery. The use of ART in pregnancy creates unique challenges in delivering therapeutic agents, targeting the HIV virus in both the pregnant woman and her unborn child, throughout dramatic changes in their physiologic state. With an increased complexity of perinatal ART and the introduction of novel agents into clinical practice, a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics of ARV drugs is crucial for the safe and most effective use of ARV drugs in women during pregnancy and infants in the first months of life. While PK studies are already difficult to perform during pregnancy, they are particularly challenging in women with HIV infection due to multiple social, economic and cultural constrains. In this paper we provide an overview of published studies of ART disposition during pregnancy, labor, breastfeeding and in the newborn infant after delivery.
Growing up with Midazolam in the Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care by Eleonora L. Swart (760-766).
A variety of developmental changes is of influence on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam in neonatal and pediatric intensive care patients. However, dosing regimens in children are based upon rather empirical extrapolations from the dosing regimens in adults. Based on current available studies it appears that with the rising of age, the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered midazolam alter, resulting in a shorter half-life due to a higher hepatic clearance in older children as compared to newborn. Also, with the rising of age, the pharmacodynamics of intravenously administered midazolam may alter due to a decrease in density of receptors, possibly leading to a decreased clinical response. These findings implicate opposite effects and it is uncertain which of these effects are predominant. In conclusion, there is a large interindividual variability in the response to midazolam in children, which may be caused by differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Both are subject to considerable developmental changes. It remains remarkable that high-quality evidence to support the use of midazolam for continuous sedation in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care setting is lacking.
Pharmacotherapy in Neonatal and Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) by E. D. Wildschut (767-777).
ECMO support is an established life saving therapy for potentially reversible respiratory and/or cardiac failure. Improvement of outcome depends on effective treatment of the primary diagnosis and complications. Adequate drug therapy is important in reaching these goals. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data in neonates and older children on ECMO are sparse. Most studies show altered volume of distribution and clearance for the drugs studied. This article gives an overview of the available PK and PD studies in neonates and children on ECMO, suggests possible mechanisms of altered PK and PD and identifies areas of interest for further research.
Sex Differences in the Clearance of CYP3A4 Substrates: Exploring Possible Reasons for the Substrate Dependency and Lack of Consensus by Manoranjenni Chetty (778-786).
Sex differences in the clearance of substrates of Cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A4) have been reported frequently although there has been no consensus on reasons for variation in observations amongst drugs which are seemingly all dependent on this enzyme for their metabolism. Moreover, these observations could not be replicated in all studies even when investigating the same drugs. Differing study designs and inadequate power to identify the sex differences may explain the conflicting reports. The aim of the current study was to use in vitro data on a number of CYP3A4 substrates to develop mechanistic population pharmacokinetic models which are capable of integrating various attributes of drugs and estimating the statistical power of in vivo studies designed to discern sex differences in the clearance of CYP3A4 substrates. Midazolam, triazolam, alprazolam, nifedipine and zolpidem were selected as test substrates. These compounds are predominantly metabolized by CYP3A4, unaffected by p-glycoprotein and have abundant clinical studies which can be used for validation purposes. Simulated apparent clearance, obtained by use of the Simcyp® Population-based Simulator and in vitro in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) techniques, was compared in males and females after correcting for weight (CL/wt) in 1560 trials. Results suggested that about 105 subjects per study are required for an 80% probability of identifying a higher CL/wt in females with alprazolam, while the corresponding numbers for a similar power were 120, about 150 and 300 for nifedipine, triazolam and oral midazolam, respectively. The results were consistent with outcomes in published clinical studies and support the view that many of the published studies have inadequate power to detect these sex differences in drug clearance, thereby contributing to the lack of consensus on this subject.
Summary of Information on the Effects of Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation on Cytochrome P450 and Other Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters by Slobodan Rendic (787-814).
The present paper is an update of data on the effects of ionizing radiation (γ-rays, X-rays, high energy UV, fast neutron) caused by environmental pollution or clinical treatments and the effects of non-ionizing radiation (low energy UV) on the expression and/or activity of drug metabolism (e.g., cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione transferase (GST)), enzymes involved in oxidative stress (e.g., peroxidases, catalase (CAT), aconitase (ACO), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), and transporters. The data are presented in tabular form (Tables 1-3) and are a continuation of previously published summaries on the effects of drugs and other chemicals on cytochrome P450 enzymes (Rendic, S.; Di Carlo, F. Drug Metab. Rev., 1997, 29 (1-2), 413-580, Rendic, S. Drug Metab. Rev., 2002, 34 (1-2), 83- 448) and of the data on the effects of diseases and environmental factors on the expression and/or activity of human cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters (Guengerich, F.P.; Rendic, S. Curr. Drug Metab., 2010, 11(1), 1-3, Rendic, S.; Guengerich, F.P. Curr. Drug Metab., 2010, 11 (1), 4-84). The collective information is as presented by the cited author(s) in cases where several references are cited the latest published information is included. Remarks and conclusions suggesting clinically important impacts are highlighted, followed by discussion of the major findings. The searchable database is available as an Excel file (for information about file availability contact the corresponding author).
