BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1851, #4)

Mammalian lipoxygenases and their biological relevance by Hartmut Kuhn; Swathi Banthiya; Klaus van Leyen (308-330).
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) form a heterogeneous class of lipid peroxidizing enzymes, which have been implicated not only in cell proliferation and differentiation but also in the pathogenesis of various diseases with major public health relevance. As other fatty acid dioxygenases LOXs oxidize polyunsaturated fatty acids to their corresponding hydroperoxy derivatives, which are further transformed to bioactive lipid mediators (eicosanoids and related substances). On the other hand, lipoxygenases are key players in the regulation of the cellular redox homeostasis, which is an important element in gene expression regulation. Although the first mammalian lipoxygenases were discovered 40 years ago and although the enzymes have been well characterized with respect to their structural and functional properties the biological roles of the different lipoxygenase isoforms are not completely understood. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge on the physiological roles of different mammalian LOX-isoforms and their patho-physiological function in inflammatory, metabolic, hyperproliferative, neurodegenerative and infectious disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Eicosanoid; Inflammation; Atherosclerosis; Cancer; Stroke; Infection;

5-Lipoxygenase, a key enzyme for leukotriene biosynthesis in health and disease by Olof Rådmark; Oliver Werz; Dieter Steinhilber; Bengt Samuelsson (331-339).
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) catalyzes two steps in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LTs), lipid mediators of inflammation derived from arachidonic acid. In this review we focus on 5-LOX biochemistry including 5-LOX interacting proteins and regulation of enzyme activity. LTs function in normal host defense, and have roles in many disease states where acute or chronic inflammation is part of the pathophysiology, as briefly summarized at the end of this chapter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".
Keywords: Arachidonic acid; Eicosanoid; Oxylipin; Inflammation;

Arachidonic acid can be oxygenated by a variety of different enzymes, including lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450s, and can be converted to a complex mixture of oxygenated products as a result of lipid peroxidation. The initial products in these reactions are hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HpETEs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) can be formed by the actions of various dehydrogenases on HETEs or by dehydration of HpETEs. Although a large number of different HETEs and oxo-ETEs have been identified, this review will focus principally on 5-oxo-ETE, 5S-HETE, 12S-HETE, and 15S-HETE. Other related arachidonic acid metabolites will also be discussed in less detail. 5-Oxo-ETE is synthesized by oxidation of the 5-lipoxygenase product 5S-HETE by the selective enzyme, 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase. It actions are mediated by the selective OXE receptor, which is highly expressed on eosinophils, suggesting that it may be important in eosinophilic diseases such as asthma. 5-Oxo-ETE also appears to stimulate tumor cell proliferation and may also be involved in cancer. Highly selective and potent OXE receptor antagonists have recently become available and could help to clarify its pathophysiological role. The 12-lipoxygenase product 12S-HETE acts by the GPR31 receptor and promotes tumor cell proliferation and metastasis and could therefore be a promising target in cancer therapy. It may also be involved as a proinflammatory mediator in diabetes. In contrast, 15S-HETE may have a protective effect in cancer. In addition to GPCRs, higher concentration of HETEs and oxo-ETEs can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and could potentially regulate a variety of processes by this mechanism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.Display Omitted
Keywords: Inflammation; Cancer; Asthma; 5-Oxo-ETE; OXE receptor; 12-HETE;

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are oxidized by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases to PUFA epoxides which function as potent lipid mediators. The major metabolic pathways of PUFA epoxides are incorporation into phospholipids and hydrolysis to the corresponding PUFA diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase stabilize PUFA epoxides and potentiate their functional effects. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) synthesized from arachidonic acid produce vasodilation, stimulate angiogenesis, have anti-inflammatory actions, and protect the heart against ischemia–reperfusion injury. EETs produce these functional effects by activating receptor-mediated signaling pathways and ion channels. The epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids synthesized from eicosapentaenoic acid and epoxydocosapentaenoic acids synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid are potent inhibitors of cardiac arrhythmias. Epoxydocosapentaenoic acids also inhibit angiogenesis, decrease inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and reduce tumor metastasis. These findings indicate that a number of the beneficial functions of PUFA may be due to their conversion to PUFA epoxides. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Arachidonic acid (AA); Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET); Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (EpETE); Epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (EpDPE);

The naturally occurring mammalian endocannabinoids possess biological attributes that extend beyond interaction with cannabinoid receptors. These extended biological properties are the result of oxidative metabolism of the principal mammalian endocannabinoids arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide; A-EA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Both endocannabinoids are oxidized by cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), but not by COX-1, to a series of prostaglandin derivatives (PGs) with quite different biological properties from those of the parent substrates. PG ethanolamides (prostamides, PG-EAs) and PG glyceryl esters (PG-Gs) are not only pharmacologically distinct from their parent endocannabinoids, they are distinct from the corresponding acidic PGs, and are differentiated from each other. Ethanolamides and glyceryl esters of the major prostanoids PGD2, PGE2, PGF, and PGI2 are formed by the various PG synthases, and thromboxane ethanolamides and glyceryl esters are not similarly produced. COX-2 is also of interest by virtue of its corollary central role in modulating endocannabinoid tone, providing a new therapeutic approach for treating pain and anxiety. Other major oxidative conversion pathways are provided for both A-EA and 2-AG by several lipoxygenases (LOXs), resulting in the formation of numerous hydroxyl metabolites. These do not necessarily represent inactivation pathways for endocannabinoids but may mimic or modulate the endocannabinoids or even display alternative pharmacology. Similarly, A-EA and 2-AG may be oxidized by P450 enzymes. Again a very diverse number of metabolites are formed, with either cannabinoid-like biological properties or an introduction of disparate pharmacology. The biological activity of epoxy and hydroxyl derivatives of the endocannabinoids remains to be fully elucidated. This review attempts to consolidate and compare the findings obtained to date in an increasingly important research area. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Anandamide; 2-Arachidonyl glycerol ester; Prostamide; Prostaglandin glyceryl ester; Lipoxygenase; Cytochrome P450 oxygenase; Cyclo-oxygenase-2;

Transcellular biosynthesis of eicosanoid lipid mediators by Valérie Capra; G. Enrico Rovati; Paolo Mangano; Carola Buccellati; Robert C. Murphy; Angelo Sala (377-382).
The synthesis of oxygenated eicosanoids is the result of the coordinated action of several enzymatic activities, from phospholipase A2 that releases the polyunsaturated fatty acids from membrane phospholipids, to primary oxidative enzymes, such as cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, to isomerases, synthases and hydrolases that carry out the final synthesis of the biologically active metabolites. Cells possessing the entire enzymatic machinery have been studied as sources of bioactive eicosanoids, but early on evidence proved that biosynthetic intermediates, albeit unstable, could move from one cell type to another. The biosynthesis of bioactive compounds could therefore be the result of a coordinated effort by multiple cell types that has been named transcellular biosynthesis of the eicosanoids. In several cases cells not capable of carrying out the complete biosynthetic process, due to the lack of key enzymes, have been shown to efficiently contribute to the final production of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and lipoxins. We will review in vitro studies, complex functional models, and in vivo evidences of the transcellular biosynthesis of eicosanoids and the biological relevance of the metabolites resulting from this unique biosynthetic pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Transcellular biosynthesis; Eicosanoids; Arachidonic acid; Lipoxygenases; Cyclooxygenases;

Pathophysiology of the hepoxilins by Cecil R. Pace-Asciak (383-396).
There is increasing evidence from various scientific groups that hepoxilins represent novel inflammatory mediators. In vitro studies have shown that the hepoxilins cause mobilization of intracellular calcium in human neutrophils, cause plasma leakage, and potently stimulate chemotaxis of human neutrophils. In vivo, the hepoxilin pathway is activated in conditions of inflammation, e.g. after pathogen infection, in inflamed conditions (psoriasis, arthritis), and hepoxilins promote inflammatory hyperalgesia and allodynia. Although much work has demonstrated an effect of hepoxilins on neutrophils, the hepoxilin pathway has been demonstrated in a variety of tissues, including the lung, brain, pituitary, pancreatic islets, skin, etc. A genetic defect linked to a deficiency in hepoxilin formation has been described and believed to be responsible for the scaly skin observed in ichthyosis. Despite their biological and chemical instability, the involvement of the hepoxilin pathway in pathology has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo through either isolation of the hepoxilins themselves (or their metabolites) or implied through the use of stable hepoxilin analogs. These analogs have additionally shown efficacy in animal models of lung fibrosis, cancer, thrombosis and diabetes. Research on these compounds has merely scratched the surface, but results published to date have suggested that the hepoxilin pathway is a distinct and novel pathway leading to inflammation and hepoxilin antagonists may provide the means of controlling early aspects of the acute inflammatory phase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Hepoxilin; Pathophysiology; Inflammation; Cancer;

Protectins and maresins: New pro-resolving families of mediators in acute inflammation and resolution bioactive metabolome by Charles N. Serhan; Jesmond Dalli; Romain A. Colas; Jeremy W. Winkler; Nan Chiang (397-413).
Acute inflammatory responses are protective, yet without timely resolution can lead to chronic inflammation and organ fibrosis. A systems approach to investigate self-limited (self-resolving) inflammatory exudates in mice and structural elucidation uncovered novel resolution phase mediators in vivo that stimulate endogenous resolution mechanisms in inflammation. Resolving inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes utilize DHA and other n− 3 EFA to produce three structurally distinct families of potent di- and trihydroxy-containing products, with several stereospecific potent mediators in each family. Given their potent and stereoselective picogram actions, specific members of these new families of mediators from the DHA metabolome were named D-series resolvins (Resolvin D1 to Resolvin D6), protectins (including protectin D1 –neuroprotectin D1), and maresins (MaR1 and MaR2). In this review, we focus on a) biosynthesis of protectins and maresins as anti-inflammatory–pro-resolving mediators; b) their complete stereochemical assignments and actions in vivo in disease models. Each pathway involves the biosynthesis of epoxide-containing intermediates produced from hydroperoxy-containing precursors from human leukocytes and within exudates. Also, aspirin triggers an endogenous DHA metabolome that biosynthesizes potent products in inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes, namely aspirin-triggered Neuroprotectin D1/Protectin D1 [AT-(NPD1/PD1)]. Identification and structural elucidation of these new families of bioactive mediators in resolution has opened the possibility of diverse patho-physiologic actions in several processes including infection, inflammatory pain, tissue regeneration, neuroprotection-neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and others. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Resolvin; Leukocyte; LC–MS–MS-based targeted lipid mediator metabolomics; Lipid mediator; Eicosanoid;

Prostaglandin E2-induced inflammation: Relevance of prostaglandin E receptors by Kohichi Kawahara; Hirofumi Hohjoh; Tomoaki Inazumi; Soken Tsuchiya; Yukihiko Sugimoto (414-421).
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the most typical lipid mediators produced from arachidonic acid (AA) by cyclooxygenase (COX) as the rate-limiting enzyme, and acts on four kinds of receptor subtypes (EP1–EP4) to elicit its diverse actions including pyrexia, pain sensation, and inflammation. Recently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the PGE2 actions mediated by each EP subtype have been elucidated by studies using mice deficient in each EP subtype as well as several compounds highly selective to each EP subtype, and their findings now enable us to discuss how PGE2 initiates and exacerbates inflammation at the molecular level. Here, we review the recent advances in PGE2 receptor research by focusing on the activation of mast cells via the EP3 receptor and the control of helper T cells via the EP2/4 receptor, which are the molecular mechanisms involved in PGE2-induced inflammation that had been unknown for many years. We also discuss the roles of PGE2 in acute inflammation and inflammatory disorders, and the usefulness of anti-inflammatory therapies that target EP receptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Prostanoid; Mast cell; Irritant contact dermatitis; Helper T cell; Multiple sclerosis;

Cyclooxygenase inhibitors: From pharmacology to clinical read-outs by Paola Patrignani; Carlo Patrono (422-432).
Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is a prototypic cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. It was synthesized serendipitously from a natural compound, i.e., salicylic acid, with known analgesic activity. This chemical modification, obtained for the first time in an industrial environment in 1897, endowed aspirin with the unique capacity of acetylating and inactivating permanently COX-isozymes. Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs) were developed to mimic the pharmacological effects of aspirin, using aspirin-sensitive experimental models of pain and inflammation as the template for screening new chemical entities. Among the tNSAIDs, some were endowed with moderate COX- selectivity (e.g., diclofenac), but no studies of sufficient size and duration were performed to show any clinically relevant difference between different members of the class. Similarly, no serious attempts were made to unravel the mechanisms involved in the shared therapeutic and toxic effects of tNSAIDs until the discovery of COX-2. This led to characterizing their main therapeutic effects as being COX-2-dependent and their gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity as being COX-1-dependent, and provided a rationale for developing a new class of selective COX-2 inhibitors, the coxibs. This review will discuss the clinical pharmacology of tNSAIDs and coxibs, and the clinical read-outs of COX-isozyme inhibition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance.”
Keywords: NSAID; Coxib; COX-1; COX-2; Aspirin;

The isoprostanes—25 years later by Ginger L. Milne; Qi Dai; L. Jackson Roberts (433-445).
Isoprostanes (IsoPs) are prostaglandin-like molecules generated independent of the cyclooxygenase (COX) by the free radical-induced peroxidation of arachidonic acid. The first isoprostane species discovered were isomeric to prostaglandin F2α and were thus termed F2-IsoPs. Since the initial discovery of the F2-IsoPs, IsoPs with differing ring structures have been identified as well as IsoPs from different polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexanenoic acid. The discovery of these molecules in vivo in humans has been a major contribution to the field of lipid oxidation and free radical research over the course of the past 25 years. These molecules have been determined to be both biomarkers and mediators of oxidative stress in numerous disease settings. This review focuses on recent developments in the field with an emphasis on clinical research. Special focus is given to the use of IsoPs as biomarkers in obesity, ischemia-reperfusion injury, the central nervous system, cancer, and genetic disorders. Additionally, attention is paid to diet and lifestyle factors that can affect endogenous levels of IsoPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance.”
Keywords: Isoprostane; Oxidative stress; Biomarker; Lipid peroxidation; Mass spectrometry;

Non-enzymatic cyclic oxygenated metabolites of adrenic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic and α-linolenic acids; bioactivities and potential use as biomarkers by Jean-Marie Galano; Jetty Chung-Yung Lee; Cecile Gladine; Blandine Comte; Jean-Yves Le Guennec; Camille Oger; Thierry Durand (446-455).
Cyclic oxygenated metabolites are formed in vivo through non-enzymatic free radical reaction of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as arachidonic (ARA C20:4 n-6), adrenic (AdA 22:4 n-6), α-linolenic (ALA 18:3 n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA 22:6 n-3) acids. These cyclic compounds are known as isoprostanes, neuroprostanes, dihomo-isoprostanes and phytoprostanes. Evidence has emerged for their use as biomarkers of oxidative stress and, more recently, the n-3PUFA-derived compounds have been shown to mediate bioactivities as secondary messengers. Accordingly, this review will focus on the cyclic oxygenated metabolites generated from AdA, ALA, EPA and DHA. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Phytoprostanes; Dihomo-isoprostanes; Neuroprostanes; Isofurans; Biomarkers; Bioactive lipids;

Targeted lipidomic strategies for oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids by Giuseppe Astarita; Alexandra C. Kendall; Edward A. Dennis; Anna Nicolaou (456-468).
Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) through enzymatic or non-enzymatic free radical-mediated reactions can yield an array of lipid metabolites including eicosanoids, octadecanoids, docosanoids and related species. In mammals, these oxygenated PUFA mediators play prominent roles in the physiological and pathological regulation of many key biological processes in the cardiovascular, renal, reproductive and other systems including their pivotal contribution to inflammation. Mass spectrometry-based technology platforms have revolutionized our ability to analyze the complex mixture of lipid mediators found in biological samples, with increased numbers of metabolites that can be simultaneously quantified from a single sample in few analytical steps. The recent development of high-sensitivity and high-throughput analytical tools for lipid mediators affords a broader view of these oxygenated PUFA species, and facilitates research into their role in health and disease. In this review, we illustrate current analytical approaches for a high-throughput lipidomic analysis of eicosanoids and related mediators in biological samples. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance.”Display Omitted
Keywords: PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; Eicosanoid; Prostaglandin; Mass spectrometry; Lipidomics; Lipid mediator;

Inflammation is a condition which contributes to a range of human diseases. It involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators, and interactions. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n − 3) fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to partly inhibit a number of aspects of inflammation including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte–endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n − 6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines, and T-helper 1 lymphocyte reactivity. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of marine n − 3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked, although the full extent of this is not yet elucidated. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from marine n − 3 fatty acids in models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in RA demonstrate benefit, but clinical trials of fish oil in IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Inflammation; Eicosanoid; Cytokine; Resolvin; Macrophage; Lymphocyte;

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygenated metabolism in atherothrombosis by Michel Guichardant; Catherine Calzada; Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac; Michel Lagarde; Evelyne Véricel (485-495).
Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on some risk factors associated with atherothrombosis, including platelet activation, plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Special focus is given to the effects of marine PUFA on the formation of eicosanoids and docosanoids, and to the bioactive properties of some oxygenated metabolites of omega-3 PUFA produced by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The antioxidant effects of marine omega-3 PUFA at low concentrations and the pro-oxidant effects of DHA at high concentrations on the redox status of platelets and LDL are highlighted. Non enzymatic peroxidation end-products deriving from omega-3 PUFA such as hydroxy-hexenals, neuroketals and EPA-derived isoprostanes are also considered in relation to atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Platelets; Peroxidation; Dioxygenases; α-Linolenic acid; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid;

Influenza A viruses are the causative agents of seasonal and pandemic infections. Influenza strains have recently emerged that show resistance to anti-viral drugs. Moreover, therapies in critically ill patients with severe influenza are limited, with the current anti-viral drugs showing disappointing results even in the absence of obvious viral resistance. Given the high mortality associated with avian H5N1 or H7N9 infections and the risk of pandemic potentials, effective drugs are needed for the treatment of severe influenza. A virus–host interaction is a multidimensional host response, in which not only genes and protein but also metabolites are up- or down-regulated, and cellular pathways and networks implicated in the viral pathogenesis are perturbed. Thus, it seems an attractive strategy to overcome influenza by targeting host metabolites and/or metabolic pathways involved in viral pathogenesis. Using lipidomics and lipid libraries screening, potectin D1 isomer (PDX) derived from the 15-lipoxygenase product 17S-H(p)DHA and/or 17HDHA precursor, has recently been identified, which suppresses influenza virus replication by inhibiting the nuclear export of viral mRNA rather than regulating resolution of inflammation. Contribution of the protectins to control influenza virus replication and their therapeutic potentials are reviewed here. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
Keywords: Omega-3 PUFA; Protectins; Influenza virus infection;

Lipid signaling in adipose tissue: Connecting inflammation & metabolism by Mojgan Masoodi; Ondrej Kuda; Martin Rossmeisl; Pavel Flachs; Jan Kopecky (503-518).
Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to development of insulin resistance and other disorders. Accumulation of immune cells, especially macrophages, and macrophage polarization from M2 to M1 state, affect intrinsic WAT signaling, namely anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines, fatty acids (FA), and lipid mediators derived from both n− 6 and n− 3 long-chain PUFA such as (i) arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and endocannabinoids, and (ii) specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators including resolvins derived from both eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), lipoxins (AA metabolites), protectins and maresins (DHA metabolites). In this respect, potential differences in modulating adipocyte metabolism by various lipid mediators formed by inflammatory M1 macrophages typical of obese state, and non-inflammatory M2 macrophages typical of lean state remain to be established. Studies in mice suggest that (i) transient accumulation of M2 macrophages could be essential for the control of tissue FA levels during activation of lipolysis, (ii) currently unidentified M2 macrophage-borne signaling molecule(s) could inhibit lipolysis and re-esterification of lipolyzed FA back to triacylglycerols (TAG/FA cycle), and (iii) the egress of M2 macrophages from rebuilt WAT and removal of the negative feedback regulation could allow for a full unmasking of metabolic activities of adipocytes. Thus, M2 macrophages could support remodeling of WAT to a tissue containing metabolically flexible adipocytes endowed with a high capacity of both TAG/FA cycling and oxidative phosphorylation. This situation could be exemplified by a combined intervention using mild calorie restriction and dietary supplementation with EPA/DHA, which enhances the formation of “healthy” adipocytes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance."
Keywords: Healthy adipocyte; Futile substrate cycle; Macrophage; Lipid mediator; Omega-3 fatty acids; Calorie restriction;