BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1841, #2)

The lipidome and proteome of microsomes from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris by Lisa Klug; Pablo Tarazona; Clemens Gruber; Karlheinz Grillitsch; Brigitte Gasser; Martin Trötzmüller; Harald Köfeler; Erich Leitner; Ivo Feussner; Diethard Mattanovich; Friedrich Altmann; Günther Daum (215-226).
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is a popular yeast expression system for the production of heterologous proteins in biotechnology. Interestingly, cell organelles which play an important role in this process have so far been insufficiently investigated. For this reason, we started a systematic approach to isolate and characterize organelles from P. pastoris. In this study, we present a procedure to isolate microsomal membranes at high purity. These samples represent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fractions which were subjected to molecular analysis of lipids and proteins. Organelle lipidomics included a detailed analysis of glycerophospholipids, fatty acids, sterols and sphingolipids. The microsomal proteome analyzed by mass spectrometry identified typical proteins of the ER known from other cell types, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but also a number of unassigned gene products. The lipidome and proteome analysis of P. pastoris microsomes are prerequisite for a better understanding of functions of this organelle and for modifying this compartment for biotechnological applications.
Keywords: Pichia pastoris; Endoplasmic reticulum; Proteome; Sphingolipids; Phospholipid; Fatty acid;

Differentially localized acyl-CoA synthetase 4 isoenzymes mediate the metabolic channeling of fatty acids towards phosphatidylinositol by Eva-Maria Küch; Regina Vellaramkalayil; Ingrid Zhang; Daniela Lehnen; Britta Brügger; Wolfgang Stremmel; Robert Ehehalt; Margarete Poppelreuther; Joachim Füllekrug (227-239).
The acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) has been implicated in carcinogenesis and neuronal development. Acyl-CoA synthetases are essential enzymes of lipid metabolism, and ACSL4 is distinguished by its preference for arachidonic acid. Two human ACSL4 isoforms arising from differential splicing were analyzed by ectopic expression in COS cells. We found that the ACSL4_v1 variant localized to the inner side of the plasma membrane including microvilli, and was also present in the cytosol. ACSL4_v2 contains an additional N-terminal hydrophobic region; this isoform was located at the endoplasmic reticulum and on lipid droplets. A third isoform was designed de novo by appending a mitochondrial targeting signal. All three ACSL4 variants showed the same specific enzyme activity. Overexpression of the isoenzymes increased cellular uptake of arachidonate to the same degree, indicating that the metabolic trapping of fatty acids is independent of the subcellular localization. Remarkably, phospholipid metabolism was changed by ACSL4 expression. Labeling with arachidonate showed that the amount of newly synthesized phosphatidylinositol was increased by all three ACSL4 isoenzymes but not by ACSL1. This was dependent on the expression level and the localization of the ACSL4 isoform. We conclude that in our model system exogenous fatty acids are channeled preferentially towards phosphatidylinositol by ACSL4 overexpression. The differential localization of the endogenous isoenzymes may provide compartment specific precursors of this anionic phospholipid important for many signaling processes.
Keywords: ACSL4; Acyl-CoA synthetase; Localization; Fatty acid uptake; Phosphatidylinositol;

cis-Prenyltransferase AtCPT6 produces a family of very short-chain polyisoprenoids in planta by Liliana Surmacz; Danuta Plochocka; Magdalena Kania; Witold Danikiewicz; Ewa Swiezewska (240-250).
cis-Prenyltransferases (CPTs) comprise numerous enzymes synthesizing isoprenoid hydrocarbon skeleton with isoprenoid units in the cis (Z) configuration. The chain-length specificity of a particular plant CPT is in most cases unknown despite the composition of the accumulated isoprenoids in the tissue of interest being well established. In this report AtCPT6, one of the nine Arabidopsis thaliana CPTs, is shown to catalyze the synthesis of a family of very short-chain polyisoprenoid alcohols of six, seven, and eight isoprenoid units, those of seven units dominating. The product specificity of AtCPT6 was established in vivo following its expression in the heterologous system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was confirmed by the absence of specific products in AtCPT6 T-DNA insertion mutants and their overaccumulation in AtCPT6-overexpressing plants. These observations are additionally validated in silico using an AtCPT6 model obtained by homology modeling. AtCPT6 only partially complements the function of the yeast homologue of CPT-Rer2 since it restores the growth but not protein glycosylation in rer2Δ yeast. This is the first in planta characterization of specific products of a plant CPT producing polyisoprenoids. Their distribution suggests that a joint activity of several CPTs is required to produce the complex mixture of polyisoprenoid alcohols found in Arabidopsis roots.
Keywords: Polyisoprenoid alcohol; Dolichol; cis-Prenyltransferase; Protein N-glycosylation; Arabidopsis; rer2Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant;

Cholesterol acceptor capacity is preserved by different mechanisms in preterm and term fetuses by Ulrich Pecks; Markus G. Mohaupt; Matthias C. Hütten; Nicolai Maass; Werner Rath; Geneviève Escher (251-258).
Fetal serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations differ between preterm and term born neonates. An imbalance of the flow of cholesterol from the sites of synthesis or efflux from cells of peripheral organs to the liver, the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), is linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preterm delivery is a risk factor for the development of CVD. Thus, we hypothesized that RCT is affected by a diminished cholesterol acceptor capacity in preterm as compared to term fetuses. Cholesterol efflux assays were performed in RAW264.7, HepG2, and HUVEC cell lines. In the presence and absence of ABC transporter overexpression by TO-901317, umbilical cord sera of preterm and term born neonates (n = 28 in both groups) were added. Lipid components including high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein E were measured and related to fractional cholesterol efflux values. We found overall, fractional cholesterol efflux to remain constant between the study groups, and over gestational ages at delivery, respectively. However, correlation analysis revealed cholesterol efflux values to be predominantly related to HDL concentration at term, while in preterm neonates, cholesterol efflux was mainly associated with LDL. In conclusion cholesterol acceptor capacity during fetal development is kept in a steady state with different mechanisms and lipid fractions involved at distinct stages during the second half of fetal development. However, RCT mechanisms in preterm neonates seem not to be involved in the development of CVD later in life suggesting rather changes in the lipoprotein pattern causative.
Keywords: Fetal cord blood lipid; Fetal cholesterol; apoE; Fetal development; Reverse cholesterol transport; Fetal programming;

LXR antagonists induce ABCD2 expression by Catherine Gondcaille; Emmanuelle C. Genin; Tatiana E. Lopez; Alexandre M.M. Dias; Flore Geillon; Pierre Andreoletti; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki; Thomas Nury; Gérard Lizard; Isabelle Weinhofer; Johannes Berger; Eili T. Kase; Doriane Trompier; Stéphane Savary (259-266).
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids resulting from a β-oxidation defect. Oxidative stress and inflammation are also key components of the pathogenesis. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes for a peroxisomal half ABC transporter predicted to participate in the entry of VLCFA-CoA into the peroxisome, the unique site of their β-oxidation. Two homologous peroxisomal ABC transporters, ABCD2 and ABCD3 have been proven to compensate for ABCD1 deficiency when overexpressed. Pharmacological induction of these target genes could therefore represent an alternative therapy for X-ALD patients. Since LXR activation was shown to repress ABCD2 expression, we investigated the effects of LXR antagonists in different cell lines. Cells were treated with GSK(17) (a LXR antagonist recently discovered from the GlaxoSmithKline compound collection), 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol (22S-HC, another LXR antagonist) and 22R-HC (an endogenous LXR agonist). We observed up-regulation of ABCD2, ABCD3 and CTNNB1 (the gene encoding for β-catenin, which was recently demonstrated to induce ABCD2 expression) in human HepG2 hepatoma cells and in X-ALD skin fibroblasts treated with LXR antagonists. Interestingly, induction in X-ALD fibroblasts was concomitant with a decrease in oxidative stress. Rats treated with 22S-HC showed hepatic induction of the 3 genes of interest. In human, we show by multiple tissue expression array that expression of ABCD2 appears to be inversely correlated with NR1H3 (LXRα) expression. Altogether, antagonists of LXR that are currently developed in the context of dyslipidemia may find another indication with X-ALD.
Keywords: X-ALD; Very-long-chain fatty acid; LXR; Hydroxycholesterol; ABCD2;

Omega-3 phospholipids from fish suppress hepatic steatosis by integrated inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in dietary obese mice by Martin Rossmeisl; Dasa Medrikova; Evert M. van Schothorst; Jana Pavlisova; Ondrej Kuda; Michal Hensler; Kristina Bardova; Pavel Flachs; Barbora Stankova; Marek Vecka; Eva Tvrzicka; Ales Zak; Jaap Keijer; Jan Kopecky (267-278).
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. Recent meta-analysis suggested omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids DHA and EPA to decrease liver fat in NAFLD patients. Anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and insulin-sensitizing effects of DHA/EPA depend on their lipid form, with marine phospholipids showing better efficacy than fish oils. We characterized the mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of DHA/EPA phospholipids, alone or combined with an antidiabetic drug, on hepatosteatosis. C57BL/6N mice were fed for 7 weeks an obesogenic high-fat diet (cHF) or cHF-based interventions: (i) cHF supplemented with phosphatidylcholine-rich concentrate from herring (replacing 10% of dietary lipids; PC), (ii) cHF containing rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg diet; R), or (iii) PC + R. Metabolic analyses, hepatic gene expression and lipidome profiling were performed. Results showed that PC and PC + R prevented cHF-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance, while all interventions reduced abdominal fat and plasma triacylglycerols. PC and PC + R also lowered hepatic and plasma cholesterol and reduced hepatosteatosis. Microarray analysis revealed integrated down-regulation of hepatic lipogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways by PC, while R-induced lipogenesis was fully counteracted in PC + R. Gene expression changes in PC and PC + R were associated with preferential enrichment of hepatic phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine fractions by DHA/EPA. The complex down-regulation of hepatic lipogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes and the antisteatotic effects were unique to DHA/EPA-containing phospholipids, since they were absent in mice fed soy-derived phosphatidylcholine. Thus, inhibition of lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis associated with potent antisteatotic effects in the liver in response to DHA/EPA-containing phospholipids support their use in NAFLD prevention and treatment.
Keywords: Obesity; NAFLD; Marine phospholipids; PUFA; Lipogenesis; High-fat diet;