BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1861, #9PB)

Plant lipid biology by Kent Chapman; Ivo Feussner (1205-1206).

Regulation and structure of the heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase by Matthew J. Salie; Jay J. Thelen (1207-1213).
The enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) catalyzes the committed step of the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS) pathway by converting acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Two forms of ACCase exist in nature, a homomeric and heteromic form. The heteromeric form of this enzyme requires four different subunits for activity: biotin carboxylase; biotin carboxyl carrier protein; and α- and β-carboxyltransferases. Heteromeric ACCases (htACCase) can be found in prokaryotes and the plastids of most plants. The plant htACCase is regulated by diverse mechanisms reflected by the biochemical and genetic complexity of this multienzyme complex and the plastid stroma where it resides. In this review we summarize the regulation of the plant htACCase and also describe the structural characteristics of this complex from both prokaryotes and plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.Display Omitted
Keywords: Plants; Acetyl-CoA carboxylase; ACCase; Fatty acid synthesis; BADC; Protein–protein interactions;

Plant oil biosynthesis involves a complex metabolic network with multiple subcellular compartments, parallel pathways, cycles, and pathways that have a dual function to produce essential membrane lipids and triacylglycerol. Modern molecular biology techniques provide tools to alter plant oil compositions through bioengineering, however with few exceptions the final composition of triacylglycerol cannot be predicted. One reason for limited success in oilseed bioengineering is the inadequate understanding of how to control the flux of fatty acids through various fatty acid modification, and triacylglycerol assembly pathways of the lipid metabolic network. This review focuses on the mechanisms of acyl flux through the lipid metabolic network, and highlights where uncertainty resides in our understanding of seed oil biosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Phosphatidylcholine; Triacylglycerol; Diacylglycerol; Flux; Acyl editing; Lands cycle; Arabidopsis;

Metabolism in plants takes place across multiple cell types and within distinct organelles. The distributions equate to spatial heterogeneity; though the limited means to experimentally assess metabolism frequently involve homogenizing tissues and mixing metabolites from different locations. Most current isotope investigations of metabolism therefore lack the ability to resolve spatially distinct events. Recognition of this limitation has resulted in inspired efforts to advance metabolic flux analysis and isotopic labeling techniques. Though a number of these efforts have been applied to studies in central metabolism; recent advances in instrumentation and techniques present an untapped opportunity to make similar progress in lipid metabolism where the use of stable isotopes has been more limited. These efforts will benefit from sophisticated radiolabeling reports that continue to enrich our knowledge on lipid biosynthetic pathways and provide some direction for stable isotope experimental design and extension of MFA. Evidence for this assertion is presented through the review of several elegant stable isotope studies and by taking stock of what has been learned from radioisotope investigations when spatial aspects of metabolism were considered. The studies emphasize that glycerolipid production occurs across several locations with assembly of lipids in the ER or plastid, fatty acid biosynthesis occurring in the plastid, and the generation of acetyl-CoA and glycerol-3-phosphate taking place at multiple sites. Considering metabolism in this context underscores the cellular and subcellular organization that is important to enhanced production of glycerolipids in plants. An attempt is made to unify salient features from a number of reports into a diagrammatic model of lipid metabolism and propose where stable isotope labeling experiments and further flux analysis may help address questions in the field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Lipid metabolism; Central metabolism; Isotopic labeling; Metabolic flux analysis; Subcellular compartmentation; Cellular heterogeneity;

Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits are covered with a remarkably thick layer of crystalline wax consisting of triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) esterified exclusively with saturated fatty acids. As the only plant known to accumulate soluble glycerolipids as a major component of surface waxes, Bayberry represents a novel system to investigate neutral lipid biosynthesis and lipid secretion by vegetative plant cells. The assembly of Bayberry wax is distinct from conventional TAG and other surface waxes, and instead proceeds through a pathway related to cutin synthesis (Simpson and Ohlrogge, 2016). In this study, microscopic examination revealed that the fruit tissue that produces and secretes wax (Bayberry knobs) is fully developed before wax accumulates and that wax is secreted to the surface without cell disruption. Comparison of transcript expression to genetically related tissues (Bayberry leaves, M. rubra fruits), cutin-rich tomato and cherry fruit epidermis, and to oil-rich mesocarp and seeds, revealed exceptionally high expression of 13 transcripts for acyl-lipid metabolism together with down-regulation of fatty acid oxidases and desaturases. The predicted protein sequences of the most highly expressed lipid-related enzyme-encoding transcripts in Bayberry knobs are 100% identical to the sequences from Bayberry leaves, which do not produce surface DAG or TAG. Together, these results indicate that TAG biosynthesis and secretion in Bayberry is achieved by both up and down-regulation of a small subset of genes related to the biosynthesis of cutin and saturated fatty acids, and also implies that modifications in gene expression, rather than evolution of new gene functions, was the major mechanism by which Bayberry evolved its specialized lipid metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Pathway evolution; Lipid secretion; Cuticle; Transacylase;

Oil is on the agenda: Lipid turnover in higher plants by Amélie A. Kelly; Ivo Feussner (1253-1268).
Lipases hydrolyze ester bonds within lipids. This process is called lipolysis. They are key players in lipid turnover and involved in numerous metabolic pathways, many of which are shared between organisms like the mobilization of neutral or storage lipids or lipase-mediated membrane lipid homeostasis. Some reactions though are predominantly present in certain organisms, such as the production of signaling molecules (endocannabinoids) by diacylglycerol (DAG) and monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipases in mammals and plants or the jasmonate production in flowering plants. This review aims at giving an overview of the different functional classes of lipases and respective well-known activities, with a focus on the most recent findings in plant biology for selected classes. Here we will put an emphasis on the physiological role and contribution of lipases to the turnover of neutral lipids found in seed oil and other vegetative tissue as candidates for increasing the economical values of crop plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Arabidopsis; Lipase; Triacylglycerol;

Stress-induced neutral lipid biosynthesis in microalgae — Molecular, cellular and physiological insights by Krzysztof Zienkiewicz; Zhi-Yan Du; Wei Ma; Katharina Vollheyde; Christoph Benning (1269-1281).
Photosynthetic microalgae have promise as biofuel feedstock. Under certain conditions, they produce substantial amounts of neutral lipids, mainly in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs), which can be converted to fuels. Much of our current knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of algal neutral lipid metabolism derives mainly from studies of plants, i.e. seed tissues, and to a lesser extent from direct studies of algal lipid metabolism. Thus, the knowledge of TAG synthesis and the cellular trafficking of TAG precursors in algal cells is to a large extent based on genome predictions, and most aspects of TAG metabolism have yet to be experimentally verified. The biofuel prospects of microalgae have raised the interest in mechanistic studies of algal TAG biosynthesis in recent years and resulted in an increasing number of publications on lipid metabolism in microalgae. In this review we summarize the current findings on genetic, molecular and physiological studies of TAG accumulation in microalgae. Special emphasis is on the functional analysis of key genes involved in TAG synthesis, molecular mechanisms of regulation of TAG biosynthesis, as well as on possible mechanisms of lipid droplet formation in microalgal cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Triacylglycerol (TAG); Lipid; Microalgae; Diacylglycerol:acyltransferase (DGAT); Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT); Lipid droplet (LD);

Triacylglycerol (TAG), a major source of biodiesel production, accumulates in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, the metabolic pathway of starch-to-TAG conversion remains elusive because an enzyme that affects the starch degradation is unknown. Here, we isolated a new class of mutant bgal1, which expressed an overaccumulation of starch granules and defective photosynthetic growth. The bgal1 was a null mutant of a previously uncharacterized β-galactosidase-like gene (Cre02.g119700), which decreased total β-galactosidase activity 40% of the wild type. Upon nitrogen starvation, the bgal1 mutant showed decreased TAG accumulation mainly due to the reduced flux of de novo TAG biosynthesis evidenced by increased unsaturation of fatty acid composition in TAG and reduced TAG accumulation by additional supplementation of acetate to the culture media. Metabolomic analysis of the bgal1 mutant showed significantly reduced levels of metabolites following the hydrolysis of starch and substrates for TAG accumulation, whereas metabolites in TCA cycle were unaffected. Upon nitrogen starvation, while levels of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and acetyl-CoA remained lower, most of the other metabolites in glycolysis were increased but those in the TCA cycle were decreased, supporting TAG accumulation. We suggest that BGAL1 may be involved in the degradation of starch, which affects TAG accumulation in nitrogen-starved C. reinhardtii. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Triacylglycerol; Glycerolipid metabolism; Nitrogen starvation; Metabolomics; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii;

Tangled evolutionary processes with commonality and diversity in plastidial glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms by Koichi Hori; Takashi Nobusawa; Tei Watanabe; Yuka Madoka; Hideyuki Suzuki; Daisuke Shibata; Mie Shimojima; Hiroyuki Ohta (1294-1308).
In photosynthetic organisms, the photosynthetic membrane constitutes a scaffold for light-harvesting complexes and photosynthetic reaction centers. Three kinds of glycolipids, namely monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, constitute approximately 80–90% of photosynthetic membrane lipids and are well conserved from tiny cyanobacteria to the leaves of huge trees. These glycolipids perform a wide variety of functions beyond biological membrane formation. In particular, the capability of adaptation to harsh environments through regulation of membrane glycolipid composition is essential for healthy growth and development of photosynthetic organisms. The genome analysis and functional genetics of the model seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana have yielded many new findings concerning the biosynthesis, regulation, and functions of glycolipids. Nevertheless, it remains to be clarified how the complex biosynthetic pathways and well-organized functions of glycolipids evolved in early and primitive photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, to yield modern photosynthetic organisms like land plants. Recently, genome data for many photosynthetic organisms have been made available as the fruit of the rapid development of sequencing technology. We also have reported the draft genome sequence of the charophyte alga Klebsormidium flaccidum, which is an intermediate organism between green algae and land plants. Here, we performed a comprehensive phylogenic analysis of glycolipid biosynthesis genes in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms including K. flaccidum. Based on the results together with membrane lipid analysis of this alga, we discuss the evolution of glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Glycolipid; Galactolipid; Sulfolipid; Photosynthetic organisms; Phosphate starvation; Plant evolution;

Digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) is a major component of thylakoid membranes, occupying approximately 20% of the membrane system. This lipid composition is conserved from cyanobacteria to the chloroplasts of terrestrial plants, suggesting that DGDG is important for the function of photosynthetic membranes. Here we isolated the gene for DGDG synthase in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (7942dgdA) and found that this gene is essential for this species. 7942dgdA could be knocked out only when genes for cyanobacterial or plant DGDG synthases were expressed, indicating that the important factor was not the specific synthetic pathway but the lipid product. Lack of DGDG could not be compensated by the other membrane lipids in S. elongatus PCC 7942 or by glucosylgalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesized by the β-GlcT gene of Chloroflexus aurantiacus. These results reveal that DGDG has an indispensable role in S. elongatus PCC 7942 and that the second galactose molecule is key. Conservation and distribution of the galactolipid synthetic pathway among oxygenic phototrophs is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Galactolipid; Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; Digalactosyldiacylglycerol; Cyanobacteria; Thylakoid membranes;

Lipids in pollen — They are different by Till Ischebeck (1315-1328).
During evolution, the male gametophyte of Angiosperms has been severely reduced to the pollen grain, consisting of a vegetative cell containing two sperm cells.This vegetative cell has to deliver the sperm cells from the stigma through the style to the ovule. It does so by producing a pollen tube and elongating it to many centimeters in length in some species, requiring vast amounts of fatty acid and membrane lipid synthesis.In order to optimize this polar tip growth, a unique lipid composition in the pollen has evolved. Pollen tubes produce extraplastidial galactolipids and store triacylglycerols in lipid droplets, probably needed as precursors of glycerolipids or for acyl editing. They also possess special sterol and sphingolipid moieties that might together form microdomains in the membranes.The individual lipid classes, the proteins involved in their synthesis as well as the corresponding Arabidopsis knockout mutant phenotypes are discussed in this review. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Pollen development; Pollen tube; Fatty acid synthesis; Glycerolipids; Sphingolipids; Sterols;

Plant sphingolipids: Their importance in cellular organization and adaption by Louise V. Michaelson; Johnathan A. Napier; Diana Molino; Jean-Denis Faure (1329-1335).
Sphingolipids and their phosphorylated derivatives are ubiquitous bio-active components of cells. They are structural elements in the lipid bilayer and contribute to the dynamic nature of the membrane. They have been implicated in many cellular processes in yeast and animal cells, including aspects of signaling, apoptosis, and senescence. Although sphingolipids have a better defined role in animal systems, they have been shown to be central to many essential processes in plants including but not limited to, pollen development, signal transduction and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. A fuller understanding of the roles of sphingolipids within plants has been facilitated by classical biochemical studies and the identification of mutants of model species. Recently the development of powerful mass spectrometry techniques hailed the advent of the emerging field of lipidomics enabling more accurate sphingolipid detection and quantitation. This review will consider plant sphingolipid biosynthesis and function in the context of these new developments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Fatty acid; Long chain base; Glycans; Membrane; Phosphorylation;

