BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1861, #6)

A leading hypothesis of N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) biosynthesis, including the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA), is that it depends on hydrolysis of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPE) by a NAPE-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Thus, deletion of NAPE-PLD should attenuate NAE levels. Previous analyses of two different NAPE-PLD knockout (KO) strains produced contradictory data on the importance of NAPE-PLD to AEA biosynthesis. Here, we examine this hypothesis with a strain of NAPE-PLD KO mice whose lipidome is uncharacterized. Using HPLC/MS/MS, over 70 lipids, including the AEA metabolite, N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF), and over 60 lipoamines were analyzed in 8 brain regions of KO and wild-type (WT) mice.Lipidomics analysis of this third NAPE-PLD KO strain shows a broad range of lipids that were differentially affected by lipid species and brain region. Importantly, all 6 NAEs measured were significantly reduced, though the magnitude of the effect varied by fatty acid saturation length and brain region. 2-AG levels were only impacted in the brainstem, where levels were significantly increased in KO mice. Correspondingly, levels of arachidonic acid were significantly decreased exclusively in brainstem. NAGly levels were significantly increased in 4 brain regions and levels of PGE2 increased in 6 of 8 brain regions in KO mice. These data indicate that deletion of NAPE-PLD has far broader effects on the lipidome than previously recognized. Therefore, behavioral characteristics of suppressing NAPE-PLD activity may be due to a myriad of effects on lipids and not simply due to reduced AEA biosynthesis.
Keywords: Lipidomics; NAPE-PLD; Endogenous cannabinoid biosynthesis; Anandamide; Lipoamine;

A novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of high density lipoprotein through up-regulating annexin A1 in vascular endothelial cells by Bing Pan; Jinge Kong; Jingru Jin; Jian Kong; Yubin He; Shuying Dong; Liang Ji; Donghui Liu; Dan He; Liming Kong; David K. Jin; Belinda Willard; Subramaniam Pennathur; Lemin Zheng (501-512).
High density lipoprotein (HDL) as well as annexin A1 have been reported to be associated with cardiovascular protection. However, the correlation between HDL and annexin A1 was still unknown. In this study, HDL increased endothelial annexin A1 and prevented the decrease of annexin A1 in TNF-α-activated endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, and above effects were attenuated after knockdown of annexin A1. Annexin A1 modulation affected HDL-mediated inhibition of monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-activated endothelium (45.2 ± 13.7% decrease for annexin A1 RNA interference; 78.7 ± 16.3% decrease for anti-Annexin A1 antibody blocking; 11.2 ± 6.9% increase for Ad-ANXA1 transfection). Additionally, HDL up-regulated annexin A1 through scavenger receptor class B type I, involving ERK, p38MAPK, Akt and PKC signaling pathways, and respective inhibitors of these pathways attenuated HDL-induced annexin A1 expression as well as impaired HDL-mediated inhibition of monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion. Apolipoprotein AI also increased annexin A1 and activated similar signaling pathways. Endothelial annexin A1 from apolipoprotein AI knockout mice was decreased in comparison to that from wild type mice. Finally, HDL-induced annexin A1 inhibited cell surface VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, and secretion of MCP-1, IL-8, VCAM-1 and E-selectin, thereby inhibiting monocyte adhesion.
Keywords: High density lipoprotein; Annexin A1; Endothelial cell; Monocyte adhesion;

Participation of prostaglandin D2 in the mobilization of the nuclear-localized CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha in renal epithelial cells by Nicolás O. Favale; Lucila G. Pescio; Bruno J. Santacreu; María G. Márquez; Norma B. Sterin-Speziale (513-523).
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the main constituent of mammalian cell membranes. Consequently, preservation of membrane PC content and composition — PC homeostasis — is crucial to maintain cellular life. PC biosynthetic pathway is generally controlled by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT), which is considered the rate-limiting enzyme. CCTα is an amphitropic protein, whose enzymatic activity is commonly associated with endoplasmic reticulum redistribution. However, most of the enzyme is located inside the nuclei. Here, we demonstrate that CCTα is the most abundant isoform in renal collecting duct cells, and its redistribution is dependent on endogenous prostaglandins. Previously we have demonstrated that PC synthesis was inhibited by indomethacin (Indo) treatment, and this effect was reverted by exogenous PGD2. In this work we found that Indo induced CCTα distribution into intranuclear Lamin A/C foci. Exogenous PGD2 reverted this effect by inducing CCTα redistribution to nuclear envelope, suggesting that PGD2 maintains PC synthesis by CCTα mobilization. Interestingly, we found that the effect of PGD2 was dependent on ERK1/2 activation. In conclusion, our previous observations and the present results lead us to suggest that papillary cells possess the ability to maintain their structural integrity through the synthesis of their own survival molecule, PGD2, by modulating CCTα intracellular location.
Keywords: CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha; Prostaglandin D2; Enzyme distribution changes; Nuclear localization; ERK1/2;

Dietary DHA supplementation causes selective changes in phospholipids from different brain regions in both wild type mice and the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by Cécile Bascoul-Colombo; Irina A. Guschina; Benjamin H. Maskrey; Mark Good; Valerie B. O'Donnell; John L. Harwood (524-537).
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of major concern in ageing populations and we have used the Tg2576 mouse model to understand connections between brain lipids and amyloid pathology. Because dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been identified as beneficial, we compared mice fed with a DHA-supplemented diet to those on a nutritionally-sufficient diet.Major phospholipids from cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were separated and analysed. Each phosphoglyceride had a characteristic fatty acid composition which was similar in cortex and hippocampus but different in the cerebellum. The biggest changes on DHA-supplementation were within ethanolamine phospholipids which, together with phosphatidylserine, had the highest proportions of DHA. Reciprocal alterations in DHA and arachidonate were found. The main diet-induced alterations were found in ethanolamine phospholipids, (and included their ether derivatives), as were the changes observed due to genotype. Tg mice appeared more sensitive to diet with generally lower DHA percentages when on the standard diet and higher relative proportions of DHA when the diet was supplemented. All four major phosphoglycerides analysed showed age-dependent decreases in polyunsaturated fatty acid contents.These data provide, for the first time, a detailed evaluation of phospholipids in different brain areas previously shown to be relevant to behaviour in the Tg2576 mouse model for AD. The lipid changes observed with genotype are consistent with the subtle alterations found in AD patients, especially for the ethanolamine phospholipid molecular species. They also emphasise the contrasting changes in fatty acid content induced by DHA supplementation within individual phospholipid classes.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; 2576 mouse model; Phospholipid lipidomics; DHA-enriched diet; Brain areas;

Dissecting lipid metabolism in meibomian glands of humans and mice: An integrative study reveals a network of metabolic reactions not duplicated in other tissues by Igor A. Butovich; Anne McMahon; Jadwiga C. Wojtowicz; Feng Lin; Ronald Mancini; Kamel Itani (538-553).
Lipids comprise the bulk of the meibomian gland secretion (meibum) which is produced by meibocytes. Complex arrays of lipogenic reactions in meibomian glands, which we collectively call meibogenesis, have not been explored on a molecular level yet. Our goals were to elucidate the possible biosynthetic pathways that underlie the generation of meibum, reveal similarities in, and differences between, lipid metabolism in meibomian glands and other organs and tissues, and integrate meibomian gland studies into the field of general metabolomics. Specifically, we have conducted detailed analyses of human and mouse specimens using genomic, immunohistochemical, and lipidomic approaches. Among equally highly expressed genes found in meibomian glands of both species were those related to fatty acid elongation, branching, desaturation, esterification, reduction of fatty acids to alcohols, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Importantly, corresponding lipid products were detected in meibum of both species using lipidomic approaches. For the first time, a cohesive, unifying biosynthetic scheme that connects genomic, lipidomic, and immunohistochemical observations is outlined and discussed.
Keywords: Lipidomics; Meibocytes; Meibogenesis; Gene expression; Extremely long chain lipids; Branched lipids;