BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1861, #3)

Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a multifunctional homodimeric protein, and is the key enzyme required for the anabolic conversion of dietary carbohydrates to fatty acids. FAS synthesizes long-chain fatty acids from three substrates: acetyl-CoA as a primer, malonyl-CoA as a 2 carbon donor, and NADPH for reduction. The entire reaction is composed of numerous sequential steps, each catalyzed by a specific functional domain of the enzyme. FAS comprises seven different functional domains, among which the β-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain carries out the key condensation reaction to elongate the length of fatty acid chain. Acyl tail length controlled fatty acid synthesis in eukaryotes is a classic example of how a chain building multienzyme works. Different hypotheses have been put forward to explain how those sub-units of FAS are orchestrated to produce fatty acids with proper molecular weight. In the present study, molecular dynamic simulation based binding free energy calculation and access tunnels analysis showed that the C16 acyl tail fatty acid, the major product of FAS, fits to the active site on KS domain better than any other substrates. These simulations supported a new hypothesis about the mechanism of fatty acid production ratio: the geometric shape of active site on KS domain might play a determinate role.Display Omitted
Keywords: Fatty acid synthase (FAS); β-Ketoacyl synthase (KS); Binding free energy calculation; Fatty acid production ratio; Chain length;

Vitamin A deficiency suppresses high fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis and elevates resolvin D1 levels by Mooli Raja Gopal Reddy; Chodisetti Pavan Kumar; Malleswarapu Mahesh; Manchiryala Sravan Kumar; Surekha Mullapudi Venkata; Uday Kumar Putcha; Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari; Shanmugam M. Jeyakumar (156-165).
Vitamin A and its metabolites are known to regulate lipid metabolism. However so far, no study has assessed, whether vitamin A deficiency per se aggravates or attenuates the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, here, we tested the impact of vitamin A deficiency on the development of NAFLD.Male weanling Wistar rats were fed one of the following diets; control, vitamin A-deficient (VAD), high fructose (HFr) and VAD with HFr (VADHFr) of AIN93G composition, for 16 weeks, except half of the VAD diet-fed rats were shifted to HFr diet (VAD(s)HFr), at the end of 8th week.Animals fed on VAD diet with HFr displayed hypotriglyceridemia (33.5 mg/dL) with attenuated hepatic triglyceride accumulation (8.2 mg/g), compared with HFr diet (89.5 mg/dL and 20.6 mg/g respectively). These changes could be partly explained by the decreased activity of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and the down-regulation of stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), both at gene and protein levels, the key determinants of triglyceride biosynthesis. On the other hand, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid and its active metabolite; resolvin D1 (RvD1) levels were elevated in the liver and plasma of VAD diet-fed groups, which was negatively associated with triglyceride levels. All these factors confer vitamin A deficiency-mediated protection against the development of hepatic steatosis, which was also evident from the group shifted from VAD to HFr diet.Vitamin A deficiency attenuates high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis, by regulating triglyceride synthesis, possibly through GPDH, SCD1 and RvD1.
Keywords: Desaturase; Elongase; Fatty liver; Lipoxygenase; Glycogen; Inflammation;

The activation of hepatic kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is implicated in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. This study investigated the metabolic sequelae of mTORC1 hyperactivation in human hepatoma cells and the lipid-regulating mechanisms of two short-chain fatty acids: 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and (R)-α-lipoic acid (LA). We created three stable cell lines that exhibit low, normal, or high mTORC1 activity. mTORC1 hyperactivation induced the expression of lipogenic (DGAT1 and DGAT2) and lipoprotein assembly (MTP and APOB) genes, thereby raising cellular triacylglyceride (TG) and exacerbating secretion of apoB-containing TG-rich lipoproteins. LYS6K2, a specific inhibitor of the p70 S6 kinase branch of mTORC1 signaling, reversed these effects. PBA and LA decreased secreted TG through distinct mechanisms. PBA repressed apoB expression (both mRNA and protein) and lowered secreted TG without mitigation of mTORC1 hyperactivity or activation of AMPK. LA decreased cellular and secreted TG by attenuating mTORC1 signaling in an AMPK-independent manner. LA did not regulate apoB expression but led to the secretion of apoB-containing TG-poor lipoproteins by repressing the expression of lipogenic genes, FASN, DGAT1, and DGAT2. Our studies provide new mechanistic insight into the hypolipidemic activity of PBA and LA in the context of mTORC1 hyperactivation and suggest that the short-chain fatty acids may aid in the prevention and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.
Keywords: Tuberous sclerosis complex; Rapamycin; LYS6K2; VLDL; apoE; AMP-activated protein kinase;

