BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1862, #7)

The two control points of cholesterol synthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) are known targets of the transcription factor sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2). Yet the location of the sterol-regulatory elements (SREs) and cofactor binding sites, nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1), have not been satisfactorily mapped in the human SQLE promoter, or at all in the human HMGCR promoter.We used luciferase reporter assays to screen the sterol-responsiveness of a library of predicted SRE, Sp1 and NF-Y site mutants and hence identify bone fide binding sites. We confirmed SREs via an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and ChIP-PCR.We identified two SREs in close proximity in both the human HMGCR and SQLE promoters, as well as one NF-Y site in HMGCR and two in SQLE. In addition, we found that HMGCR expression is highly activated only when SREBP-2 levels are very high, in contrast to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), a result reflected in mouse models used in other studies.Both HMGCR and SQLE promoters have two SREs that may act as a homing region to attract a single SREBP-2 homodimer, with HMGCR being activated only when there is absolute need for cholesterol synthesis. This ensures preferential uptake of exogenous cholesterol via LDLR, thereby conserving energy.We provide the first comprehensive investigation of SREs and NF-Ys in the human HMGCR and SQLE promoters, increasing our fundamental understanding of the transcriptional regulation of cholesterol synthesis.
Keywords: SRE; SREBP-2; NF-Y; Transcriptional regulation; HMGCR; SQLE;

Lysophosphatidylcholine export by human ABCA7 by Maiko Tomioka; Yoshinobu Toda; Noralyn B. Mañucat; Hiroyasu Akatsu; Manabu Fukumoto; Nozomu Kono; Hiroyuki Arai; Noriyuki Kioka; Kazumitsu Ueda (658-665).
The ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7), which is highly expressed in the brain, is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the physiological function of ABCA7 and its transport substrates remain unclear. Immunohistochemical analyses of human brain sections from AD and non-AD subjects revealed that ABCA7 is expressed in neuron and microglia cells in the cerebral cortex. The transport substrates and acceptors were identified in BHK/ABCA7 cells and compared with those of ABCA1. Like ABCA1, ABCA7 exported choline phospholipids in the presence of apoA-I and apoE; however, unlike ABCA1, cholesterol efflux was marginal. Lipid efflux by ABCA7 was saturated by 5 μg/ml apoA-I and was not dependent on apoE isoforms, whereas efflux by ABCA1 was dependent on apoA-I up to 20 μg/ml and apoE isoforms. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the two proteins had different preferences for phospholipid export: ABCA7 preferred phosphatidylcholine (PC) ≥ lysoPC > sphingomyelin (SM) = phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), whereas ABCA1 preferred PC > > SM > PE = lysoPC. The major difference in the pattern of lipid peaks between ABCA7 and ABCA1 was the high lysoPC/PC ratio of ABCA7. These results suggest that lysoPC is one of the major transport substrates for ABCA7 and that lysoPC export may be a physiologically important function of ABCA7 in the brain.Display Omitted
Keywords: ABCA1; ABCA7; ABC proteins; Alzheimer's disease; Lysophosphatidylcholine;

Mammalian ALOX15 orthologs exhibit pronounced dual positional specificity with docosahexaenoic acid by Laura Kutzner; Kateryna Goloshchapova; Dagmar Heydeck; Sabine Stehling; Hartmut Kuhn; Nils Helge Schebb (666-675).
Mammalian lipoxygenases (LOX) have been implicated in cell differentiation and in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, hyperproliferative and neurological diseases. Although the reaction specificity of mammalian LOX with n − 6 fatty acids (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid) has been explored in detail little information is currently available on the product patterns formed from n − 3 polyenoic fatty acids, which are of particular nutritional importance and serve as substrate for the biosynthesis of pro-resolving inflammatory mediators such as resolvins and maresins. Here we expressed the ALOX15 orthologs of eight different mammalian species as well as human ALOX12 and ALOX15B as recombinant his-tag fusion proteins and characterized their reaction specificity with the most abundantly occurring polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We found that the LOX isoforms tested accept these fatty acids as suitable substrates and oxygenate them with variable positional specificity to the corresponding n − 6 and n − 9 hydroperoxy derivatives. Surprisingly, human ALOX15 as well as the corresponding orthologs of chimpanzee and orangutan, which oxygenates arachidonic acid mainly to 15S-H(p)ETE, exhibit a pronounced dual reaction specificity with DHA forming similar amounts of 14- and 17-H(p)DHA. Moreover, ALOX15 orthologs prefer DHA and EPA over AA when equimolar concentrations of n − 3 and n − 6 PUFA were supplied simultaneously. Taken together, these data indicate that the reaction specificity of mammalian LOX isoforms is variable and strongly depends on the chemistry of fatty acid substrates. Most mammalian ALOX15 orthologs exhibit dual positional specificity with highly unsaturated n − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Keywords: Eicosanoids; Inflammation; Reaction specificity; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Leukotrienes; Resolvins;

Depletion of TM6SF2 disturbs membrane lipid composition and dynamics in HuH7 hepatoma cells by Hanna Ruhanen; P.A. Nidhina Haridas; Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen; Ove Eriksson; Vesa M. Olkkonen; Reijo Käkelä (676-685).
A polymorphism of TM6SF2 associates with hepatic lipid accumulation and reduction of triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, but the function of the encoded protein has remained enigmatic. We studied the effect of stable TM6SF2 knock-down on the lipid content and composition, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and organelle structure of HuH7 hepatoma cells. Knock-down of TM6SF2 resulted in intracellular accumulation of TAGs, cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine. In all of these lipid classes, polyunsaturated lipid species were significantly reduced while saturated and monounsaturated species increased their proportions. The PCs encountered relative and absolute arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) depletion, and AA was also reduced in the total cellular fatty acid pool. Synthesis and turnover of the hepatocellular glycerolipids was enhanced. The TM6SF2 knock-down cells secreted lipoprotein-like particles with a smaller diameter than in the controls, and more lysosome/endosome structures appeared in the knock-down cells. The mitochondrial capacity for palmitate oxidation was significantly reduced. These observations provide novel clues to TM6SF2 function and raise altered mebrane lipid composition and dynamics among the mechanism(s) by which the protein deficiency disturbs hepatic TAG secretion.Display Omitted
Keywords: Arachidonic acid; Fatty acid oxidation; Lipidome; Phosphatidylcholine; TM6SF2; Triacylglycerol;

Brain lipidomic changes after morphine, cocaine and amphetamine administration — DESI — MS imaging study by Anna Bodzon-Kulakowska; Anna Antolak; Anna Drabik; Marta Marszalek-Grabska; Jolanta Kotlińska; Piotr Suder (686-691).
Drug addiction is a complex disorder, evoking significant changes in the proteome of the central nervous system. To check if there are also changes in the lipidomic profiles we used desorption electrospray-MS technique for imaging of the brain slices of rats exposed to morphine, cocaine and amphetamine. Our investigations showed alternative regulation of selected lipid's levels in the central nervous system structures, under the influence of applied drugs. Results of our investigations can show changes in the brain treated with drugs of abuse in the new light, indicating role of the lipids in the addiction development.
Keywords: Drug addiction; Lipidomics; Mass spectrometry imaging; Desorption electrospray;

