BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1861, #4)

Autophagy, lipophagy and lysosomal lipid storage disorders by Carl Ward; Nuria Martinez-Lopez; Elsje G. Otten; Bernadette Carroll; Dorothea Maetzel; Rajat Singh; Sovan Sarkar; Viktor I. Korolchuk (269-284).
Autophagy is a catabolic process with an essential function in the maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. It is primarily recognised for its role in the degradation of dysfunctional proteins and unwanted organelles, however in recent years the range of autophagy substrates has also been extended to lipids. Degradation of lipids via autophagy is termed lipophagy. The ability of autophagy to contribute to the maintenance of lipo-homeostasis becomes particularly relevant in the context of genetic lysosomal storage disorders where perturbations of autophagic flux have been suggested to contribute to the disease aetiology. Here we review recent discoveries of the molecular mechanisms mediating lipid turnover by the autophagy pathways. We further focus on the relevance of autophagy, and specifically lipophagy, to the disease mechanisms. Moreover, autophagy is also discussed as a potential therapeutic target in several key lysosomal storage disorders.
Keywords: Autophagy; Lipid metabolism; Lipid storage disorders;

IP-receptor and PPARs trigger the conversion of human white to brite adipocyte induced by carbaprostacyclin by Rayane A. Ghandour; Maude Giroud; Alexandros Vegiopoulos; Stephan Herzig; Gérard Ailhaud; Ez-Zoubir Amri; Didier F. Pisani (285-293).
Brite adipocytes recently discovered in humans are of considerable importance in energy expenditure by converting energy excess into heat. This property could be useful in the treatment of obesity, and nutritional aspects are relevant to this important issue. Using hMADS cells as a human cell model which undergoes a white to a brite adipocyte conversion, we had shown previously that arachidonic acid, the major metabolite of the essential nutrient Ω6-linoleic acid, plays a major role in this process. Its metabolites PGE2 and PGF2 alpha inhibit this process via a calcium-dependent pathway, whereas in contrast carbaprostacyclin (cPGI2), a stable analog of prostacyclin, activates white to brite adipocyte conversion. Herein, we show that cPGI2 generates via its cognate cell-surface receptor IP-R, a cyclic AMP-signaling pathway involving PKA activity which in turn induces the expression of UCP1. In addition, cPGI2 activates the pathway of nuclear receptors of the PPAR family, i.e. PPARα and PPARγ, which act separately from IP-R to up-regulate the expression of key genes involved in the function of brite adipocytes. Thus dual pathways are playing in concert for the occurrence of a browning process of human white adipocytes. These results make prostacyclin analogs as a new class of interesting molecules to treat obesity and associated diseases.
Keywords: Prostacyclin; cPGI2; cAMP; Brown adipocyte; Obesity; UCP1;

Acquired deficiency of tafazzin in the adult heart: Impact on mitochondrial function and response to cardiac injury by Karol Szczepanek; Jeremy Allegood; Hema Aluri; Ying Hu; Qun Chen; Edward J. Lesnefsky (294-300).
The content and composition of cardiolipin (CL) is critical for preservation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and inner membrane integrity. Tafazzin (Taz) is an enzyme responsible for remodeling of immature CL containing mixed acyl groups into the mature tetralinoleyl form (C18:2)4-CL. We hypothesized that acquired defects in Taz in the mature heart would impact remodeling of CL and augment cardiac injury. The role of acquired Taz deficiency was studied using the inducible Taz knockdown (TazKD) mouse. Taz-specific shRNA is induced by doxycycline (DOX). One day of DOX intake decreased Taz mRNA in the heart to 20% vs. DOX-treated WT. Knockdown was initiated at an adult age and was stable during long term feeding. CL phenotype was assessed by (C18:2)4-CL content and was reduced 40% vs. WT at two months of DOX. TazKD showed increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased susceptibility to permeability transition pore opening at baseline. However, OXPHOS measured using the rate of oxygen consumption was unchanged in the setting of acquired Taz deficiency. Infarct size, measured in isolated buffer-perfused Langendorff hearts following 25 min. Stop flow ischemia and 60 min. Reperfusion was not altered in TazKD hearts. Thus, impaired Taz-function with onset at adult age does not enhance susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Keywords: Mitochondria; Reactive oxygen species; Permeability transition pore; Aging; Oxidative phosphorylation; Myocardial infarction;