BRET-monitoring of the dynamic changes of inositol lipid pools in living cells reveals a PKC-dependent PtdIns4P increase upon EGF and M3 receptor activation by József T. Tóth; Gergő Gulyás; Dániel J. Tóth; András Balla; Gerald R.V. Hammond; László Hunyady; Tamás Balla; Péter Várnai (177-187).
Deciphering many roles played by inositol lipids in signal transduction and membrane function demands experimental approaches that can detect their dynamic accumulation with subcellular accuracy and exquisite sensitivity. The former criterion is met by imaging of fluorescence biosensors in living cells, whereas the latter is facilitated by biochemical measurements from populations. Here, we introduce BRET-based biosensors able to detect rapid changes in inositol lipids in cell populations with both high sensitivity and subcellular resolution in a single, convenient assay. We demonstrate robust and sensitive measurements of PtdIns4P, PtdIns(4,5)P 2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 dynamics, as well as changes in cytoplasmic Ins(1,4,5)P 3 levels. Measurements were made during either experimental activation of lipid degradation, or PI 3-kinase and phospholipase C mediated signal transduction. Our results reveal a previously unappreciated synthesis of PtdIns4P that accompanies moderate activation of phospholipase C signaling downstream of both EGF and muscarinic M3 receptor activation. This signaling-induced PtdIns4P synthesis relies on protein kinase C, and implicates a feedback mechanism in the control of inositol lipid metabolism during signal transduction.
Keywords: Phosphoinositides; PI4-kinase; BRET; EGF receptor; GPCR; PKC;

Cholesterol-dependent conformational changes of P-glycoprotein are detected by the 15D3 monoclonal antibody by Zsuzsanna Gutay-Tóth; Ferenc Fenyvesi; Orsolya Bársony; Lajos Szente; Katalin Goda; Gábor Szabó; Zsolt Bacsó (188-195).
The 15D3 mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) binds an uncharacterized extracellular epitope of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter human P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Depletion of cell plasma membrane cholesterol by using methyl-β-cyclodextrin or other chemically modified β-cyclodextrins decreased the Pgp binding affinity of 15D3 mAb. UIC2 mAb, which is known to distinguish two conformers of this ABC transporter, binds only a fraction of cell surface Pgps. UIC2 mAb non-reactive pools of Pgp can be identified with other extracellular mAbs such as 15D3. Cyclosporin A (CsA) can shift non-reactive Pgps into their UIC2-reactive conformation: a phenomenon called the “UIC2 shift”. Competition studies proposed these two mAbs share overlapping epitopes and can reveal conformational changes of Pgp that correlate (r = 0.97) with the cholesterol content of cells. An apparent increase in competition of these mAbs suggested a conformational change similar to those found in the presence of CsA. However, the reason turned out not to be the UIC2-shift because cholesterol removal from the plasma membrane (PM) reduced the amount of detectable Pgps by 15D3 mAb. This study showed that 15D3 mAb bound to a conformation sensitive epitope of Pgp that was responsive to PM cholesterol levels. These conformational changes were gradual and not as great as the changes observed between the two conformers recognized by the UIC2 mAb.
Keywords: P-glycoprotein; Cyclodextrin; UIC2; 15D3; Antibody competition test; Flow cytometric detergent resistance; Conformation;

Streptococcal serum opacity factor promotes cholesterol ester metabolism and bile acid secretion in vitro and in vivo by Baiba K. Gillard; Perla J. Rodriguez; David W. Fields; Joe L. Raya; William R. Lagor; Corina Rosales; Harry S. Courtney; Antonio M. Gotto; Henry J. Pownall (196-204).
Plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations negatively correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. HDL is thought to have several atheroprotective functions, which are likely distinct from the epidemiological inverse relationship between HDL-C levels and risk. Specifically, strategies that reduce HDL-C while promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) may have therapeutic value. The major product of the serum opacity factor (SOF) reaction versus HDL is a cholesteryl ester (CE)-rich microemulsion (CERM), which contains apo E and the CE of ~ 400,000 HDL particles. Huh7 hepatocytes take up CE faster when delivered as CERM than as HDL, in part via the LDL-receptor (LDLR). Here we compared the final RCT step, hepatic uptake and subsequent intracellular processing to cholesterol and bile salts for radiolabeled HDL-, CERM- and LDL-CE by Huh7 cells and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice. In Huh7 cells, uptake from LDL was greater than from CERM (2–4X) and HDL (5–10X). Halftimes for [14C]CE hydrolysis were 3.0 ± 0.2, 4.4 ± 0.6 and 5.4 ± 0.7 h respectively for HDL, CERM and LDL-CE. The fraction of sterols secreted as bile acids was ~ 50% by 8 h for all three particles. HDL, CERM and LDL-CE metabolism in mice showed efficient plasma clearance of CERM-CE, liver uptake and metabolism, and secretion as bile acids into the gall bladder. This work supports the therapeutic potential of the SOF reaction, which diverts HDL-CE to the LDLR, thereby increasing hepatic CE uptake, and sterol disposal as bile acids.Display Omitted
Keywords: HDL function; Reverse cholesterol transport; Serum opacity factor; Cholesterol ester metabolism; Bile acid secretion; Huh7 human hepatocytes;

The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol dysregulates the synthesis of proteins by the human syncytiotrophoblast by M.A. Costa; B.M. Fonseca; A. Mendes; J. Braga; N.A. Teixeira; G. Correia-da-Silva (205-212).
In recent years, endocannabinoids emerged as new players in various reproductive events. Recently, we demonstrated the involvement of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in human cytotrophoblast apoptosis and syncytialization. However, 2-AG impact in hormone production by the syncytiotrophoblast (hST) was never studied. In this work, we demonstrate that 2-AG activates cannabinoid (CB) receptors, exerting an inhibitory action on cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 pathways, and enhancing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, 2-AG affects the synthesis of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), leptin, aromatase, 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-β-HSD), and placental protein 13 (PP13). These 2-AG effects are mediated by the activation of CB receptors, in a mechanism that may involve p38, ERK 1/2 and cAMP/PKA pathways, which participate in the regulation of placental proteins expression.To our knowledge, this is the first study that associates the endocannabinoid signalling and endocrine placental function, shedding light on a role for 2-AG in the complex network of molecules that orchestrate the production of placental proteins essential for the gestational success.
Keywords: 2-Arachidonoylglycerol; Endocannabinoid signalling; Placental proteins; Human syncytiotrophoblast; Placenta;

Characterization of the S. cerevisiae inp51 mutant links phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate levels with lipid content, membrane fluidity and cold growth by Isaac Córcoles-Sáez; Maria Luisa Hernández; Jose Manuel Martínez-Rivas; Jose A. Prieto; Francisca Randez-Gil (213-226).
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its derivatives diphosphoinositol phosphates (DPIPs) play key signaling and regulatory roles. However, a direct function of these molecules in lipid and membrane homeostasis remains obscure. Here, we have studied the cold tolerance phenotype of yeast cells lacking the Inp51-mediated phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase. Genetic and biochemical approaches showed that increased metabolism of PI(4,5)P2 reduces the activity of the Pho85 kinase by increasing the levels of the DPIP isomer 1-IP7. This effect was key in the cold tolerance phenotype. Indeed, pho85 mutant cells grew better than the wild-type at 15 °C, and lack of this kinase abolished the inp51-mediated cold phenotype. Remarkably, reduced Pho85 function by loss of Inp51 affected the activity of the Pho85-regulated target Pah1, the yeast phosphatidate phosphatase. Cells lacking Inp51 showed reduced Pah1 abundance, derepression of an INO1-lacZ reporter, decreased content of triacylglycerides and elevated levels of phosphatidate, hallmarks of the pah1 mutant. However, the inp51 phenotype was not associated to low Pah1 activity since deletion of PAH1 caused cold sensitivity. In addition, the inp51 mutant exhibited features not shared by pah1, including a 40%-reduction in total lipid content and decreased membrane fluidity. These changes may influence the activity of membrane-anchored and/or associated proteins since deletion of INP51 slows down the transit to the vacuole of the fluorescent dye FM4-64. In conclusion, our work supports a model in which changes in the PI(4,5)P2 pool affect the 1-IP7 levels modulating the activity of Pho85, Pah1 and likely additional Pho85-controlled targets, and regulate lipid composition and membrane properties.
Keywords: Yeast; Inositol phosphates; Diphosphoinositol phosphates; IP7; Pho85; Pah1;

The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega − 3 (n − 3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n − 3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n − 3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n − 3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid.
Keywords: Omega − 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; Atlantic salmon; Land-locked; Desaturases; Elongases;

Identification of a triacylglycerol lipase in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum by Frederik Barka; Max Angstenberger; Tilman Ahrendt; Wolfram Lorenzen; Helge B. Bode; Claudia Büchel (239-248).
Diatoms accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage lipids, but the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism is still sparse. Starting from a partial sequence for a putative TAG-lipase of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum retrieved from the data bases, we have identified the full length coding sequence, tgl1. The gene encodes an 813 amino acid sequence that shows distinct motifs for so called “true” TAG-lipases [EC 3.1.1.3] that have been functionally characterized in model organisms like Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These lipases mediate the first initial step of TAG breakdown from storage lipids. To test whether Tgl1 can act as a TAG-lipase, a His-tagged version was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the protein indeed showed esterase activity. To identify the TAG degrading function of Tgl1 in P. tricornutum, knock-down mutant strains were created using an antisense RNA approach. In the mutant cell lines the relative tgl1-mRNA-level was reduced up to 20% of that of the wild type, accompanied by a strong increase of TAG in the lipid extracts. In spite of the TAG accumulation, the polar lipid species pattern appeared to be unchanged, confirming the TAG-lipase function of Tgl1.
Keywords: Antisense; Lipase; Lipids; Polyunsaturated fatty acids;

Lipid regulators of Pkh2 in Candida albicans, the protein kinase ortholog of mammalian PDK1 by Daniel Pastor-Flores; Jörg O. Schulze; Anna Bahí; Evelyn Süß; Antonio Casamayor; Ricardo M. Biondi (249-259).
Pkh is the yeast ortholog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1). Pkh phosphorylates the activation loop of Ypks, Tpks, Sch9 and also phosphorylates the eisosome components Lsp1 and Pil1, which play fundamental roles upstream of diverse signaling pathways, including the cell wall integrity and sphingosine/long-chain base (LCB) signaling pathways. In S. cerevisiae, two isoforms, ScPkh1 and ScPkh2, are required for cell viability, while only one ortholog exists in C. albicans, CaPkh2. In spite of the extensive information gathered on the role of Pkh in the LCB signaling, the yeast Pkh kinases are not known to bind lipids and previous studies did not identify PH domains in Pkh sequences. We now describe that the C-terminal region of CaPkh2 is required for its intrinsic kinase activity. In addition, we found that the C-terminal region of CaPkh2 enables its interaction with structural and signaling lipids. Our results further show that phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4 and 4,5)-biphosphates, and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate inhibit Pkh activity, whereas sulfatide binds with high affinity but does not affect the intrinsic activity of CaPkh2. Interestingly, we identified that its human ortholog PDK1 also binds to sulfatide. We propose a mechanism by which lipids and dihydrosphingosine regulate CaPkh2 kinase activity by modulating the interaction of the C-terminal region with the kinase domain, while sulfatide-like lipids support localization CaPkh2 mediated by a C-terminal PH domain, without affecting kinase intrinsic activity.
Keywords: Budding yeast; C. albicans; Pkh; PDK1; Cell wall integrity; Allostery; Sphingosine; PHS; DHS; PI(3,4)P2; PI(4,5)P2; PI(3,4,5)P3; PIP3; Sulfatide; Phosphatidic acid; Phosphatidylserine; Phosphatidylethanolamine; Phosphatidylcholine;

Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on chemerin secretion in 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes by Pedro L. Prieto-Hontoria; Patricia Pérez-Matute; Marta Fernández-Galilea; Miguel López-Yoldi; Christopher J. Sinal; J. Alfredo Martínez; María J. Moreno-Aliaga (260-268).
Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and insulin resistance. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) has shown beneficial properties on diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of α-LA on chemerin production in adipocytes in absence or presence of TNF-α, insulin and AICAR. The potential signaling pathways involved in α-LA effects on chemerin were also analyzed. α-LA actions on chemerin were tested in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in some cases in human subcutaneous and omental adipocytes. Chemerin mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR and the amount of chemerin secreted to culture media was determined by ELISA. α-LA induced a concentration-dependent inhibition on both chemerin secretion and mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The AMPK activator AICAR and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abrogated both chemerin secretion and gene expression, and further potentiated the inhibitory effect of α-LA on chemerin secretion. Insulin was able to partially reverse the inhibitory action of α-LA on chemerin secretion. α-LA also reduced basal chemerin secretion in both subcutaneous and omental adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects. Moreover, α-LA was able to abolish the stimulatory effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α on chemerin secretion. Our data demonstrated the ability of α-LA to inhibit chemerin production, an adipokine associated to obesity and metabolic syndrome, suggesting that the reduction of chemerin could contribute to the antiobesity/antidiabetic properties described for α-LA.
Keywords: Lipoic acid; Obesity; Chemerin; Adipocytes;