Wax and cutin mutants of Arabidopsis: Quantitative characterization of the cuticular transport barrier in relation to chemical composition by Christina Sadler; Bettina Schroll; Viktoria Zeisler; Friedrich Waßmann; Rochus Franke; Lukas Schreiber (1336-1344).
Using 14C-labeled epoxiconazole as a tracer, cuticular permeability of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was quantitatively measured in order to compare different wax and cutin mutants (wax2, cut1, cer5, att1, bdg, shn3 and shn1) to the corresponding wild types (Col-0 and Ws). Mutants were characterized by decreases or increases in wax and/or cutin amounts. Permeances [m s− 1] of Arabidopsis cuticles either increased in the mutants compared to wild type or were not affected. Thus, genetic changes in wax and cutin biosynthesis in some of the investigated Arabidopsis mutants obviously impaired the coordinated cutin and wax deposition at the outer leaf epidermal cell wall. As a consequence, barrier properties of cuticles were significantly decreased. However, increasing cutin and wax amounts by genetic modifications, did not automatically lead to improved cuticular barrier properties. As an alternative approach to the radioactive transport assay, changes in chlorophyll fluorescence were monitored after foliar application of metribuzine, an herbicide inhibiting electron transport in chloroplasts. Since both, half-times of photosynthesis inhibition as well as times of complete inhibition, in fact correlated with 14C-epoxiconazole permeances, different rates of decline of photosynthetic yield between mutants and wild type must be a function of foliar uptake of the herbicide across the cuticle. Thus, monitoring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, instead of conducting radioactive transport assays, represents an easy-to-handle and fast alternative evaluating cuticular barrier properties of different genotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Cuticle; Cutin; Leaf; Mutants; Permeability; Permeance; Transport; Wax;

Eukaryotic membranes contain small amounts of lipids with regulatory roles. An important class of such regulatory lipids are phosphoinositides (PIs). Within membranes, PIs serve as recruitment signals, as regulators of membrane protein function or as precursors for second messenger production, thereby influencing a multitude of cellular processes with key importance for plant function and development. Plant PIs occur locally and transiently within membrane microdomains, and their abundance is strictly controlled. To understand the functions of the plant PI-network it is important to understand not only downstream PI-effects, but also to identify and characterize factors contributing to dynamic PI formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Plant phosphoinositides; PI-kinases; Dynamics; Membrane association; Posttranslational modification;

Phosphoinositides and soluble inositol phosphates are essential components of a complex intracellular chemical code that regulates major aspects of lipid signaling in eukaryotes. These involvements span a broad array of biological outcomes and activities, and cells are faced with the problem of how to compartmentalize and organize these various signaling events into a coherent scheme. It is in the arena of how phosphoinositide signaling circuits are integrated and, and how phosphoinositide pools are functionally defined and channeled to privileged effectors, that phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) transfer proteins (PITPs) are emerging as critical players. As plant systems offer some unique advantages and opportunities for study of these proteins, we discuss herein our perspectives regarding the progress made in plant systems regarding PITP function. We also suggest interesting prospects that plant systems hold for interrogating how PITPs work, particularly in multi-domain contexts, to diversify the biological outcomes for phosphoinositide signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins; Sec14; Phosphoinositides;

Biochemical characterization of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family and its role in plant immunity by Ahmed M. Abd-El-Haliem; Jack H. Vossen; Arjan van Zeijl; Sara Dezhsetan; Christa Testerink; Michael F. Seidl; Martina Beck; James Strutt; Silke Robatzek; Matthieu H.A.J. Joosten (1365-1378).
Plants possess effective mechanisms to quickly respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. The rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes occurs early after the stimulation of plant immune-receptors. Genomes of different plant species encode multiple PLC homologs belonging to one class, PLCζ. Here we determined whether all tomato homologs encode active enzymes and whether they can generate signals that are distinct from one another. We searched the recently completed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome sequence and identified a total of seven PLCs. Recombinant proteins were produced for all tomato PLCs, except for SlPLC7. The purified proteins showed typical PLC activity, as different PLC substrates were hydrolysed to produce diacylglycerol. We studied SlPLC2, SlPLC4 and SlPLC5 enzymes in more detail and observed distinct requirements for Ca2 + ions and pH, for both their optimum activity and substrate preference. This indicates that each enzyme could be differentially and specifically regulated in vivo, leading to the generation of PLC homolog-specific signals in response to different stimuli. PLC overexpression and specific inhibition of PLC activity revealed that PLC is required for both specific effector- and more general “pattern”-triggered immunity. For the latter, we found that both the flagellin-triggered response and the internalization of the corresponding receptor, Flagellin Sensing 2 (FLS2) of Arabidopsis thaliana, are suppressed by inhibition of PLC activity. Altogether, our data support an important role for PLC enzymes in plant defence signalling downstream of immune receptors.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: PLC enzymes; Phospholipids; Immune receptors; Defence response; Signal transduction;

