BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1862, #5)

Lid domain plasticity and lipid flexibility modulate enzyme specificity in human monoacylglycerol lipase by Laura Riccardi; Jose M. Arencibia; Luca Bono; Andrea Armirotti; Stefania Girotto; Marco De Vivo (441-451).
Human monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a membrane-interacting enzyme that generates pro-inflammatory signaling molecules. For this reason, MAGL inhibition is a promising strategy to treat pain, cancer, and neuroinflammatory diseases. MAGL can hydrolyze monoacylglycerols bearing an acyl chain of different lengths and degrees of unsaturation, cleaving primarily the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Importantly, the enzymatic binding site of MAGL is confined by a 75-amino-acid-long, flexible cap domain, named ‘lid domain’, which is structurally similar to that found in several other lipases. However, it is unclear how lid domain plasticity affects catalysis in MAGL. By integrating extensive molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations with mutagenesis and kinetic experiments, we here define a lid-domain-mediated mechanism for substrate selection and binding in MAGL catalysis. In particular, we clarify the key role of Phe159 and Ile179, two conserved residues within the lid domain, in regulating substrate specificity in MAGL. We conclude by proposing that other structurally related lipases may share this lid-domain-mediated mechanism for substrate specificity.Display Omitted
Keywords: Monoacylglycerol lipase; Lid domain; Molecular dynamics simulations;

Phosphoglycerol dihydroceramide, a distinctive ceramide produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, promotes RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by acting on non-muscle myosin II-A (Myh9), an osteoclast cell fusion regulatory factor by Hiroyuki Kanzaki; Alexandru Movila; Rayyan Kayal; Marcelo H. Napimoga; Kenji Egashira; Floyd Dewhirst; Hajime Sasaki; Mohammed Howait; Ayman Al-dharrab; Abdulghani Mira; Xiaozhe Han; Martin A. Taubman; Frank C. Nichols; Toshihisa Kawai (452-462).
Among several virulence factors produced by the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a recently identified novel class of dihydroceramide lipids that contains a long acyl-chain has the potential to play a pathogenic role in periodontitis because of its higher level of tissue penetration compared to other lipid classes produced by Pg. However, the possible impact of Pg ceramides on osteoclastogenesis is largely unknown. In the present study, we report that the phosphoglycerol dihydroceramide (PGDHC) isolated from Pg enhanced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Using RAW264.7 cells, in vitro assays indicated that PGDHC can promote RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by generating remarkably larger TRAP + multinuclear osteoclasts compared to Pg LPS in a TLR2/4-independent manner. According to fluorescent confocal microscopy, co-localization of non-muscle myosin II-A (Myh9) and PGDHC was observed in the cytoplasm of osteoclasts, indicating the membrane-permeability of PGDHC. Loss- and gain-of-function assays using RNAi-based Myh9 gene silencing, as well as overexpression of the Myh9 gene, in RAW264.7 cells showed that interaction of PGDHC with Myh9 enhances RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. It was also demonstrated that PGDHC can upregulate the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), an important osteoclast fusogen, through signaling that involves Rac1, suggesting that interaction of PGDHC with Myh9 can elicit the cell signal that promotes osteoclast cell fusion. Taken together, our data indicated that PGDHC is a Pg-derived, cell-permeable ceramide that possesses a unique property of promoting osteoclastogenesis via interaction with Myh9 which, in turn, activates a Rac1/DC-STAMP pathway for upregulation of osteoclast cell fusion.
Keywords: RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis; Non-muscle myosin II-A; Phosphoglycerol dihydroceramide; Rac1 small GTPase; DC-STAMP; Porphyromonas gingivalis;

The crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipoxygenase Ala420Gly mutant explains the improved oxygen affinity and the altered reaction specificity by Jacqueline Kalms; Swathi Banthiya; Etienne Galemou Yoga; Mats Hamberg; Hermann-Georg Holzhutter; Hartmut Kuhn; Patrick Scheerer (463-473).
Secreted LOX from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-LOX) has previously been identified as arachidonic acid 15S-lipoxygenating enzyme. Here we report that the substitution of Ala420Gly in PA-LOX leads to an enzyme variant with pronounced dual specificity favoring arachidonic acid 11R-oxygenation. When compared with other LOX-isoforms the molecular oxygen affinity of wild-type PA-LOX is 1–2 orders of magnitude lower (Km O2 of 0.4 mM) but Ala420Gly exchange improved the molecular oxygen affinity (Km O2 of 0.2 mM). Experiments with stereo-specifically deuterated linoleic acid indicated that the formation of both 13S- and 9R-HpODE involves abstraction of the proS-hydrogen from C11 of the fatty acid backbone. To explore the structural basis for the observed functional changes (altered specificity, improved molecular oxygen affinity) we solved the crystal structure of the Ala420Gly mutant of PA-LOX at 1.8 Å resolution and compared it with the wild-type enzyme. Modeling of fatty acid alignment at the catalytic center suggested that in the wild-type enzyme dioxygen is directed to C15 of arachidonic acid by a protein tunnel, which interconnects the catalytic center with the protein surface. Ala420Gly exchange redirects intra-enzyme O2 diffusion by bifurcating this tunnel so that C11 of arachidonic acid also becomes accessible for O2 insertion.Display Omitted
Keywords: Eicosanoids; Oxidative stress; Mutagenesis; Oxygen sensor; Catalysis;

N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) such as N-palmitoylethanolamine and anandamide are endogenous bioactive lipids having numerous functions, including the control of inflammation. Their levels and therefore actions can be controlled by modulating the activity of two hydrolytic enzymes, N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). As macrophages are key to inflammatory processes, we used lipopolysaccharide-activated J774 macrophages, as well as primary mouse alveolar macrophages, to study the effect of FAAH and NAAA inhibition, using PF-3845 and AM9053 respectively, on macrophage activation and NAE levels measured by HPLC-MS. Markers of macrophage activation were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Activation of macrophages decreased NAAA expression and NAE hydrolytic activity. FAAH and NAAA inhibition increased the levels of the different NAEs, although with different magnitudes, whether in control condition or following LPS-induced macrophage activation. Both inhibitors reduced several markers of macrophage activation, such as mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, as well as cytokine and prostaglandin production, with however some differences between FAAH and NAAA inhibition. Most of the NAEs tested – including N-docosatetraenoylethanolamine and N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine – also reduced LPS-induced mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, again with differences depending on the marker and the NAE, thus offering a potential explanation for the differential effect of the inhibitors on macrophage activation markers. In conclusion, we show different and complementary effects of NAE on lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation. Our results support an important role for inhibition of NAE hydrolysis and NAAA inhibition in particular in controlling macrophage activation, and thus inflammation.Display Omitted
Keywords: Docosatetraenoylethanolamide; Docosahexaenoylethanolamide; Palmitoylethanolamide; PEA; DHEA, DTEA;

Region-specific vulnerability to lipid peroxidation and evidence of neuronal mechanisms for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the healthy adult human central nervous system by Alba Naudí; Rosanna Cabré; Mayelin Dominguez-Gonzalez; Victoria Ayala; Mariona Jové; Natalia Mota-Martorell; Gerard Piñol-Ripoll; Maria Pilar Gil-Villar; Montserrat Rué; Manuel Portero-Otín; Isidre Ferrer; Reinald Pamplona (485-495).
Lipids played a determinant role in the evolution of the brain. It is postulated that the morphological and functional diversity among neural cells of the human central nervous system (CNS) is projected and achieved through the expression of particular lipid profiles. The present study was designed to evaluate the differential vulnerability to oxidative stress mediated by lipids through a cross-regional comparative approach. To this end, we compared 12 different regions of CNS of healthy adult subjects, and the fatty acid profile and vulnerability to lipid peroxidation, were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), respectively. In addition, different components involved in PUFA biosynthesis, as well as adaptive defense mechanisms against lipid peroxidation, were also measured by western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We found that: i) four fatty acids (18.1n-9, 22:6n-3, 20:1n-9, and 18:0) are significant discriminators among CNS regions; ii) these differential fatty acid profiles generate a differential selective neural vulnerability (expressed by the peroxidizability index); iii) the cross-regional differences for the fatty acid profiles follow a caudal-cranial gradient which is directly related to changes in the biosynthesis pathways which can be ascribed to neuronal cells; and iv) the higher the peroxidizability index for a given human brain region, the lower concentration of the protein damage markers, likely supported by the presence of adaptive antioxidant mechanisms. In conclusion, our results suggest that there is a region-specific vulnerability to lipid peroxidation and offer evidence of neuronal mechanisms for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the human central nervous system.Display Omitted
Keywords: Advanced lipoxidation end-products; Nrf2; Oxidative stress homeostasis; Peroxidizability index; Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis; Selective neuronal vulnerability;

The interrelationship between bile acid and vitamin A homeostasis by Ali Saeed; Mark Hoekstra; Martijn Oscar Hoeke; Janette Heegsma; Klaas Nico Faber (496-512).
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin important for vision, reproduction, embryonic development, cell differentiation, epithelial barrier function and adequate immune responses. Efficient absorption of dietary vitamin A depends on the fat-solubilizing properties of bile acids. Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and maintained in an enterohepatic circulation. The liver is also the main storage site for vitamin A in the mammalian body, where an intimate collaboration between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells leads to the accumulation of retinyl esters in large cytoplasmic lipid droplet hepatic stellate cells. Chronic liver diseases are often characterized by disturbed bile acid and vitamin A homeostasis, where bile production is impaired and hepatic stellate cells lose their vitamin A in a transdifferentiation process to myofibroblasts, cells that produce excessive extracellular matrix proteins leading to fibrosis. Chronic liver diseases thus may lead to vitamin A deficiency. Recent data reveal an intricate crosstalk between vitamin A metabolites and bile acids, in part via the Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR), Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) and the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), in maintaining vitamin A and bile acid homeostasis. Here, we provide an overview of the various levels of “communication” between vitamin A metabolites and bile acids and its relevance for the treatment of chronic liver diseases.
Keywords: Vitamin A; Bile acid; Nuclear receptor; Liver disease; Therapy;

Fatty-acyl chain profiles of cellular phosphoinositides by Alexis Traynor-Kaplan; Martin Kruse; Eamonn J. Dickson; Gucan Dai; Oscar Vivas; Haijie Yu; Dale Whittington; Bertil Hille (513-522).
Phosphoinositides are rapidly turning-over phospholipids that play key roles in intracellular signaling and modulation of membrane effectors. Through technical refinements we have improved sensitivity in the analysis of the phosphoinositide PI, PIP, and PIP2 pools from living cells using mass spectrometry. This has permitted further resolution in phosphoinositide lipidomics from cell cultures and small samples of tissue. The technique includes butanol extraction, derivatization of the lipids, post-column infusion of sodium to stabilize formation of sodiated adducts, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode, achieving a detection limit of 20 pg. We describe the spectrum of fatty-acyl chains in the cellular phosphoinositides. Consistent with previous work in other mammalian primary cells, the 38:4 fatty-acyl chains dominate in the phosphoinositides of the pineal gland and of superior cervical ganglia, and many additional fatty acid combinations are found at low abundance. However, Chinese hamster ovary cells and human embryonic kidney cells (tsA201) in culture have different fatty-acyl chain profiles that change with growth state. Their 38:4 lipids lose their dominance as cultures approach confluence. The method has good time resolution and follows well the depletion in < 20 s of both PIP2 and PIP that results from strong activation of Gq-coupled receptors. The receptor-activated phospholipase C exhibits no substrate selectivity among the various fatty-acyl chain combinations.
Keywords: Lipidomics; Phospholipids; Mass spectrometry; Arachidonic acid;

Palmitoylation of cysteine 415 of CB1 receptor affects ligand-stimulated internalization and selective interaction with membrane cholesterol and caveolin 1 by Sergio Oddi; Tomasz Maciej Stepniewski; Antonio Totaro; Jana Selent; Lucia Scipioni; Beatrice Dufrusine; Filomena Fezza; Enrico Dainese; Mauro Maccarrone (523-532).
We previously demonstrated that CB1 receptor is palmitoylated at cysteine 415, and that such a post-translational modification affects its biological activity. To assess the molecular mechanisms responsible for modulation of CB1 receptor function by S-palmitoylation, in this study biochemical and morphological approaches were paralleled with computational analyses. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that this acyl chain stabilizes helix 8 as well as the interaction of CB1 receptor with membrane cholesterol. In keeping with these in silico data, experimental results showed that the non-palmitoylated CB1 receptor was unable to interact efficaciously with caveolin 1, independently of its activation state. Moreover, in contrast with the wild-type receptor, the lack of S-palmitoylation in the helix 8 made the mutant CB1 receptor completely irresponsive to agonist-induced effects in terms of both lipid raft partitioning and receptor internalization. Overall, our results support the notion that palmitoylation of cysteine 415 modulates the conformational state of helix 8 and influences the interactions of CB1 receptor with cholesterol and caveolin 1, suggesting that the palmitoyl chain may serve as a functional interface for CB1 receptor localization and function.
Keywords: Type-1 cannabinoid receptor; Receptor acylation; Lipid rafts; Caveolae; Homology modeling; Molecular dynamics;

TNF-α decreases lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by up-regulation of angiopoietin-like protein 4 by Elena Makoveichuk; Evelina Vorrsjö; Thomas Olivecrona; Gunilla Olivecrona (533-540).
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes lipids in plasma lipoproteins so that the fatty acids can be taken up and used by cells. The activity of LPL changes rapidly in response to changes in nutrition, physical activity and other conditions. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is an important controller of LPL activity. Both LPL and ANGPTL4 are produced and secreted by adipocytes. When the transcription blocker Actinomycin D was added to cultures of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, LPL activity in the medium increased several-fold. LPL mRNA decreased moderately during 5 h, while ANGPTL4 mRNA and protein declined rapidly, explaining that LPL activity was increased. TNF-α is known to reduce LPL activity in adipose tissue. We have shown that TNF-α increased ANGPTL4 both at the mRNA and protein level. Expression of ANGPTL4 is known to be under control of Foxo1. Use of the Foxo1-specific inhibitor AS1842856, or knockdown of ANGPTL4 by RNAi, resulted in increased LPL activity in the medium. Both with ActD and with the Foxo1 inhibitor the cells became unresponsive to TNF-α. This study shows that TNF-α, by a Foxo1 dependent pathway, increases the transcription of ANGPTL4 which is secreted by the cells and causes inactivation of LPL.
Keywords: Lipoprotein lipase; TNF-α; 3T3-L1 adipocytes; Angiopoietin-like protein 4; Actinomycin D; Foxo1 inhibitor;

Small heterodimer partner (SHP) contributes to insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes by Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo; Dipanjan Chanda; Yvonne Oligschlaeger; Marie Miglianico; Will A Coumans; Emma Barroso; Marta Tajes; Joost JFP Luiken; Jan FC Glatz; Manuel Vázquez-Carrera; Dietbert Neumann (541-551).
Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an atypical nuclear receptor expressed in heart that has been shown to inhibit the hypertrophic response. Here, we assessed the role of SHP in cardiac metabolism and inflammation. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) displayed glucose intolerance accompanied by increased cardiac mRNA levels of Shp. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, SHP overexpression inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and impaired the insulin signalling pathway (evidenced by reduced AKT and AS160 phosphorylation), similar to insulin resistant cells generated by high palmitate/high insulin treatment (HP/HI; 500 μM/100 nM). In addition, SHP overexpression increased Socs3 mRNA and reduced IRS-1 protein levels. SHP overexpression also induced Cd36 expression (~ 6.2 fold; p < 0.001) linking to the observed intramyocellular lipid accumulation. SHP overexpressing cells further showed altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, i.e., Acaca, Acadvl or Ucp3, augmented NF-κB DNA-binding activity and induced transcripts of inflammatory genes, i.e., Il6 and Tnf mRNA (~ 4-fold induction, p < 0.01). Alterations in metabolism and inflammation found in SHP overexpressing cells were associated with changes in the mRNA levels of Ppara (79% reduction, p < 0.001) and Pparg (~ 58-fold induction, p < 0.001). Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that SHP overexpression strongly reduced the physical interaction between PPARα and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, suggesting that dissociation of these two proteins is one of the mechanisms by which SHP initiates the inflammatory response in cardiac cells. Overall, our results suggest that SHP upregulation upon high-fat feeding leads to lipid accumulation, insulin resistance and inflammation in cardiomyocytes.Display Omitted
Keywords: Insulin resistance; Diabetic cardiomyopathy; Nuclear receptors; Small heterodimer partner;

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse microglia by activating SIRT1 pathways by Takayuki Inoue; Masashi Tanaka; Shinya Masuda; Ryuji Ohue-Kitano; Hajime Yamakage; Kazuya Muranaka; Hiromichi Wada; Toru Kusakabe; Akira Shimatsu; Koji Hasegawa; Noriko Satoh-Asahara (552-560).
Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for dementia, and it is speculated that chronic neuroinflammation contributes to this increased risk. Microglia are brain-resident immune cells modulating the neuroinflammatory state. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of fish oil, exhibit various effects, which include shifting microglia to the anti-inflammatory phenotype. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved, we examined the impact of EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine profiles and the associated signaling pathways in the mouse microglial line MG6. Both EPA and DHA suppressed the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated MG6 cells, and this was also observed in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells, the other microglial line. Moreover, the EPA + DHA mixture activated SIRT1 signaling by enhancing mRNA level of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), cellular NAD+ level, SIRT1 protein deacetylase activity, and SIRT1 mRNA levels in LPS-stimulated MG6. EPA + DHA also inhibited phosphorylation of the stress-associated transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65 at Ser536, which is known to enhance NF-κB nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, including cytokine gene activation. Further, EPA + DHA increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, an indicator of autophagy. Suppression of TNF-α and IL-6 production, inhibition of p65 phosphorylation, and autophagy induction were abrogated by a SIRT1 inhibitor. On the other hand, NAMPT inhibition reversed TNF-α suppression but not IL-6 suppression. Accordingly, these ω-3 PUFAs may suppress neuroinflammation through SIRT1-mediated inhibition of the microglial NF-κB stress response and ensue pro-inflammatory cytokine release, which is implicated in NAMPT-related and –unrelated pathways.
Keywords: Autophagy; Inflammation; Microglia; NF-κB; SIRT1; ω-3 PUFAs;

Characterization and cellular localization of human 5-lipoxygenase and its protein isoforms 5-LOΔ13, 5-LOΔ4 and 5-LOp12 by Ann-Katrin Ball; Kim Beilstein; Sandra Wittmann; Duran Sürün; Meike J. Saul; Frank Schnütgen; Nicolas Flamand; Ricardo Capelo; Astrid S. Kahnt; Helena Frey; Liliana Schaefer; Rolf Marschalek; Ann-Kathrin Häfner; Dieter Steinhilber (561-571).
Human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO-WT) initiates the leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis. LTs play an important role in diseases like asthma, atherosclerosis and in many types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the 5-LO isoforms 5-LO∆13, 5-LO∆4 and 5-LOp12, lacking the exons 13, 4 or a part of exon 12, respectively. We were able to detect the mRNA of the isoforms 5-LO∆13 and 5-LOp12 in B and T cell lines as well as in primary B and T cells and monocytes. Furthermore, we found that expression of 5-LO and particularly of the 5-LO∆13 and 5-LOp12 isoforms is increased in monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and sepsis. Confocal microscopy of HEK293T cells stably transfected with tagged 5-LO-WT and/or the isoforms revealed that 5-LO-WT is localized in the nucleus whereas all isoforms are located in the cytosol. Additionally, all isoforms are catalytically inactive and do not seem to influence the specific activity of 5-LO-WT. S271A mutation in 5-LO-WT and treatment of the cells with sorbitol or KN-93/SB203580 changes the localization of the WT enzyme to the cytosol. Despite colocalization with the S271A mutant, the isoforms did not affect LT biosynthesis. Analysis of the phosphorylation pattern of 5-LO-WT and all the isoforms revealed that 5-LOp12 and 5-LO∆13 are highly phosphorylated at Ser271 and 5-LOp12 at Ser523. Furthermore, coexpression of the isoforms inhibited or stimulated 5-LO-WT expression in transiently and stably transfected HEK293T cells suggesting that the isoforms have other functions than canonical LT biosynthesis.
Keywords: 5-Lipoxygenase; Inflammation; Alternative splicing; Protein isoforms; Confocal microscopy;