Oxylipin biosynthesis in spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii: Molecular cloning and identification of divinyl ether synthases CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 by Svetlana S. Gorina; Yana Y. Toporkova; Lucia S. Mukhtarova; Elena O. Smirnova; Ivan R. Chechetkin; Bulat I. Khairutdinov; Yuri V. Gogolev; Alexander N. Grechkin (301-309).
Nonclassical P450s of CYP74 family control the secondary conversions of fatty acid hydroperoxides to bioactive oxylipins in plants. At least ten genes attributed to four novel CYP74 subfamilies have been revealed by the recent sequencing of the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron genome. Two of these genes CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 have been cloned in the present study. Both recombinant proteins CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 were active towards the 13(S)-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids (13-HPOT and 13-HPOD, respectively) and exhibited the activity of divinyl ether synthase (DES). Products were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Individual oxylipins were purified by HPLC and finally identified by their NMR data, including the 1H NMR, 2D-COSY, HSQC and HMBC. CYP74M1 (SmDES1) specifically converted 13-HPOT to (11Z)-etherolenic acid and 13-HPOD to (11Z)-etheroleic acid. CYP74M3 (SmDES2) turned 13-HPOT and 13-HPOD mainly to etherolenic and etheroleic acids, respectively. CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 are the first DESs detected in non-flowering plants. The obtained results demonstrate the existence of the sophisticated oxylipin biosynthetic machinery in the oldest taxa of vascular plants.Display Omitted
Keywords: Divinyl ether synthase; P450; CYP74M subfamily; Molecular cloning; Oxylipins; Gemmiferous spikemoss (Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron);

The cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19 is required for biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans by Yuru Zhang; Haizhen Wang; Jingjing Zhang; Ying Hu; Linqiang Zhang; Xiaoyun Wu; Xiong Su; Tingting Li; Xiaoju Zou; Bin Liang (310-319).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with backbones containing more than one double bond, which are introduced by a series of desaturases that insert double bonds at specific carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. It has been established that desaturases need flavoprotein-NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase (simplified as cytochrome b5 reductase) and cytochrome b5 to pass through electrons for activation. However, it has remained unclear how this multi-enzyme system works for distinct desaturases. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans contains seven desaturases (FAT-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7) for the biosynthesis of PUFAS, providing an excellent model in which to characterize different desaturation reactions. Here, we show that RNAi inactivation of predicted cytochrome b5 reductases hpo-19 and T05H4.4 led to increased levels of C18:1n − 9 but decreased levels of PUFAs, small lipid droplets, decreased fat accumulation, reduced brood size and impaired development. Dietary supplementation with different fatty acids showed that HPO-19 and T05H4.4 likely affect the activity of FAT-1, FAT-2, FAT-3, and FAT-4 desaturases, suggesting that these four desaturases use the same cytochrome b5 reductase to function. Collectively, these findings indicate that cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19/T05H4.4 is required for desaturation to biosynthesize PUFAs in C. elegans.
Keywords: Cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19 and T05H4.4; Fatty acid desaturation; Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); C. elegans;