Lipids in plant–microbe interactions by Meike Siebers; Mathias Brands; Vera Wewer; Yanjiao Duan; Georg Hölzl; Peter Dörmann (1379-1395).
Bacteria and fungi can undergo symbiotic or pathogenic interactions with plants. Membrane lipids and lipid-derived molecules from the plant or the microbial organism play important roles during the infection process. For example, lipids (phospholipids, glycolipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids) are involved in establishing the membrane interface between the two organisms. Furthermore, lipid-derived molecules are crucial for intracellular signaling in the plant cell, and lipids serve as signals during plant–microbial communication. These signal lipids include phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, lysophospholipids, and free fatty acids derived from phospholipase activity, apocarotenoids, and sphingolipid breakdown products such as ceramide, ceramide-phosphate, long chain base, and long chain base-phosphate. Fatty acids are the precursors for oxylipins, including jasmonic acid, and for azelaic acid, which together with glycerol-3-phosphate are crucial for the regulation of systemic acquired resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue titled “Plant Lipid Biology,” guest editors Kent Chapman and Ivo Feussner.Display Omitted
Keywords: Glycerolipid; Sterol; Sphingolipid; Systemic acquired resistance; Programmed cell death; Mycorrhiza;

Mutations in jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine-12-hydroxylases suppress multiple JA-dependent wound responses in Arabidopsis thaliana by Arati N. Poudel; Tong Zhang; Misha Kwasniewski; Ryo Nakabayashi; Kazuki Saito; Abraham J. Koo (1396-1408).
Plants rapidly perceive tissue damage, such as that inflicted by insects, and activate several key defense responses. The importance of the fatty acid-derived hormone jasmonates (JA) in dictating these wound responses has been recognized for many years. However, important features pertaining to the regulation of the JA pathway are still not well understood. One key unknown is the inactivation mechanism of the JA pathway and its relationship with plant response to wounding. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 enzymes in the CYP94 clade metabolize jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a major metabolite of JA responsible for many biological effects attributed to the JA signaling pathway; thus, CYP94s are expected to contribute to the attenuation of JA-Ile-dependent wound responses. To directly test this, we created the double and triple knock-out mutants of three CYP94 genes, CYP94B1, CYP94B3, and CYP94C1. The mutations blocked the oxidation steps and caused JA-Ile to accumulate 3–4-fold the WT levels in the wounded leaves. Surprisingly, over accumulation of JA-Ile did not lead to a stronger wound response. On the contrary, the mutants displayed a series of symptoms reminiscent of JA-Ile deficiency, including resistance to wound-induced growth inhibition, decreased anthocyanin and trichomes, and increased susceptibility to insects. The mutants, however, responded normally to exogenous JA treatments, indicating that JA perception or signaling pathways were intact. Untargeted metabolite analyses revealed > 40% reduction in wound-inducible metabolites in the mutants. These observations raise questions about the current JA signaling model and point toward a more complex model perhaps involving JA derivatives and/or feedback mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: oxylipin; jasmonate; hormone metabolism; plant signaling; wound response;

Acyl-CoA esters are the activated form of fatty acids and play important roles in lipid metabolism and the regulation of cell functions. They are bound and transported by nonenzymic proteins such as the acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs). Although plant ACBPs were so named by virtue of amino acid homology to existing yeast and mammalian counterparts, recent studies revealed that ligand specificities of plant ACBPs are not restricted to acyl-CoA esters. Arabidopsis and rice ACBPs also interact with phospholipids, and their affinities to different acyl-CoA species and phospholipid classes vary amongst isoforms. Their ligands also include heavy metals. Interactors of plant ACBPs are further diversified due to the evolution of protein–protein interacting domains. This review summarizes our current understanding of plant ACBPs with a focus on their binding versatility. Their broad ligand range is of paramount significance in serving a multitude of functions during development and stress responses as discussed herein. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.
Keywords: Ankyrin repeat; Fatty acid; Heavy metal; Interactor; Kelch motif; Phospholipid;