Uptake and Metabolism of the Short-Chain Fatty Acid Butyrate, a Critical Review of the Literature by Stuart M. Astbury (815-821).
Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formed by bacterial fermentation of fibre in the colon, and serves as anenergy source for colonocytes. The action of butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has led to a number of clinical trials testing its effectiveness as a potential treatment for cancer. The biology of butyrate transport is therefore relevant to both its physiological and pharmacological benefits. This review of the literature was carried out to assess the evidence for both the uptake and metabolism of butyrate, in an attempt to determine possible mechanism(s) by which butyrate can act as an HDACi. It is noted that although uptake and metabolism are well characterised, there are still significant gaps in the knowledgebase around the intracellular handing of butyrate, where assumptions or dated evidence are relied upon.
Intracellular Disposition of Methotrexate in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children by Tiphaine Adam de Beaumais (822-834).
Methotrexate (MTX) is a key agent for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and the benefit of high-dose MTX is well established as it significantly increases cure rates and improves patients’ prognosis. However, the determinants of MTX therapeutic effect are not clearly identified, although intracellular polyglutamation is essential. MTX, the monoglutamate form (MTXG1) inhibits the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) implicated in the folate cycle. MTXG1 is metabolized to active methotrexate polyglutamates (MTXPG) with sequential gamma-linkage of 2 to 6 glutamyl residues by the folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS). Long chain MTXPG have higher affinity than MTX for the enzymes involved in de novo purine synthesis such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) and thymidilate synthase (TS), which results in a reinforcement of MTX inhibition. Thus, intracellular formation of MTXPG enhances the cytotoxic and antileukemic effect of MTX. Different pharmacogenetic polymorphisms contribute to interindividual variability in MTX response to treatment. In addition, pharmacokinetic interactions with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), frequently co-administered, have been reported. And factors affecting intracellular MTX disposition and 6-MP/MTX interactions, including pharmacogenetic polymorphisms affecting MTX disposition are reviewed.
Active Metabolites Resulting from Decarboxylation, Reduction and Ester Hydrolysis of Parent Drugs by I. Hartyanszky (835-862).
Decarboxylation, reduction and hydrolysis can yield active metabolites from the parent drug. Major therapeutic indications and metabolic routes of these drugs are reviewed. Changes in the logP values (determined and calculated) from the parent drug to the active metabolite show certain characteristics in comparison to other phase I metabolic alterations. Metabolic decarboxylation of parent drug is commonly associated with increase in lipophilicity. However, in some cases, decarboxylation may cause a reduction in lipophilicity. Ester hydrolysis generally unmasks either the polar carboxylic or hydroxyl group with the outcome of an increase in hydrophilicity. On the contrary, hydrolysis of phosphate ester means a huge increase in the lipophilic character of the drug, as the highly polar phosphate group is removed.
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models: Integration of In Silico Approaches with Micro Cell Culture Analogues by A. Chen (863-880).
There is a large emphasis within the pharmaceutical industry to provide tools that will allow early research and development groups to better predict dose ranges for and metabolic responses of candidate molecules in a high throughput manner, prior to entering clinical trials. These tools incorporate approaches ranging from PBPK, QSAR, and molecular dynamics simulations in the in silico realm, to micro cell culture analogue (CCAs)s in the in vitro realm. This paper will serve to review these areas of high throughput predictive research, and highlight hurdles and potential solutions. In particular we will focus on CCAs, as their incorporation with PBPK modeling has the potential to replace animal testing, with a more predictive assay that can combine multiple organ analogs on one microfluidic platform in physiologically correct volume ratios. While several advantages arise from the current embodiments of CCAS in a microfluidic format that can be exploited for realistic simulations of drug absorption, metabolism and action, we explore some of the concerns with these systems, and provide a potential path forward to realizing animal-free solutions. Furthermore we envision that, together with theoretical modeling, CCAs may produce reliable predictions of the efficacy of newly developed drugs.