Requirement of cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma in lipid droplet formation by Xi Su; Shuhui Liu; Xianwen Zhang; Sin Man Lam; Xue Hu; Yuan Zhou; Jizheng Chen; Yun Wang; Chunchen Wu; Guanghou Shui; Mengji Lu; Rongjuan Pei; Xinwen Chen (692-705).
Lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in hepatocytes is a typical character of steatosis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, one of the risk factors related to steatosis, induced LD accumulation in cultured cells. However, the mechanisms of which HCV induce LD formation are not fully revealed. Previously we identified cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma (PLA2G4C) as a host factor upregulated by HCV infection and involved in HCV replication. Here we further revealed that PLA2G4C plays an important role in LD biogenesis and refined the functional analysis of PLA2G4C in LD biogenesis and HCV assembly. LD formation upon fatty acid and HCV stimulation in PLA2G4C knockdown cells was impaired and could not be restored by complementation with PLA2G4A. PLA2G4C was tightly associated in the membrane with the domain around the amino acid residues 260–292, normally in ER but relocated into LDs upon oleate stimulation. Mutant PLA2G4C without enzymatic activity was not able to restore LD formation in PLA2G4C knockdown cells. Thus, both the membrane attachment and the enzymatic activity of PLA2G4C were required for its function in LD formation. The participation of PLA2G4C in LD formation is correlated with its involvement in HCV assembly. Finally, PLA2G4C overexpression itself led to LD formation in hepatic cells and enhanced LD accumulation in the liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, suggesting its potential role in fatty liver disease.
Keywords: Lipid droplet; HCV; Cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma; PLA2G4C; Assemble; Steatosis;

The genome of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum harbors six catalases, one of which has the sequence characteristics of a fatty acid peroxide-metabolizing catalase. We cloned and expressed this hemoprotein (designated as Fg-cat) along with its immediate neighbor, a 13S-lipoxygenase (cf. Brodhun et al., PloS One, e64919, 2013) that we considered might supply a fatty acid hydroperoxide substrate. Indeed, Fg-cat reacts abruptly with the 13S-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid (13S-HPODE) with an initial rate of 700–1300 s− 1. By comparison there was no reaction with 9R- or 9S-HPODEs and extremely weak reaction with 13R-HPODE (~ 0.5% of the rate with 13S-HPODE). Although we considered Fg-cat as a candidate for the allene oxide synthase of the jasmonate pathway in fungi, the main product formed from 13S-HPODE was identified by UV, MS, and NMR as 9-oxo-10E-12,13-cis-epoxy-octadecenoic acid (with no traces of AOS activity). The corresponding analog is formed from the 13S-hydroperoxide of α-linolenic acid along with novel diepoxy-ketones and two C13 aldehyde derivatives, the reaction mechanisms of which are proposed. In a peroxidase assay monitoring the oxidation of ABTS, Fg-cat exhibited robust activity (kcat 550 s− 1) using the 13S-hydroperoxy-C18 fatty acids as the oxidizing co-substrate. There was no detectable peroxidase activity using the corresponding 9S-hydroperoxides, nor with t-butyl hydroperoxide, and very weak activity with H2O2 or cumene hydroperoxide at micromolar concentrations of Fg-cat. Fg-cat and the associated lipoxygenase gene are present together in fungal genera Fusarium, Metarhizium and Fonsecaea and appear to constitute a partnership for oxidations in fungal metabolism or defense.
Keywords: Fusarium; Catalase; Lipoxygenase; Peroxidase; HPODE; ABTS assay; NMR;

Involvement of a putative substrate binding site in the biogenesis and assembly of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Francesca Di Bartolomeo; Kim Nguyen Doan; Karin Athenstaedt; Thomas Becker; Günther Daum (716-725).
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 1 (Psd1p) produces the largest amount of cellular phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Psd1p is synthesized as a larger precursor on cytosolic ribosomes and then imported into mitochondria in a three-step processing event leading to the formation of an α-subunit and a β-subunit. The α-subunit harbors a highly conserved motif, which was proposed to be involved in phosphatidylserine (PS) binding. Here, we present a molecular analysis of this consensus motif for the function of Psd1p by using Psd1p variants bearing either deletions or point mutations in this region. Our data show that mutations in this motif affect processing and stability of Psd1p, and consequently the enzyme's activity. Thus, we conclude that this consensus motif is essential for structural integrity and processing of Psd1p.
Keywords: Phospholipid; Mitochondria; Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 1; Phosphatidylethanolamine; Saccharomyces cerevisiae;