Role of protein kinase C δ in apoptotic signaling of oxidized phospholipids in RAW 264.7 macrophages by F. Vogl; J. Humpolícková; M. Amaro; D. Koller; H. Köfeler; E. Zenzmaier; M. Hof; A. Hermetter (320-330).
The oxidized phospholipids (oxPl) 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PGPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) are cytotoxic components of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Sustained exposure to oxLDL or isolated oxPl induces apoptotic signaling in vascular cells, which is a hallmark of the late phase of atherosclerosis. Activation of sphingomyelinase, the coordinate formation of ceramide and activation of caspase 3/7 as well as the activation of stress-associated kinases are causally involved in this process. Here, we provide evidence for a role of PKCδ in oxPl cytotoxicity. Silencing of the enzyme by siRNA significantly reduced caspase 3/7 activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages under the influence of oxPl. Concomitantly, PKCδ was phosphorylated as a consequence of cell exposure to PGPC or POVPC. Single molecule fluorescence microscopy provided direct evidence for oxPl-protein interaction. Both oxPl recruited an RFP-tagged PKCδ to the plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, two color cross-correlation number and brightness (ccN&B) analysis of the molecular motions revealed that fluorescently labeled PGPC or POVPC analogs co-diffuse and are associated with the fluorescent protein kinase in live cells. The underlying lipid-protein interactions may be due to chemical bonding (imine formation between the phospholipid aldehyde POVPC with protein amino groups) and physical association (with POVPC or PGPC). In summary, our data supports the assumption that PKCδ acts as a proapototic kinase in oxPl-included apoptosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages. The direct association of the bioactive lipids with this enzyme seems to be an important step in the early phase of apoptotic signaling.
Keywords: Oxidized LDL; Atherosclerosis; Ceramide; Acid sphingomyelinase; Lipid-protein-interactions; Fluorescent phospholipids;

Eicosapentaenoic acid membrane incorporation impairs ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux via a protein kinase A signaling pathway in primary human macrophages by Natalie Fournier; Sylviane Tardivel; Jean-François Benoist; Benoît Vedie; Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard; Maxime Nowak; Fatima Allaoui; Jean-Louis Paul (331-341).
A diet rich in n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is cardioprotective. Dietary PUFAs affect the cellular phospholipids composition, which may influence the function of membrane proteins. We investigated the impact of the membrane incorporation of several PUFAs on ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, a key antiatherogenic pathway. Arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6 n-3) decreased or increased cholesterol efflux from J774 mouse macrophages, respectively, whereas they had no effect on efflux from human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Importantly, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5 n-3) induced a dose-dependent reduction of ABCA1 functionality in both cellular models (− 28% for 70 μM of EPA in HMDM), without any alterations in ABCA1 expression. These results show that PUFA membrane incorporation does not have the same consequences on cholesterol efflux from mouse and human macrophages. The EPA-treated HMDM exhibited strong phospholipid composition changes, with high levels of both EPA and its elongation product docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5 n-3), which is associated with a decreased level of AA. In HMDM, EPA reduced the ATPase activity of the membrane transporter. Moreover, the activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and the inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine restored ABCA1 cholesterol efflux in EPA-treated human macrophages. In conclusion, EPA membrane incorporation reduces ABCA1 functionality in mouse macrophages as well as in primary human macrophages and this effect seems to be PKA-dependent in human macrophages.
Keywords: EPA; ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux; J774 mouse macrophages; Human monocyte-derived macrophages; Membrane fatty acid composition; PKA;

MicroRNA-192* impairs adipocyte triglyceride storage by Raghavendra Mysore; You Zhou; Sanja Sädevirta; Hanna Savolainen-Peltonen; P.A. Nidhina Haridas; Jarkko Soronen; Marja Leivonen; Antti-Pekka Sarin; Pamela Fischer-Posovszky; Martin Wabitsch; Hannele Yki-Järvinen; Vesa M. Olkkonen (342-351).
We investigated the expression of miR-192* (miR-192-3p) in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese subjects and its function in cultured human adipocytes. This miRNA is a 3′ arm derived from the same pre-miRNA as miR-192 (miR-192-5p) implicated in type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cancers, and is predicted to target key genes in lipid metabolism. In morbidly obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery preceded by a very low calorie diet, miR-192* in VAT correlated negatively (r = − 0.387; p = 0.046) with serum triglyceride (TG) and positively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (r = 0.396; p = 0.041). In a less obese patient cohort, the miRNA correlated negatively with the body mass index (r = − 0.537; p = 0.026). To characterize the function of miR-192*, we overexpressed it in cultured adipocytes and analyzed the expression of adipogenic differentiation markers as well as cellular TG content. Reduced TG and expression of the adipocyte marker proteins aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) and perilipin 1 were observed. The function of miR-192* was further investigated by transcriptomic profiling of adipocytes expressing this miRNA, revealing impacts on key lipogenic genes. A number of the mRNA alterations were validated by qPCR. Western analysis confirmed a marked reduction of the lipogenic enzyme SCD (stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase-1), the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3A2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member A2) and the high-density lipoprotein receptor SCARB1 (scavenger receptor B, type I). SCD and ALDH3A2 were demonstrated to be direct targets of miR-192*. To conclude, the present data identify miR-192* as a novel controller of adipocyte differentiation and lipid homeostasis.
Keywords: Adipogenesis; miR-192-3p; Obesity; SGBS; Transcriptome;

Dysfunction of lipid metabolism and accumulation of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (DAG) may be a key factor in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid extract that has shown promise as a hypoglycemic agent in the management of diabetes in animal and human studies. However, its mechanism of action is not well understood. To determine the effect of BBR on lipid synthesis and its relationship to insulin resistance in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, we measured neutral lipid and phospholipid synthesis and their relationship to glucose uptake. Compared with controls, BBR treatment stimulated 2-[1,2-3H(N)]deoxy-D-glucose uptake and consumption in palmitate-mediated insulin resistant H9c2 cells. The mechanism was though an increase in protein kinase B (AKT) activity and GLUT-4 glucose transporter expression. DAG accumulated in palmitate-mediated insulin resistant H9c2 cells and treatment with BBR reduced this DAG accumulation and increased accumulation of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerol (TAG) compared to controls. Treatment of palmitate-mediated insulin resistant H9c2 cells with BBR increased [1,3-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]glucose incorporation into TAG and reduced their incorporation into DAG compared to control. In addition, BBR treatment of these cells increased [1-14C]palmitic acid incorporation into TAG and decreased its incorporation into DAG compared to controls. BBR treatment did not alter phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis. The mechanism for the BBR-mediated decreased precursor incorporation into DAG and increased incorporation into TAG in palmitate-incubated cells was an increase in DAG acyltransferase-2 activity and its expression and a decrease in TAG hydrolysis. Thus, BBR treatment attenuates palmitate-induced reduction in glucose uptake and consumption, in part, through reduction in cellular DAG levels and accumulation of TAG in H9c2 cells.In cardiomyocytes insulin binding to its receptor stimulates glucose uptake through the insulin signaling cascade. Palmitate is taken up by cardiomyocytes and converted to palmitoyl-CoA. The palmitoyl-CoA may be used for ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation (OX-PHOS) or combined with glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to form lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) followed by phosphatidic acid (PA). PA is converted to 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (DAG) and then to 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerol (TAG) by 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT-2). Excess palmitate results in increased DAG production which activates protein kinase C (PKC) which in turn inhibits the insulin signaling cascade. Berberine stimulates glucose uptake through adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) activation of protein kinase B (AKT) and through attenuation of the DAG mediated inhibition of glucose uptake by reducing cellular DAG levels via increasing DGAT-2 expression/activity and reducing TAG hydrolysis.Display Omitted

Trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte adipogenesis by elevating β-catenin levels by Azadeh Yeganeh; Carla G. Taylor; Jenna Poole; Leslee Tworek; Peter Zahradka (363-370).
Trans-10, cis-12 (t10-c12) CLA treatment reduces lipid accumulation in differentiating mouse and human adipocytes, and decreases fat mass in mice, yet the mechanism of action remains unknown.This study investigated the effect of the cis-9, trans-11 (c9-t11) and t10-c12 CLA isomers on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which has been reported to inhibit adipogenesis by down-regulating PPARγ.We observed that t10-c12 CLA treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes increases the levels of β-catenin and Ser-675 phosphorylated β-catenin due to inhibition of its degradation. These changes in β-catenin were not linked to either the Wnt/β-catenin agonist Wnt10b or other upstream effectors such as SFRP-5. Paradoxically, the presence of higher amounts of β-catenin did not elevate cyclin D1 levels, which is recognized as a critical target gene. Neither of the CLA isomers affected the localization of β-catenin in the cytosol and nucleus as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. However, subcellular fractionation suggested the level of cytosolic β-catenin was reduced in t10-c12 CLA treated cells. Immunoprecipitation revealed that t10-c12 CLA increased the interaction of β-catenin and PPARγ. t10-c12-CLA inhibits adipocyte differentiation by increasing β-catenin stability in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, thus enhancing sequestration of PPARγ in an inactive complex, which prevents progression of adipogenesis.
Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); Adipocytes; Wnt; β-Catenin; PPARγ; GSK3-β; Adipogenesis;

Characterization of a mutant form of human apolipoprotein B (Thr26_Tyr27del) associated with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia by Lucia Magnolo; Davide Noto; Angelo B. Cefalù; Maurizio Averna; Sebastiano Calandra; Zemin Yao; Patrizia Tarugi (371-379).
We have previously identified a deletion mutant of human apoB [apoB (Thr26_Tyr27del)] in a subject with primary hypobetalipoproteinemia. The present study determined the effect of Thr26_Tyr27del mutation on apoB secretion using transfected McA-RH7777 cells. Transient or stable transfection of apoB-48 containing the Thr26_Tyr27del mutation showed drastically reduced secretion of the mutant as compared to wild-type apoB-48. No lipoproteins containing the mutant apoB-48 were secreted into the medium. Incubation of transfected cells in a lipid-rich medium in the presence of cycloheximide showed rapid turnover of cell-associated mutant apoB-48 as compared to that of wild-type apoB-48. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that the mutant apoB-48 was mostly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Treatment with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 markedly attenuated the turnover of cell-associated mutant apoB-48, whereas treatment with inhibitors of autophagosomal/lysosomal function (e.g. 3-MA or ammonium chloride) had no effect. Taken together, these results indicated that the defective secretion of the Thr26_Tyr27del mutant was associated with increased intracellular degradation of apoB through the proteasome-dependent pathway.
Keywords: Apolipoprotein B mutation; Apolipoprotein B-48 secretion; Hypobetalipoproteinemia; Proteasomal degradation;

Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase the efficacy of docetaxel in mammary cancer cells by downregulating Akt and PKCε/δ-induced ERK pathways by Lucie Chauvin; Caroline Goupille; Charly Blanc; Michelle Pinault; Isabelle Domingo; Cyrille Guimaraes; Philippe Bougnoux; Stephan Chevalier; Karine Mahéo (380-390).
Taxanes can induce drug resistance by increasing signaling pathways such as PI3K/Akt and ERK, which promote survival and cell growth in human cancer cells. We have previously shown that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) decrease resistance of experimental mammary tumors to anticancer drugs. Our objective was to determine whether DHA could increase tumor sensitivity to docetaxel by down-regulating these survival pathways. In docetaxel-treated MDA-MB-231 cells, phosphorylated-ERK1/2 levels were increased by 60% in membrane and nuclear compartments, compared to untreated cells. Our data showed that ERK1/2 activation depended on PKC activation since: i) enzastaurin (a pan-PKC inhibitor) blocked docetaxel-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation ii) docetaxel increased PKC activity by 30% and phosphatidic acid level by 1.6-fold iii) inhibition of PKCε and PKCδ by siRNA resulted in reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. In DHA-supplemented cells, docetaxel was unable to increase PKCε and δ levels in membrane and nuclear fractions, resulting in diminished ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased docetaxel efficacy. Reduced membrane level of PKCε and PKCδ was associated with significant incorporation of DHA in all phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholine which is a major source of phosphatidic acid. Additionally, examination of the Akt pathway showed that DHA could repress docetaxel-induced Ser473Akt phosphorylation. In rat mammary tumors, dietary DHA supplementation during docetaxel chemotherapy repressed ERK and Akt survival pathways and in turn strongly improved taxane efficacy. The P-ERK level was negatively correlated with tumor regression. These findings are of potential clinical importance in treating chemotherapy-refractory cancer.
Keywords: n-3 LCPUFA; DHA; Docetaxel; Tumor sensitization; PKCε; PKCδ; ERK; Akt; Mammary tumors;