BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1841, #12)

Sequestration of fatty acids in triglycerides prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress in an in vitro model of cardiomyocyte lipotoxicity by Madeleen Bosma; Dianne H. Dapito; Zoi Drosatos-Tampakaki; Ni Huiping-Son; Li-Shin Huang; Sander Kersten; Konstantinos Drosatos; Ira J. Goldberg (1648-1655).
We used human cardiomyocyte-derived cells to create an in vitro model to study lipid metabolism and explored the effects of PPARγ, ACSL1 and ATGL on fatty acid-induced ER stress. Compared to oleate, palmitate treatment resulted in less intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and more ER stress, as measured by upregulation of CHOP, ATF6 and GRP78 gene expression and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2a (EIF2a). Both ACSL1 and PPARγ adenovirus-mediated expression augmented neutral lipid accumulation and reduced palmitate-induced upregulation of ER stress markers to levels similar to those in the oleate and control treatment groups. This suggests that increased channeling of non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA) towards storage in the form of neutral lipids in lipid droplets protects against palmitate-induced ER stress. Overexpression of ATGL in cells incubated with oleate-containing medium increased NEFA release and stimulated expression of ER stress markers. Thus, inefficient creation of lipid droplets as well greater release of stored lipids induces ER stress.Display Omitted
Keywords: ER stress; Heart; Lipid; PPAR; ACSL1; Triglycerides;

The synthesis of the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA)  eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n− 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n − 3) from dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n − 3) requires three desaturation and three elongation steps in vertebrates. The elongation of EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n − 3) can be catalysed by the elongase enzymes Elovl5 or Elovl2, but further elongation of DPA to 24:5n − 3, the penultimate precursor of DHA, is limited to Elovl2, at least in mammals. Elovl5 enzymes have been characterised from seventeen fish species but Elovl2 enzymes have only been characterised in two of these fish. The essentiality of Elovl2 for DHA synthesis is unknown in fish. This study is the first to identify an Elovl2 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and functionally characterise the Elovl5 and Elovl2 using a yeast expression system. Elovl5 was active with C18–20 PUFA substrates and not C22 PUFA. In contrast, Elovl2 was active with C20–22 PUFA substrates and not C18 PUFA. Thus, rainbow trout is dependent on Elovl2 for DPA to 24:5n − 3 synthesis and ultimately DHA synthesis. The expression of elovl5 was significantly higher than elovl2 in liver. Elucidating this dependence on Elovl2 to elongate DPA and the low elovl2 gene expression compared with elovl5 are critical findings in understanding the potential for rainbow trout to synthesize DHA.
Keywords: Docosahexaenoic acid; Elongase; Omega-3; Polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis; Rainbow trout;

Phospholipase A2 regulation of lipid droplet formation by Carlos Guijas; Juan P. Rodríguez; Julio M. Rubio; María A. Balboa; Jesús Balsinde (1661-1671).
The classical regard of lipid droplets as mere static energy-storage organelles has evolved dramatically. Nowadays these organelles are known to participate in key processes of cell homeostasis, and their abnormal regulation is linked to several disorders including metabolic diseases (diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis or hepatic steatosis), inflammatory responses in leukocytes, cancer development and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, the importance of unraveling the cell mechanisms controlling lipid droplet biosynthesis, homeostasis and degradation seems evident. Phospholipase A2s, a family of enzymes whose common feature is to hydrolyze the fatty acid present at the sn-2 position of phospholipids, play pivotal roles in cell signaling and inflammation. These enzymes have recently emerged as key regulators of lipid droplet homeostasis, regulating their formation at different levels. This review summarizes recent results on the roles that various phospholipase A2 forms play in the regulation of lipid droplet biogenesis under different conditions. These roles expand the already wide range of functions that these enzymes play in cell physiology and pathophysiology.
Keywords: Phospholipase A2; Lipid droplet; Arachidonic acid; Lipid mediator; Inflammation;

Curcumin induces apoptosis of multidrug-resistant human leukemia HL60 cells by complex pathways leading to ceramide accumulation by Abo Bakr Abdel Shakor; Mona Atia; Ismail Ahmed Ismail; Ali Alshehri; Hesham El-Refaey; Katarzyna Kwiatkowska; Andrzej Sobota (1672-1682).
Most anti-cancer agents induce apoptosis, however, a development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells and defects in apoptosis contribute often to treatment failure. Here, the mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis was investigated in human leukemia HL60 cells and their HL60/VCR multidrug-resistant counterparts. In both cell lines curcumin induced a bi-phasic ceramide generation with a slow phase until 6 h followed by a more rapid one. The level of the ceramide accumulation correlated inversely with the cell viability. We found that the ceramide elevation resulted from multifarious changes of the activity of sphingolipid-modifying enzymes. In both cell lines curcumin induced relatively fast activation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase), which peaked at 3 h, and was followed by inhibition of sphingomyelin synthase activity. In addition, in HL60/VCR cells the glucosylceramide synthase activity was diminished by curcumin. This process was probably due to curcumin-induced down-regulation of P-gp drug transporter, since cyclosporine A, a P-gp blocker, also inhibited the glucosylceramide synthase activity. Inhibition of nSMase activity with GW4869 or silencing of SMPD3 gene encoding nSMase2 reversed the curcumin-induced inhibition of sphingomyelin synthase without affecting the glucosylceramide synthase activity. The early ceramide generation by nSMase was indispensable for the later lipid accumulation, modulation of Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase 3 levels, and for reduction of cell viability in curcumin-treated cells, as all these events were inhibited by GW4869 or nSMase2 depletion. These data indicate that the early ceramide generation by nSMase2 induced by curcumin intensifies the later ceramide accumulation via inhibition of sphingomyelin synthase, and controls pro-apoptotic signaling.
Keywords: Curcumin; HL60 cells; Multidrug resistance; Ceramide; Apoptosis;

Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), as an adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) activator, strongly increases ATGL-mediated triglyceride (TG) catabolism. Previous studies have shown that CGI-58 affects intestinal cholesterol homeostasis independently of ATGL activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that CGI-58 was involved in macrophage cholesterol metabolism and consequently atherosclerotic lesion formation. Here, we generated macrophage-specific CGI-58 transgenic mice (Mac-CGI-58 Tg) using an SRA promoter, which was further mated with ApoE −/− mice to create litters of CGI-58 Tg/ApoE −/− mice. These CGI-58 Tg/ApoE −/− mice exhibited an anti-atherosclerosis phenotype compared with wild type (WT) controls (CGI-58 WT/ApoE −/−), illustrated by less plaque area in aortic roots. Moreover, macrophage-specific CGI-58 overexpression in mice resulted in up-regulated levels of plasma total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Consequently, higher expression levels of PPARa, PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1, and ABCG1 were detected in macrophages from CGI-58 Tg/ApoE −/− mice compared to CGI-58 WT/ApoE −/− counterparts, which were accompanied by elevated macrophage cholesterol efflux toward HDL and Apo A1. Nevertheless, serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were reduced by macrophage-specific CGI-58 overexpression. Finally, bone marrow (BM) transplantation experiments further revealed that ApoE −/− mice reconstituted with Mac-CGI-58 Tg BM cells (ApoE −/−/Tg-BM chimera) displayed a significant reduction of atherosclerosis lesions compared with control mice reconstituted with Mac-CGI-58 WT BM cells (ApoE −/−/WT-BM chimera). Collectively, these data strongly suggest that CGI-58 overexpression in macrophages may protect against atherosclerosis development in mice.
Keywords: CGI-58; PPARs; Atherosclerosis; ApoE knockout mice;

Based on results from a signal sequence trap, we investigated chemerin gene expression in brown adipose tissue. Male NMRI mice were exposed to 30, 22 or 4 °C for 3 weeks, or were fed control (chow) diet, cafeteria diet or high-fat diet at thermoneutrality for the same time. In brown adipose tissue, cold acclimation strongly diminished chemerin gene expression, whereas obesogenic diets augmented expression. Qualitatively, changes in expression were paralleled in brite/beige adipose tissues (e.g. inguinal), whereas white adipose tissue (epididymal) and muscle did not react to these cues. Changes in tissue expression were not directly paralleled by alterations in plasma levels. Both these intact animal studies and brown adipocyte cell culture studies indicated that the gene expression regulation was not congruent with a sympathetic/adrenergic control. The data are discussed in relation to suggested endocrine, paracrine and autocrine effects of chemerin.
Keywords: Chemerin; UCP1; Non-shivering thermogenesis; High-fat diet; Cafeteria diet;

One precursor, three apolipoproteins: The relationship between two crustacean lipoproteins, the large discoidal lipoprotein and the high density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein by Stefanie Stieb; Ziv Roth; Christina Dal Magro; Sabine Fischer; Eric Butz; Amir Sagi; Isam Khalaila; Bernhard Lieb; Sven Schenk; Ulrich Hoeger (1700-1708).
The novel discoidal lipoprotein (dLp) recently detected in the crayfish, differs from other crustacean lipoproteins in its large size, apoprotein composition and high lipid binding capacity. We identified the dLp sequence by transcriptome analyses of the hepatopancreas and mass spectrometry. Further de novo assembly of the NGS data followed by BLAST searches using the sequence of the high density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein (HDL–BGBP) of Astacus leptodactylus as query revealed a putative precursor molecule with an open reading frame of 14.7 kb and a deduced primary structure of 4889 amino acids. The presence of an N-terminal lipid binding domain and a DUF 1943 domain suggests the relationship with the large lipid transfer proteins. Two putative dibasic furin cleavage sites were identified bordering the sequence of the HDL–BGBP. When subjected to mass spectroscopic analyses, tryptic peptides of the large apoprotein of dLp matched the N-terminal part of the precursor, while the peptides obtained for its small apoprotein matched the C-terminal part. Repeating the analysis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed a similar protein with identical domain architecture suggesting that our findings do not represent an isolated instance.Our results indicate that the above three apolipoproteins (i.e HDL–BGBP and both the large and the small subunit of dLp) are translated as a large precursor. Cleavage at the furin type sites releases two subunits forming a heterodimeric dLP particle, while the remaining part forms an HDL–BGBP whose relationship with other lipoproteins as well as specific functions are yet to be elucidated.Display Omitted
Keywords: Discoidal lipoprotein; High density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein; Lipoprotein precursor; Transcriptome analysis; Crustacea;

Psoriasis decreases the anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation properties of high-density lipoprotein by Lei He; Shucun Qin; Lin Dang; Guohua Song; Shutong Yao; Nana Yang; Yuzhen Li (1709-1715).
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which has been linked to dyslipidemia with potential functional impairment of lipoproteins. This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the biological activities of plasma lipoproteins in 25 patients with psoriasis and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls.In the present study, we found that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were decreased in the psoriasis group compared to healthy controls. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content in plasma, in HDL3 and in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were increased. However, the activity of plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) decreased in psoriasis and negatively correlated with the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Moreover, plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were increased in psoriasis and positively correlated with the PASI. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was increased in psoriasis, but did not reach significance when correlated with PASI. In vitro tests displayed that the functionalities of HDL3 isolated from psoriatic patients significantly decreased, which were assessed in four independent ways, namely (1) protection against LDL oxidation, (2) inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced monocyte adherence to endothelial cells, (3) prevention of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced monocyte migration, and (4) protection of endothelial cells from TNF-α induced apoptosis. Further, pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory properties of LDL isolated from psoriatic patients were increased. In conclusion, the biological activities of psoriatic lipoproteins are impaired in both HDL and LDL, which may provide a link between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Psoriasis; High-density lipoprotein; Anti-oxidative property; Anti-inflammation;

Fluorescence study of domain structure and lipid interaction of human apolipoproteins E3 and E4 by Chiharu Mizuguchi; Mami Hata; Padmaja Dhanasekaran; Margaret Nickel; Keiichiro Okuhira; Michael C. Phillips; Sissel Lund-Katz; Hiroyuki Saito (1716-1724).
Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoforms exhibit different conformational stabilities and lipid-binding properties that give rise to altered cholesterol metabolism among the isoforms. Using Trp-substituted mutations and site-directed fluorescence labeling, we made a comprehensive comparison of the conformational organization of the N- and C-terminal domains and lipid interactions between the apoE3 and apoE4 isoforms. Trp fluorescence measurements for selectively Trp-substituted variants of apoE isoforms demonstrated that apoE4 adopts less stable conformations in both the N- and C-terminal domains compared to apoE3. Consistent with this, the conformational reorganization of the N-terminal helix bundle occurs at lower guanidine hydrochloride concentration in apoE4 than in apoE3 as monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Trp residues to acrylodan attached at the N-terminal helix. Upon binding of apoE3 and apoE4 variants to egg phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles, similar changes in Trp fluorescence or FRET efficiency were observed for the isoforms, indicating that the opening of the N-terminal helix bundle occurs similarly in apoE3 and apoE4. Introduction of mutations into the C-terminal domain of the apoE isoforms to prevent self-association and maintain the monomeric state resulted in great increase in the rate of binding of the C-terminal helices to a lipid surface. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different conformational organizations of the N- and C-terminal domains have a minor effect on the steady-state lipid-binding behavior of apoE3 and apoE4: rather, self-association property is a critical determinant in the kinetics of lipid binding through the C-terminal helices of apoE isoforms.Display Omitted
Keywords: Apolipoprotein E; Domain structure; Lipid interaction; Trp fluorescence; Fluorescence resonance energy transfer;

VE-cadherin is the predominant adhesion molecule in vascular endothelial cells being responsible for maintenance of the endothelial barrier function by forming adhesive contacts (adherens junctions) to neighbouring cells. We found by use of single molecule fluorescence microscopy that VE-cadherin is localised in preformed clusters when not inside adherens junctions. These clusters depend on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton and are localised in cholesterol rich microdomains of mature endothelial cells as found by membrane fractionation. The ability to form and maintain VE-cadherin based junctions was probed using the laser tweezer technique, and we found that cholesterol depletion has dramatical effects on VE-cadherin mediated adhesion. While a 30% reduction of the cholesterol-level results in an increase of adhesion, excessive cholesterol depletion by about 60% leads to an almost complete loss of VE-cadherin function. Nevertheless, the cadherin concentration in the membrane and the single molecule kinetic parameters of the cadherin are not changed. Our results suggest that the actin cytoskeleton, junction-associated proteins and protein–lipid assemblies in cholesterol-rich microdomains mutually stabilise each other to form functional adhesion contacts.
Keywords: Adherens junction; Endothelium; Raft; Laser tweezer; Single molecule microscopy;

Characterization of fatty acid binding and transfer from ∆98∆, a functional all-β abridged form of IFABP by Luciana Rodriguez Sawicki; María Ximena Guerbi; Lisandro Jorge Falomir Lockhart; Lucrecia María Curto; José María Delfino; Betina Córsico; Gisela Raquel Franchini (1733-1740).
Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) is an intracellular lipid binding protein whose specific functions within the cell are still uncertain. An abbreviated version of IFABP encompassing residues 29–126, dubbed Δ98Δ is a stable product of limited proteolysis with clostripain of holo-IFABP. Cumulative evidence shows that Δ98Δ adopts a stable, monomeric and functional fold, with compact core and loose periphery. In agreement with previous results, this abridged variant indicates that the helical domain is not necessary to preserve the general topology of IFABP's β-barrel and that the helix-turn-helix motif is a fundamental element of the portal region involved in ligand binding and protein–membrane interactions. Results presented here suggest that Δ98Δ binds fatty acids with affinities lower than IFABP but higher than those shown by previous helix-less variants, shows a ‘diffusional’ fatty acid transfer mechanism and it interacts with artificial membranes. This work highlights the importance of the β-barrel of IFABP for its specific functions.
Keywords: Intestinal fatty acid binding protein; β-Barrel; Protein truncation; Ligand binding; Membrane interaction; Model membranes;

ABCG1 is involved in vitamin E efflux by Maryline Olivier; Romain Bott; Eric Frisdal; Marion Nowicki; Wanee Plengpanich; Charles Desmarchelier; Stéphanie Roi; Carmel M. Quinn; Ingrid Gelissen; Wendy Jessup; Miranda Van Eck; Maryse Guérin; Wilfried Le Goff; Emmanuelle Reboul (1741-1751).
Vitamin E membrane transport has been shown to involve the cholesterol transporters SR-BI, ABCA1 and NPC1L1. Our aim was to investigate the possible participation of another cholesterol transporter in cellular vitamin E efflux: ABCG1. In Abcg1-deficient mice, vitamin E concentration was reduced in plasma lipoproteins whereas most tissues displayed a higher vitamin E content compared to wild-type mice. α- and γ-tocopherol efflux was increased in CHO cells overexpressing human ABCG1 compared to control cells. Conversely, α- and γ-tocopherol efflux was decreased in ABCG1-knockdown human cells (Hep3B hepatocytes and THP-1 macrophages). Interestingly, α- and γ-tocopherol significantly downregulated ABCG1 and ABCA1 expression levels in Hep3B and THP-1, an effect confirmed in vivo in rats given vitamin E for 5 days. This was likely due to reduced LXR activation by oxysterols, as Hep3B cells and rat liver treated with vitamin E displayed a significantly reduced content in oxysterols compared to their respective controls. Overall, the present study reveals for the first time that ABCG1 is involved in cellular vitamin E efflux.
Keywords: α-Tocopherol; γ-Tocopherol; Membrane transport; ABC transporter; Oxysterols;

In honor of Robert Bittman 1942–2014 by Gabor Tigyi (1752-1753).

Hepatic fatty acid uptake is regulated by the sphingolipid acyl chain length by Woo-Jae Park; Joo-Won Park; Alfred H. Merrill; Judith Storch; Yael Pewzner-Jung; Anthony H. Futerman (1754-1766).
Ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) null mice cannot synthesize very-long acyl chain (C22–C24) ceramides resulting in significant alterations in the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids. We now demonstrate that hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) levels are reduced in the liver but not in the adipose tissue or skeletal muscle of the CerS2 null mouse, both before and after feeding with a high fat diet (HFD), where no weight gain was observed and large hepatic nodules appeared. Uptake of both BODIPY-palmitate and [3H]-palmitate was also abrogated in the hepatocytes and liver. The role of a number of key proteins involved in fatty acid uptake was examined, including FATP5, CD36/FAT, FABPpm and cytoplasmic FABP1. Levels of FATP5 and FABP1 were decreased in the CerS2 null mouse liver, whereas CD36/FAT levels were significantly elevated and CD36/FAT was also mislocalized upon insulin treatment. Moreover, treatment of hepatocytes with C22–C24-ceramides down-regulated CD36/FAT levels. Infection of CerS2 null mice with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-CerS2 restored normal TG levels and corrected the mislocalization of CD36/FAT, but had no effect on the intracellular localization or levels of FATP5 or FABP1. Together, these results demonstrate that hepatic fatty acid uptake via CD36/FAT can be regulated by altering the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids.
Keywords: Sphingolipid; Ceramide synthase; Fatty acid uptake; Fatty acid transport protein; Fatty acid binding protein; Cluster of differentiation 36;