BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1831, #8)

Intestinal caveolin-1 is important for dietary fatty acid absorption by Shahzad Siddiqi; Atur Sheth; Feenalie Patel; Matthew Barnes; Charles M. Mansbach (1311-1321).
How dietary fatty acids are absorbed into the enterocyte and transported to the ER is not established. We tested the possibility that caveolin-1 containing lipid rafts and endocytic vesicles were involved. Apical brush border membranes took up 15% of albumin bound 3H-oleate whereas brush border membranes from caveolin-1 KO mice took up only 1%. In brush border membranes, the 3H-oleate was in the detergent resistant fraction of an OptiPrep gradient. On OptiPrep gradients of intestinal cytosol, we also found the 3H-oleate in the detergent resistant fraction, separate from OptiPrep gradients spiked with 3H-oleate or 3H-triacylglycerol. Caveolin-1 immuno-depletion of cytosol removed 91% of absorbed 3H-oleate whereas immuno-depletion using IgG, or anti-caveolin-2 or -3 or anti-clathrin antibodies removed 20%. Electron microscopy showed the presence of caveolin-1 containing vesicles in WT mouse cytosol that were 4 fold increased by feeding intestinal sacs 1 mM oleate. No vesicles were seen in caveolin-1 KO mouse cytosol. Caveolin-1 KO mice gained less weight on a 23% fat diet and had increased fat in their stool compared to WT mice. We conclude that dietary fatty acids are absorbed by caveolae in enterocyte brush border membranes, are endocytosed, and transported in cytosol in caveolin-1 containing endocytic vesicles.
Keywords: Caveola; Caveolin-1; Fatty acid; Fat absorption; Detergent resistant membrane; CD36;

Alkylphospholipids deregulate cholesterol metabolism and induce cell-cycle arrest and autophagy in U-87 MG glioblastoma cells by Pablo Ríos-Marco; Mario Martín-Fernández; Isabel Soria-Bretones; Antonio Ríos; María P. Carrasco; Carmen Marco (1322-1334).
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumour in adults and one of the most lethal of all cancers. Growing evidence suggests that human tumours undergo abnormal lipid metabolism, characterised by an alteration in the mechanisms that regulate cholesterol homeostasis. We have investigated the effect that different antitumoural alkylphospholipids (APLs) exert upon cholesterol metabolism in the U-87 MG glioblastoma cell line. APLs altered cholesterol homeostasis by interfering with its transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thus hindering its esterification. At the same time they stimulated the synthesis of cholesterol from radiolabelled acetate and its internalisation from low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), inducing both 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and LDL receptor (LDLR) genes. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that these effects promoted the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol. Filipin staining demonstrated that this accumulation was not confined to the late endosome/lysosome (LE/LY) compartment since it did not colocalise with LAMP2 lysosomal marker. Furthermore, APLs inhibited cell growth, producing arrest at the G2/M phase. We also used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate ultrastructural alterations induced by APLs and found an abundant presence of autophagic vesicles and autolysosomes in treated cells, indicating the induction of autophagy. Thus our findings clearly demonstrate that antitumoural APLs interfere with the proliferation of the glioblastoma cell line via a complex mechanism involving cholesterol metabolism, cell-cycle arrest or autophagy. Knowledge of the interrelationship between these processes is fundamental to our understanding of tumoural response and may facilitate the development of novel therapeutics to improve treatment of glioblastoma and other types of cancer.
Keywords: Alkylphospholipid; Cholesterol homeostasis; Cell-cycle arrest; Autophagy; U-87 MG cell;

Metabolic adaptation allows Amacr-deficient mice to remain symptom-free despite low levels of mature bile acids by Eija M. Selkälä; Sanna M. Kuusisto; Tuire Salonurmi; Markku J. Savolainen; Matti Jauhiainen; Päivi L. Pirilä; Ari-Pekka Kvist; Ernst Conzelmann; Werner Schmitz; Stefan E. Alexson; Tiina J. Kotti; J. Kalervo Hiltunen; Kaija J. Autio (1335-1343).
Bile acids play multiple roles in the physiology of vertebrates; they facilitate lipid absorption, serve as signaling molecules to control carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and provide a disposal route for cholesterol. Unexpectedly, the α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (Amacr) deficient mice, which are unable to complete the peroxisomal cleavage of C27-precursors to the mature C24-bile acids, are physiologically asymptomatic when maintained on a standard laboratory diet. The aim of this study was to uncover the underlying adaptive mechanism with special reference to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism that allows these mice to have a normal life span. Intestinal cholesterol absorption in Amacr −/− mice is decreased resulting in a 2-fold increase in daily cholesterol excretion. Also fecal excretion of bile acids (mainly C27-sterols) is enhanced 3-fold. However, the body cholesterol pool remains unchanged, although Amacr-deficiency accelerates hepatic sterol synthesis 5-fold. Changes in lipoprotein profiles are mainly due to decreased phospholipid transfer protein activity. Thus Amacr-deficient mice provide a unique example of metabolic regulation, which allows them to have a normal lifespan in spite of the disruption of a major metabolic pathway. This metabolic adjustment can be mainly explained by setting cholesterol and bile acid metabolism to a new balanced level in the Amacr-deficient mouse.
Keywords: Bile acid; α-Methylacyl-CoA racemase; Intestine;

A signaling cascade mediated by ceramide, src and PDGFRβ coordinates the activation of the redox-sensitive neutral sphingomyelinase-2 and sphingosine kinase-1 by Christel Cinq-Frais; Christelle Coatrieux; Marie-Hélène Grazide; Yusuf A. Hannun; Anne Nègre-Salvayre; Robert Salvayre; Nathalie Augé (1344-1356).
Stress-inducing agents, including oxidative stress, generate the sphingolipid mediators ceramide (Cer) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that are involved in stress-induced cellular responses. The two redox-sensitive neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) and sphingosine kinase-1 (SK1) participate in transducing stress signaling to ceramide and S1P, respectively; however, whether these key enzymes are coordinately regulated is not known. We investigated whether a signaling link coordinates nSMase2 and SK1 activation by H2O2. In mesenchymal cells, H2O2 elicits a dose-dependent biphasic effect, mitogenic at low concentration (5 μM), and anti-proliferative and toxic at high concentration (100 μM).Low H2O2 concentration triggered activation of nSMase2 and SK1 through a nSMase2/Cer-dependent signaling pathway that acted upstream of activation of SK1. Further results implicated src and the trans-activation of PDGFRβ, as supported by the blocking effect of specific siRNAs, pharmacological inhibitors, and genetically deficient cells for nSMase2, src and SK1. The H2O2-induced src/PDGFRβ/SK1 signaling cascade was impaired in nSMase2-deficient fro/fro cells and was rescued by exogenous C2Cer that activated src/PDGFRβ/SK1. Thus, the results define a nSMase2/SK1 signaling pathway implicated in the mitogenic response to low oxidative stress. On the other hand, high oxidative stress induced inhibition of SK1. The results also showed that the toxicity of high H2O2 concentration was comparable in control and nSMase2-deficient cells. Taken together the results identify a tightly coordinated nSMase2/SK1 pathway that mediates the mitogenic effects of H2O2 and may sense the degree of oxidative stress.Display Omitted
Keywords: Hydrogen peroxide; Mitogenic signaling; Neutral sphingomyelinase-2; Sphingosine kinase1; Sphingosine 1-phosphate; PDGFRβ;

Involvement of lipid droplets in hepatic responses to lipopolysaccharide treatment in mice by Lino Arisqueta; Maitane Nuñez-Garcia; Jesus Ogando; Itsaso Garcia-Arcos; Begoña Ochoa; Patricia Aspichueta; Olatz Fresnedo; Yuri Rueda (1357-1367).
Infection and inflammation induce important changes in lipid metabolism, which result in increased free fatty acids and triacylglycerol in plasma and altered high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Our aim was to elucidate whether hepatic lipid droplets (LDs) are involved in the adaptations of lipid metabolism to endotoxemia. We characterized the lipid content and several enzymatic activities in subcellular fractions and subpopulations of LDs from livers of mice 24 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and analyzed the expression of key genes involved in lipid management. Endotoxemic mice showed lower lipid content in LDs with decreased molar fraction of cholesteryl ester and higher diacylglycerol/triacylglycerol ratio as compared to their controls. They also showed a decrease in cytosolic triacylglycerol hydrolase activity, specifically in dense LDs, and in microsomal and cytosolic diacylglycerol hydrolase activity; concomitantly neutral lipid biosynthetic capacity and triacylglycerol levels in plasma lipoproteins increased. Together with the overexpression of genes involved in lipogenesis and HDL formation our results suggest that altered hepatic management of LD lipids in LPS-treated mice might be related to the channeled mobilization of triacylglycerol for very low density lipoprotein assembly and to the induction of cholesterol export.
Keywords: Endotoxemia; Enzymatic activity; Lipid composition; Lipoprotein; Liver;

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibits adipocyte differentiation and mediates TNFα action in obesity by Dan-Dan Song; Yue Chen; Zhi-Yong Li; Yun-Feng Guan; Da-Jin Zou; Chao-Yu Miao (1368-1376).
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of systemic glucose and insulin homeostasis; however, its exact role in adipocytes is poorly understood. This study was to elucidate the role of PTP1B in adipocyte differentiation and its implication in obesity. During differentiation of 3T3-L1 white preadipocytes, PTP1B decreased progressively with adipocyte maturation. Lentivirus-mediated PTP1B overexpression in preadipocytes delayed adipocyte differentiation, shown as lack of mature adipocytes, low level of lipid accumulation, and down-regulation of main markers (PPARγ2, SREBP-1c, FAS and LPL). In contrast, lentivirus-mediated PTP1B knockdown accelerated adipocyte differentiation, demonstrated as full of mature adipocytes, high level of lipid accumulation, and up-regulation of main markers. Dominant-negative inhibition on endogenous PTP1B by lentivirus-mediated overexpression of PTP1B double mutant in Tyr-46 and Asp-181 residues (LV-D/A-Y/F) also stimulated adipogenesis, more efficient than PTP1B knockdown. Diet-induced obesity mice exhibited an up-regulation of PTP1B and TNFα accompanied by a down-regulation of PPARγ2 in white adipose tissue. TNFα recombinant protein impeded PTP1B reduction and inhibited adipocyte differentiation in vitro; this inhibitory effect was prevented by LV-D/A-Y/F. Moreover, PTP1B inhibitor treatment improved adipogenesis and suppressed TNFα in adipose tissue of obese mice. All together, PTP1B negatively regulates adipocyte development and may mediate TNFα action to impair adipocyte differentiation in obesity. Our study provides novel evidence for the importance of PTP1B in obesity and for the potential application of PTP1B inhibitors.
Keywords: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B; Adipocyte differentiation; Adipogenesis; Tumor necrosis factor alpha; Obesity;

Intestinal acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) is important in the cellular and physiological responses to dietary fat. To determine the effect of increased intestinal DGAT2 on cellular and physiological responses to acute and chronic dietary fat challenges, we generated mice with intestine-specific overexpression of DGAT2 and compared them with intestine-specific overexpression of DGAT1 and wild-type (WT) mice. We found that when intestinal DGAT2 is present in excess, triacylglycerol (TG) secretion from enterocytes is enhanced compared to WT mice; however, TG storage within enterocytes is similar compared to WT mice. We found that when intestinal DGAT2 is present in excess, mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were reduced. This result suggests that reduced fatty acid oxidation may contribute to increased TG secretion by overexpression of DGAT2 in intestine. Furthermore, this enhanced supply of TG for secretion in Dgat2 Int mice may be a significant contributing factor to the elevated fasting plasma TG and exacerbated hepatic TG storage in response to a chronic HFD. These results highlight that altering fatty acid and TG metabolism within enterocytes has the capacity to alter systemic delivery of dietary fat and may serve as an effective target for preventing and treating metabolic diseases such as hepatic steatosis.
Keywords: Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase; Chylomicron; Cytoplasmic lipid droplet; Dietary fat absorption; Triacylglycerol; Intestine;

Reciprocal regulation of miR-23a and lysophosphatidic acid receptor signaling in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by Jinjing Yang; Yu Nie; Fang Wang; Jianfeng Hou; Xiangfeng Cong; Shengshou Hu; Xi Chen (1386-1394).
Earlier, our study demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor mediated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, the subtype-specific functions for LPA1 and LPA3 receptors in LPA-induced hypertrophy have not been distinguished. Growing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy by down-regulating target molecules. The present work therefore aimed at elucidating the functions mediated by different subtypes of LPA receptors and investigating the modulatory role of miRNAs during LPA induced hypertrophy. Experiments were done with cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) exposed to LPA and we showed that knockdown of LPA1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced LPA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas LPA3 silencing repressed hypertrophy. miR-23a, a pro-hypertrophic miRNA, was up-regulated by LPA in cardiomyocytes and its down-regulation reduced LPA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Importantly, luciferase reporter assay confirmed LPA1 to be a target of miR-23a, indicating that miR-23a is involved in mediating the LPA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by targeting LPA1. In addition, knockdown of LPA3, but not LPA1, eliminated miR-23a elevation induced by LPA. And PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, effectively prevented LPA-induced miR-23a expression in cardiomyocytes, suggesting that LPA might induce miR-23a elevation by activating LPA3 and PI3K/AKT pathway. These findings identified opposite subtype-specific functions for LPA1 and LPA3 in mediating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and indicated LPA1 to be a target of miR-23a, which discloses a link between miR-23a and the LPA receptor signaling in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
Keywords: Cardiac hypertrophy; MicroRNA (miRNA); Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA); Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs);

Substrate specificity, plasma membrane localization, and lipid modification of the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3B1 by Takuya Kitamura; Tatsuro Naganuma; Kensuke Abe; Kanae Nakahara; Yusuke Ohno; Akio Kihara (1395-1401).
The accumulation of reactive aldehydes is implicated in the development of several disorders. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) detoxify aldehydes by oxidizing them to the corresponding carboxylic acids. Among the 19 human ALDHs, ALDH3A2 is the only known ALDH that catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain fatty aldehydes including C16 aldehydes (hexadecanal and trans-2-hexadecenal) generated through sphingolipid metabolism. In the present study, we have identified that ALDH3B1 is also active in vitro toward C16 aldehydes and demonstrated that overexpression of ALDH3B1 restores the sphingolipid metabolism in the ALDH3A2-deficient cells. In addition, we have determined that ALDH3B1 is localized in the plasma membrane through its C-terminal dual lipidation (palmitoylation and prenylation) and shown that the prenylation is required particularly for the activity toward hexadecanal. Since knockdown of ALDH3B1 does not cause further impairment of the sphingolipid metabolism in the ALDH3A2-deficient cells, the likely physiological function of ALDH3B1 is to oxidize lipid-derived aldehydes generated in the plasma membrane and not to be involved in the sphingolipid metabolism in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Keywords: Aldehyde; Aldehyde dehydrogenase; Sphingolipid; Plasma membrane; Prenylation; Palmitoylation;

Overexpression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 in macrophages promotes reverse cholesterol transport by Kazuhiro Nakaya; Makoto Ayaori; Harumi Uto-Kondo; