BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1862, #4)

The double-edged role of 12/15-lipoxygenase during inflammation and immunity by Jochen A. Ackermann; Katharina Hofheinz; Mario M. Zaiss; Gerhard Krönke (371-381).
12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) mediates the enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, thereby contributing to the generation of various bioactive lipid mediators. Although 12/15-LOX has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic inflammatory diseases, its physiologic functions seem to include potent immune modulatory properties that physiologically contribute to the resolution of inflammation and the clearance of inflammation-associated tissue damage. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview about our current knowledge on the role of this enzyme during the regulation of inflammation and immunity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid modification and lipid peroxidation products in innate immunity and inflammation edited by Christoph J. Binder.
Keywords: Lipoxygenase; Lipoxins; Macrophages; Inflammation; Resolution; Lipid oxidation;

Inflammation represents a powerful innate immune response that defends tissue homeostasis. However, the appropriate termination of inflammatory processes is essential to prevent the development of chronic inflammatory disorders. The resolution of inflammation is actively induced by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators, which include eicosanoids, resolvins, protectins and maresins. The responsible pro-resolution pathways have emerged as promising targets for anti-inflammatory therapies since they mitigate excessive inflammation without compromising the anti-microbial defenses of the host. We have recently shown that the lipid peroxidation of membrane phospholipids, which is associated with inflammatory conditions, generates oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) species with potent pro-resolving activities. These pro-resolving OxPLs contain a cyclopentenone as their common determinant, and are structurally and functionally related to endogenous pro-resolving prostaglandins. Here, we review the regulation of inflammatory responses by OxPLs with particular focus on the bioactivities and structural characteristics of cyclopentenone-OxPLs, and discuss the impact of the responsible signaling pathways on inflammatory diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid modification and lipid peroxidation products in innate immunity and inflammation edited by Christoph J. Binder.
Keywords: Cyclopentenone; Inflammation; Isoprostane; Nrf2; Oxidized phospholipid; Resolution;

Oxidized cholesteryl esters and inflammation by Soo-Ho Choi; Dmitri Sviridov; Yury I. Miller (393-397).
The oxidation hypothesis of atherosclerosis proposes that oxidized LDL is a major causative factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Although this hypothesis has received strong mechanistic support and many animal studies demonstrated profound atheroprotective effects of antioxidants, which reduce LDL oxidation, the results of human clinical trials with antioxidants were mainly negative, except in selected groups of patients with clearly increased systemic oxidative stress. We propose that even if reducing lipoprotein oxidation in humans might be difficult to achieve, deeper understanding of mechanisms by which oxidized LDL promotes atherosclerosis and targeting these specific mechanisms will offer novel approaches to treatment of cardiovascular disease. In this review article, we focus on oxidized cholesteryl esters (OxCE), which are a major component of minimally and extensively oxidized LDL and of human atherosclerotic lesions. OxCE and OxCE-protein covalent adducts induce profound biological effects. Among these effects, OxCE activate macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and spleen tyrosine kinase and induce macropinocytosis resulting in lipid accumulation, generation of reactive oxygen species and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Specific inhibition of OxCE-induced TLR4 activation, as well as blocking other inflammatory effects of OxCE, may offer novel treatments of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid modification and lipid peroxidation products in innate immunity and inflammation edited by Christoph J. Binder.
Keywords: Cholesterol; Cholesteryl ester; Oxidation; TLR4; MD-2; Atherosclerosis;

Malondialdehyde epitopes as mediators of sterile inflammation by Clara J. Busch; Christoph J. Binder (398-406).
Enhanced lipid peroxidation occurs during oxidative stress and results in the generation of lipid peroxidation end products such as malondialdehyde (MDA), which can attach to autologous biomolecules, thereby generating neo-self epitopes capable of inducing potentially undesired biological responses. Therefore, the immune system has developed mechanisms to protect from MDA epitopes by binding and neutralizing them through both cellular and soluble effectors. Here, we briefly discuss innate immune responses targeting MDA epitopes and their pro-inflammatory properties, followed by a review of physiological carriers of MDA epitopes that are relevant in homeostasis and disease. Then we discuss in detail the evidence for cellular responses towards MDA epitopes mainly in lung, liver and the circulation as well as signal transduction mechanisms and receptors implicated in the response to MDA epitopes. Last, we hypothesize on the role of MDA epitopes as mediators of inflammation in diseases and speculate on their contribution to disease pathogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid modification and lipid peroxidation products in innate immunity and inflammation edited by Christoph J. Binder.
Keywords: Malondialdehyde; Innate immunity; Inflammation; Atherosclerosis; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress;

Biological and pathophysiological roles of end-products of DHA oxidation by Valentin P. Yakubenko; Tatiana V. Byzova (407-415).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to be present and/or enriched in vegetable and fish oils. Among fatty acids, n-3 PUFA are generally considered to be protective in inflammation-related diseases. The guidelines for substituting saturated fatty acids for PUFAs have been highly publicized for decades by numerous health organizations. Recently, however, the beneficial properties of n-3 PUFA are questioned by detailed analyses of multiple randomized controlled clinical trials. The reported heterogeneity of results is likely due not only to differential effects of PUFAs on various pathological processes in humans, but also to the wide spectrum of PUFA's derived products generated in vivo.The goal of this review is to discuss the studies focused on well-defined end-products of PUFAs oxidation, their generation, presence in various pathological and physiological conditions, their biological activities and known receptors. Carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP), a DHA-derived oxidized product, is especially emphasized due to recent data demonstrating its pathophysiological significance in many inflammation-associated diseases, including atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, macular degeneration, and tumor progression.CEP is a product of radical-based oxidation of PUFA that forms adducts with proteins and lipids in blood and tissues, generating new powerful ligands for TLRs and scavenger receptors. The interaction of CEP with these receptors affects inflammatory response, angiogenesis, and wound healing.The detailed understanding of CEP–mediated cellular responses may provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies and dietary recommendations.
Keywords: Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Carboxyethylpyrrole; Docosahexaenoic acid; Inflammation; Toll-like receptors; CD36;

Oxidized LDL at the crossroads of immunity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by T. Houben; E. Brandsma; S.M.A. Walenbergh; M.H. Hofker; R. Shiri-Sverdlov (416-429).
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is viewed as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is a condition hallmarked by lipid accumulation in the liver (steatosis) along with inflammation (hepatitis). Currently, the etiology and mechanisms leading to obesity-induced hepatic inflammation are not clear and, as a consequence, strategies to diagnose or treat NASH in an accurate manner do not exist. In the current review, we put forward the concept of oxidized lipids as a significant risk factor for NASH. We will focus on the contribution of the different types of oxidized lipids as part of the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) to the hepatic inflammatory response. Furthermore, we will elaborate on the underlying mechanisms linking oxLDL to inflammatory responses in the liver and on how these cascades can be used as therapeutic targets to combat NASH. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid modification and lipid peroxidation products in innate immunity and inflammation edited by Christoph J. Binder.
Keywords: OxLDL; Lipid metabolism; Hepatic inflammation; NASH;

Lipids, oxidized lipids, oxidation-specific epitopes, and Age-related Macular Degeneration by James T. Handa; Marisol Cano; Lei Wang; Sayantan Datta; Tongyun Liu (430-440).
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in western societies. While antioxidant micronutrient treatment is available for intermediate non-neovascular disease, and effective anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment is available for neovascular disease, treatment for early AMD is lacking due to an incomplete understanding of the early molecular events. The role of lipids, which accumulate in the macula, and their oxidation, has emerged as an important factor in disease development. These oxidized lipids can either directly contribute to tissue injury or react with amine on proteins to form oxidation-specific epitopes, which can induce an innate immune response. If inadequately neutralized, the inflammatory response from these epitopes can incite tissue injury during disease development. This review explores how the accumulation of lipids, their oxidation, and the ensuing inflammatory response might contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid modification and lipid peroxidation products in innate immunity and inflammation edited by Christoph J. Binder .
Keywords: Age-related Macular Degeneration; Bruch's membrane; Basal deposits; Drusen; Very low-density lipoprotein (LDL); Oxidation-specific epitopes; Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE);