BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1851, #5)

Transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2)-induced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression requires sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5 (S1P5) in human mesangial cells by Christin Wünsche; Alexander Koch; Roel Goldschmeding; Stephanie Schwalm; Dagmar Meyer zu Heringdorf; Andrea Huwiler; Josef Pfeilschifter (519-526).
Transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) is well known to stimulate the expression of pro-fibrotic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in several cell types including human mesangial cells. The present study demonstrates that TGF-β2 enhances sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5 (S1P5) mRNA and protein expression in a time and concentration dependent manner. Pharmacological and siRNA approaches reveal that this upregulation is mediated via activation of classical TGF-β downstream effectors, Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Most notably, inhibition of Gi with pertussis toxin and downregulation of S1P5 by siRNA block TGF-β2-stimulated upregulation of CTGF, demonstrating that Gi coupled S1P5 is necessary for TGF-β2-triggered expression of CTGF in human mesangial cells. Overall, these findings indicate that TGF-β2 dependent upregulation of S1P5 is required for the induction of pro-fibrotic CTGF by TGF-β. Targeting S1P5 might be an attractive novel approach to treat renal fibrotic diseases.
Keywords: Sphingosine 1-phosphate; S1P receptor; Transforming growth factor β2; Connective tissue growth factor; Human mesangial cell; Kidney;

Lipid abnormalities in alpha/beta2-syntrophin null mice are independent from ABCA1 by Tobias Hebel; Kristina Eisinger; Markus Neumeier; Lisa Rein-Fischboeck; Rebekka Pohl; Elisabeth M. Meier; Alfred Boettcher; Stanley C. Froehner; Marvin E. Adams; Gerhard Liebisch; Sabrina Krautbauer; Christa Buechler (527-536).
The syntrophins alpha (SNTA) and beta 2 (SNTB2) are molecular adaptor proteins shown to stabilize ABCA1, an essential regulator of HDL cholesterol. Furthermore, SNTB2 is involved in glucose stimulated insulin release. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are characteristic features of the metabolic syndrome, a serious public health problem with rising prevalence. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of the syntrophins herein. Mice deficient for both syntrophins (SNTA/B2 −/−) have normal insulin and glucose tolerance, hepatic ABCA1 protein and cholesterol. When challenged with a HFD, wild type and SNTA/B2 −/− mice have similar weight gain, adiposity, serum and liver triglycerides. Hepatic ABCA1, serum insulin and insulin sensitivity are normal while glucose tolerance is impaired. Liver cholesterol is reduced, and expression of SREBP2 and HMG-CoA-R is increased in the knockout mice. Scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI) protein is strongly diminished in the liver of SNTA/B2 −/− mice while SR-BI binding protein NHERF1 is not changed and PDZK1 is even induced. Knock-down of SNTA, SNTB2 or both has no effect on hepatocyte SR-BI and PDZK1 proteins. Further, SR-BI levels are not reduced in brown adipose tissue of SNTA/B2 −/− mice excluding that syntrophins directly stabilize SR-BI. SR-BI stability is regulated by MAPK and phosphorylated ERK2 is induced in the liver of the knock-out mice. Blockage of ERK activity upregulates hepatocyte SR-BI showing that increased MAPK activity contributes to low SR-BI. Sphingomyelin which is well described to regulate cholesterol metabolism is reduced in the liver and serum of the knock-out mice while the size of serum lipoproteins is not affected. Current data exclude a major function of these syntrophins in ABCA1 activity and insulin release but suggest a role in regulating glucose uptake, ERK and SR-BI levels, and sphingomyelin metabolism in obesity.
Keywords: Scavenger receptor B-I; Liver; Glucose tolerance test; Insulin; Sphingomyelin;

Glycerophosphodiesterase GDE4 as a novel lysophospholipase D: a possible involvement in bioactive N-acylethanolamine biosynthesis by Kazuhito Tsuboi; Yoko Okamoto; Iffat Ara Sonia Rahman; Toru Uyama; Tomohito Inoue; Akira Tokumura; Natsuo Ueda (537-548).
Bioactive N-acylethanolamines include anti-inflammatory palmitoylethanolamide, anorexic oleoylethanolamide, and an endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide). In animal tissues, these molecules are biosynthesized from N-acylethanolamine phospholipids directly by phospholipase D-type enzyme or through multi-step routes via N-acylethanolamine lysophospholipids. We previously found that mouse brain has a lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity hydrolyzing N-acylethanolamine lysophospholipids to N-acylethanolamines and that this activity could be partially attributed to glycerophosphodiesterase (GDE) 1. In the present study, we examined catalytic properties of GDE4, another member of the GDE family. When overexpressed in HEK293 cells, murine GDE4 mostly resided in the membrane fraction. Purified GDE4 showed lysoPLD activity toward various lysophospholipids, including N-acylethanolamine lysophospholipids as well as lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylcholine. When HEK293 cells were metabolically labeled with N-[14C]palmitoylethanolamine lysophospholipid, the transient expression of GDE4 increased the [14C]palmitoylethanolamide level, while the knockdown of endogenous GDE4 decreased this level. These results suggested that GDE4 functions as an N-acylethanolamine-generating lysoPLD in living cells. Moreover, the expression of GDE4 increased most species of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which can be produced from various lysophospholipids by the lysoPLD activity of GDE4. GDE4 mRNA was widely distributed among mouse tissues including brain, stomach, ileum, colon, and testis. In conclusion, GDE4 may act as a lysoPLD, which is involved in the generation of N-acylethanolamines and LPA.Display Omitted
Keywords: N-Acylethanolamine; Endocannabinoid; Glycerophosphodiesterase; Lysophosphatidic acid; Lysophospholipase D; Phospholipid;

Palmitate activation by fatty acid transport protein 4 as a model system for hepatocellular apoptosis and steatosis by Jessica Seeßle; Gerhard Liebisch; Gerd Schmitz; Wolfgang Stremmel; Walee Chamulitrat (549-565).
Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 is a minor FATP in the liver but it has some activity towards palmitate 16:0 (Pal). We here chose FATP4 as a representative model enzyme for acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), and FATPs to determine whether Pal activation would lead to apoptosis and alteration in lipid metabolism. By using FATP4 overexpressed (FATP4) Huh-7 cells, we showed that FATP4 was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria of FATP4 cells. FATP4 cells were more responsive to Pal than the control GFP cells in increasing palmitoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA activities as well as apoptosis by ~ 2–3 folds. The lipoapoptosis susceptibility by FATP4 was coupled with the increased JNK, PUMA, caspase3, PARP-1 activation as well as Rac-1-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization, and decreased insulin sensitivity. This was associated with increased contents of neutral lipids and significant alteration in composition of phospholipids and sphingolipids including increased lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), ceramide, and hexosylceramide, as well as an increase of saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in LPC and PC, but a decrease of this ratio in phosphatidylethanolamine pool. By use of ceramide synthase inhibitors, our results showed that FATP4-sensitized lipoapoptosis was not mediated by ceramides. Moreover, FATP4 expression was increased in fatty livers in vivo. Thus, our model system has provided a clue that Pal activation FATP4 triggers hepatocellular apoptosis via altered phospholipid composition and steatosis by acylation into complex lipids. This may be a redundant mechanism for other ER-localizing ACSs and FATPs in the liver, and hence their involvement in the development of fatty liver disease.
Keywords: Fatty acid transport protein 4; Lipoapoptosis; Steatosis; Lipidomics; Fatty acyl-CoA; Saturated fatty acid;

Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting alter hepatic lipid droplet proteome and diacylglycerol species and prevent diabetes in NZO mice by Christian Baumeier; Daniel Kaiser; Jörg Heeren; Ludger Scheja; Clara John; Christoph Weise; Murat Eravci; Merit Lagerpusch; Gunnar Schulze; Hans-Georg Joost; Robert Wolfgang Schwenk; Annette Schürmann (566-576).
Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are known to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in several species including humans. The aim of this study was to unravel potential mechanisms by which these interventions improve insulin sensitivity and protect from type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese mice were either 10% calorie restricted (CR) or fasted every other day (IF), and compared to ad libitum (AL) fed control mice. AL mice showed a diabetes prevalence of 43%, whereas mice under CR and IF were completely protected against hyperglycemia. Proteomic analysis of hepatic lipid droplets revealed significantly higher levels of PSMD9 (co-activator Bridge-1), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitor factor), TCEB2 (transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2), ACY1 (aminoacylase 1) and FABP5 (fatty acid binding protein 5), and a marked reduction of GSTA3 (glutathione S-transferase alpha 3) in samples of CR and IF mice. In addition, accumulation of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was significantly reduced in livers of IF mice (P = 0.045) while CR mice showed a similar tendency (P = 0.062). In particular, 9 DAG species were significantly reduced in response to IF, of which DAG-40:4 and DAG-40:7 also showed significant effects after CR. This was associated with a decreased PKCε activation and might explain the improved insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, our data indicate that protection against diabetes upon caloric restriction and intermittent fasting associates with a modulation of lipid droplet protein composition and reduction of intracellular DAG species.
Keywords: Caloric restriction; Diacylglycerol; Fatty acid oxidation; Insulin resistance; Intermittent fasting; Lipid droplet proteome;

PPARδ activation induces hepatic long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 expression in vivo and in vitro by Chin Fung Kelvin Kan; Amar Bahadur Singh; Bin Dong; Vikram Ravindra Shende; Jingwen Liu (577-587).
The arachidonic acid preferred long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) is a key enzyme for fatty acid metabolism in various metabolic tissues. In this study, we utilized hamsters fed a normal chow diet, a high-fat diet or a high cholesterol and high fat diet (HCHFD) as animal models to explore novel transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for ACSL4 expression under hyperlipidemic conditions. Through cloning hamster ACSL4 homolog and tissue profiling ACSL4 mRNA and protein expressions we observed a selective upregulation of ACSL4 in testis and liver of HCHFD fed animals. Examination of transcriptional activators of the ACSL family revealed an increased hepatic expression of PPARδ but not PPARα in HCHFD fed hamsters. To explore a role of PPARδ in dietary cholesterol-mediated upregulation of ACSL4, we administered a PPARδ specific agonist L165041 to normolipidemic and dyslipidemic hamsters. We observed significant increases of hepatic ACSL4 mRNA and protein levels in all L165041-treated hamsters as compared to control animals. The induction of ACSL4 expression by L165041 in liver tissue in vivo was recapitulated in human primary hepatocytes and hepatocytes isolated from hamster and mouse. Moreover, employing the approach of adenovirus-mediated gene knockdown, we showed that depletion of PPARδ in hamster hepatocytes specifically reduced ACSL4 expression. Finally, utilizing HepG2 as a model system, we demonstrate that PPARδ activation leads to increased ACSL4 promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and consequently higher arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase activity. Taken together, we have discovered a novel PPARδ-mediated regulatory mechanism for ACSL4 expression in liver tissue and cultured hepatic cells.
Keywords: ACSL4; PPARδ; Hamsters; Dietary cholesterol; Dyslipidemia; NAFLD;

The present study presents the first “in vivo” evidence of enzymatic activity and nutritional regulation of a Δ4-desaturase-dependent DHA synthesis pathway in the teleost Solea senegalensis. Juvenile fish were fed diets containing 2 lipid levels (8 and 18%, LL and HL) with either 100% fish oil (FO) or 75% of the FO replaced by vegetable oils (VOs). Fatty acyl elongation (Elovl5) and desaturation (Δ4Fad) activities were measured in isolated enterocytes and hepatocytes incubated with radiolabeled α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n − 3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n − 3). Tissue distributions of elovl5 and Δ4fad transcripts were also determined, and the transcriptional regulation of these genes in liver and intestine was assessed at fasting and postprandially. DHA biosynthesis from EPA occurred in both cell types, although Elovl5 and Δ4Fad activities tended to be higher in hepatocytes. In contrast, no Δ6Fad activity was detected on 14C-ALA, which was only elongated to 20:3n − 3. Enzymatic activities and gene transcription were modulated by dietary lipid level (LL > HL) and fatty acid (FA) composition (VO > FO), more significantly in the liver than in the intestine, which was reflected in tissue FA compositions. Dietary VO induced a significant up-regulation of Δ4fad transcripts in the liver 6 h after feeding, whereas in fasting conditions the effect of lipid level possibly prevailed over or interacted with FA composition in regulating the expression of elovl5 and Δ4fad, which were down-regulated in the liver of fish fed the HL diets. Results indicated functionality and biological relevance of the Δ4 LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway in S. senegalensis.
Keywords: DHA; Polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis; Desaturation and elongation activity; Nutritional regulation; Dietary lipid level; Fatty acid composition;

Chylomicron remnant model emulsions induce intracellular cholesterol accumulation and cell death due to lysosomal destabilization by Kyoko Wakita; Shin-ya Morita; Naoko Okamoto; Eriko Takata; Tetsurou Handa; Minoru Nakano (598-604).
Chylomicron remnants, which carry dietary fats and cholesterol, play a role in promoting atherosclerosis. Chylomicron remnants are characterized by high cholesterol content at the surface, different from low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) containing high amounts of esterified cholesterol (CE) in the core. We prepared cholesterol-rich emulsions (TO–PC/cholesterol emulsions) as models for chylomicron remnants and compared their effects on J774 macrophages with acetylated-LDL (ac-LDL). Internalization of TO–PC/cholesterol emulsions into macrophages reduced cell viability, whereas ac-LDL did not. Surprisingly, there was no difference in intracellular free cholesterol content between cells incubated with TO–PC/cholesterol emulsions and with ac-LDL. Furthermore, cholesterol in TO–PC/cholesterol emulsions and ac-LDL both were internalized into J774 macrophages; however, incubation with TO–PC/cholesterol emulsions induced leakage of lysosomal protease, cathepsin-L, to cytosol, which was not observed for incubation with ac-LDL. Inhibition of the activity of cathepsin-L recovered the viability of macrophages that ingested TO–PC/cholesterol emulsions. We suggest an alternative fate of cholesterol-rich emulsions taken up by macrophages, which is different from other atherogenic lipoproteins rich in CE; internalization of TO–PC/cholesterol emulsions into macrophages induces rapid free cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes and cell death due to lysosomal destabilization.
Keywords: ac-LDL; Apolipoprotein E; Cathepsin-L; J774 macrophages;

Accumulation of 7-ketocholesterol (7KCh) in tissues has been previously associated with various chronic aging diseases. Orally ingested 7KCh is readily metabolized by the liver and does not pose a toxicity threat. However, 7KCh formed in situ, usually associated with lipoprotein deposits, can adversely affect surrounding tissues by causing inflammation and cytotoxicity. In this study we have investigated various mechanisms for extra-hepatic metabolism of 7KCh (e.g. hydroxylation, sulfation) and found only esterification to fatty acids. The esterification of 7KCh to fatty acids involves the combined action of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) and sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT1). Inhibition of either one of these enzymes ablates 7KCh-fatty acid ester (7KFAE) formation. The 7KFAEs are not toxic and do not induce inflammatory responses. However, they can be unstable and re-release 7KCh. The higher the degree of unsaturation, the more unstable the 7KFAE (e.g. 18:0 > 18:1 > 18:2 > 18:3 ≫ 20:4). Biochemical inhibition and siRNA knockdown of SOAT1 and cPLA2α ablated the 7KFAE synthesis in cultured ARPE19 cells, but had little effect on the 7KCh-induced inflammatory response. Overexpression of SOAT1 reduced the 7KCh-induced inflammatory response and provided some protection from cell death. This effect is likely due to the increased conversion of 7KCh to 7KFAEs, which reduced the intracellular 7KCh levels. Addition of HDL selectively increased the efflux of 7KFAEs and enhanced the effect of SOAT1 overexpression. Our data suggests an additional function for HDL in aiding extra-hepatic tissues to eliminate 7KCh by returning 7KFAEs to the liver for bile acid formation.
Keywords: 7-Ketocholesterol; 7-Ketocholesterol fatty acid ester; SOAT1; cPLA2α; HDL; Cultured RPE cell;

The past decade, membrane signaling lipids emerged as major regulators of ion channel function. However, the molecular nature of lipid binding to ion channels remained poorly described due to a lack of structural information and assays to quantify and measure lipid binding in a membrane. How does a lipid–ligand bind to a membrane protein in the plasma membrane, and what does it mean for a lipid to activate or regulate an ion channel? How does lipid binding compare to activation by soluble neurotransmitter? And how does the cell control lipid agonism? This review focuses on lipids and their interactions with membrane proteins, in particular, ion channels. I discuss the intersection of membrane lipid biology and ion channel biophysics. A picture emerges of membrane lipids as bona fide agonists of ligand-gated ion channels. These freely diffusing signals reside in the plasma membrane, bind to the transmembrane domain of protein, and cause a conformational change that allosterically gates an ion channel. The system employs a catalog of diverse signaling lipids ultimately controlled by lipid enzymes and raft localization. I draw upon pharmacology, recent protein structure, and electrophysiological data to understand lipid regulation and define inward rectifying potassium channels (Kir) as a new class of PIP2 lipid-gated ion channels.Display Omitted
Keywords: Lipid gated; Ion channel; PIP2; Signaling lipid; G-protein; Lipid raft;

Five yeast enzymes synthesizing various glycerophospholipids belong to the CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase (CAPT) superfamily. They only share the so-called CAPT motif, which forms the active site of all these enzymes. Bioinformatic tools predict the CAPT motif of phosphatidylinositol synthase Pis1 as either ER luminal or cytosolic. To investigate the membrane topology of Pis1, unique cysteine residues were introduced into either native or a Cys-free form of Pis1 and their accessibility to the small, membrane permeating alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and mass tagged, non-permeating maleimides, in the presence and absence of non-denaturing detergents, was monitored. The results clearly point to a cytosolic location of the CAPT motif. Pis1 is highly sensitive to non-denaturing detergent, and low concentrations (0.05%) of dodecylmaltoside change the accessibility of single substituted Cys in the active site of an otherwise cysteine free version of Pis1. Slightly higher detergent concentrations inactivate the enzyme. Removal of the ER retrieval sequence from (wt) Pis1 enhances its activity, again suggesting an influence of the lipid environment. The central 84% of the Pis1 sequence can be aligned and fitted onto the 6 transmembrane helices of two recently crystallized archaeal members of the CAPT family. Results delineate the accessibility of different parts of Pis1 in their natural context and allow to critically evaluate the performance of different cysteine accessibility methods. Overall the results show that cytosolically made inositol and CDP-diacylglycerol can access the active site of the yeast PI synthase Pis1 from the cytosolic side and that Pis1 structure is strongly affected by mild detergents.
Keywords: CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferases; Phosphatidylinositol; Topology; Cysteine accessibility; Lipid environment; Membrane protein;

Zonation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism — The diversity of its regulation and the benefit of modeling by J. Schleicher; C. Tokarski; E. Marbach; M. Matz-Soja; S. Zellmer; R. Gebhardt; S. Schuster (641-656).
A pronounced heterogeneity between hepatocytes in subcellular structure and enzyme activities was discovered more than 50 years ago and initiated the idea of metabolic zonation. In the last decades zonation patterns of liver metabolism were extensively investigated for carbohydrate, nitrogen and lipid metabolism. The present review focuses on zonation patterns of the latter. We review recent findings regarding the zonation of fatty acid uptake and oxidation, ketogenesis, triglyceride synthesis and secretion, de novo lipogenesis, as well as bile acid and cholesterol metabolism. In doing so, we expose knowledge gaps and discuss contradictory experimental results, for example on the zonation pattern of fatty acid oxidation and de novo lipogenesis. Thus, possible rewarding directions of further research are identified. Furthermore, recent findings about the regulation of metabolic zonation are summarized, especially regarding the role of hormones, nerve innervation, morphogens, gender differences and the influence of the circadian clock. In the last part of the review, a short collection of models considering hepatic lipid metabolism is provided. We conclude that modeling, despite its proven benefit for understanding of hepatic carbohydrate and ammonia metabolisms, has so far been largely disregarded in the study of lipid metabolism; therefore some possible fields of modeling interest are presented.
Keywords: Fatty acid metabolism; Liver; Metabolic zonation;

QRFP (RFamide) peptides are neuropeptides involved in food intake and adiposity regulation in rodents. We have previously shown that QRFP-43 (43RFa) and QRFP-26 (26RFa) inhibited isoproterenol (ISO)-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. However, the antilipolytic signaling pathways activated by QRFP peptides have not been investigated. In the present study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to identify the main pathways involved in QRFP-43 decreasing ISO-induced lipolysis. Our results show that QRFP-43 reduced ISO-induced phosphorylation of perilipin A (PLIN) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) on Ser660 by 43 and 25%, respectively, but increased Akt phosphorylation by 44%. However, the inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), a regulator of lipolysis activated by Akt, did not reverse the antilipolytic effect of QRFP-43. PDE3B inhibition reversed the decrease of Ser660 HSL phosphorylation associated with QRFP-43 antilipolytic effect. QRFP-43 also prevented PKC activation and ISO-induced Src kinases activation leading to the inhibition of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) translocation on lipid droplets. Indeed, QRFP-43 attenuated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced lipolysis and ISO-induced extracellular signal-regulated and Src kinases by 28, 37 and 48%, respectively. The attenuation of ISO-induced lipolysis by QRFP-43 was associated with a decrease of phosphorylated Ser660 HSL, PKA-catalytic (PKA-c) subunit and CAV-1 translocation on lipid droplets by 37, 50 and 46%, respectively. The decrease in ISO-induced CAV-1 and PKA-c translocation was associated with a reduction of PLIN phosphorylation by 44% in QRFP-43-treated adipocytes. These results suggest that QRFP-43 attenuated ISO-induced lipolysis by preventing the formation of an active complex on lipid droplets and the activation of Src kinases and PKC.
Keywords: RFamide peptides; Adrenergic receptors; Lipolysis; Adipocytes; Protein kinases; Caveolins;

Feedback regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis provides a mechanism to adapt to varying cholesterol input while maintaining rather constant serum and tissue cholesterol levels. The molecular mechanisms by which this occurs have been the subject of extensive investigation. This review focuses on the physiological mechanisms by which this regulation occurs. In animals that are sensitive to dietary cholesterol such as Golden Syrian hamsters, feedback regulation occurs mainly at the level of transcription of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase). In animals like the Sprague Dawley rat that are resistant to the serum cholesterol raising action of dietary cholesterol, regulation occurs mainly at the level of translation efficiency of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. Oxylanosterols were shown to effectively decrease translation of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA. Dietary cholesterol acts to significantly lower transcription of squalene epoxidase and lanosterol 14α demethylase favoring accumulation of the putative regulatory oxylanosterol-3β-hydroxylanosterol-8-en-32-al. Thus, decreased transcription of enzymes occurring late in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway appears to result in decreased translation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA. These findings indicate that pronounced physiological feedback regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis in cholesterol resistant animals occurs at the level of translational efficiency without substantial reduction in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase transcription.
Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase; Cholesterol biosynthesis; Physiological feedback regulation; Oxylanosterols; Translational efficiency; Lanosterol 14α demethylase;

Effects of 5α-cholestan-3-one on the synaptic vesicle cycle at the mouse neuromuscular junction by M.R. Kasimov; A.R. Giniatullin; A.L. Zefirov; A.M. Petrov (674-685).
We have investigated the effects of 5α-cholesten-3-one (5Ch3, 200 nM) on synaptic transmission in mouse diaphragm. 5Ch3 had no impact on the amplitude or frequency of miniature endplate currents (MEPCs, spontaneous secretion), but decreased the amplitude of EPCs (evoked secretion) triggered by single action potentials. Treatment with 5Ch3 increased the depression of EPC amplitude and slowed the unloading of the dye FM1-43 from synaptic vesicles (exocytosis rate) during high-frequency stimulation. The estimated recycling time of vesicles did not change, suggesting that the decline of synaptic efficiency was due to the reduction in the size of the population of vesicles involved in release. The effects of 5Ch3 on synaptic transmission may be related to changes in the phase properties of the membrane. We have found that 5Ch3 reduces the staining of synaptic regions with the B-subunit of cholera toxin (a marker of lipid rafts) and increases the fluorescence of 22-NBD-cholesterol, indicating a phase change within the membrane. Manipulations of membrane cholesterol (saturation or depletion) strongly reduced the influence of 5Ch3 on both FM1-43 dye unloading and staining with the B-subunit of cholera toxin. Thus, 5Ch3 reduces the number of vesicles which are actively recruited during synaptic transmission and alters membrane properties. These effects of 5Ch3 depend on membrane cholesterol.
Keywords: 5α-cholestan-3-one; Cholesterol; Synaptic vesicle cycle; Neuromuscular junction; Neurotransmitter release; Lipid raft;

Role of developmental transcription factors in white, brown and beige adipose tissues by Catriona Hilton; Fredrik Karpe; Katherine E. Pinnick (686-696).
In this review we discuss the role of developmental transcription factors in adipose tissue biology with a focus on how these developmental genes may contribute to regional variation in adipose tissue distribution and function. Regional, depot-specific, differences in lipid handling and signalling (lipolysis, lipid storage and adipokine/lipokine signalling) are important determinants of metabolic health. At a cellular level, preadipocytes removed from their original depot and cultured in vitro retain depot-specific functional properties, implying that these are intrinsic to the cells and not a function of their environment in situ. High throughput screening has identified a number of developmental transcription factors involved in embryological development, including members of the Homeobox and T-Box gene families, that are strongly differentially expressed between regional white adipose tissue depots and also between brown and white adipose tissue. However, the significance of depot-specific developmental signatures remains unclear. Developmental transcription factors determine body patterning during embryogenesis. The divergent developmental origins of regional adipose tissue depots may explain their differing functional characteristics. There is evidence from human genetics that developmental genes determine adipose tissue distribution: in GWAS studies a number of developmental genes have been identified as being correlated with anthropometric measures of adiposity and fat distribution. Additionally, compelling functional studies have recently implicated developmental genes in both white adipogenesis and the so-called ‘browning’ of white adipose tissue. Understanding the genetic and developmental pathways in adipose tissue may help uncover novel ways to intervene with the function of adipose tissue in order to promote health.
Keywords: Adipose tissue; Development; Transcription factor; Body fat distribution;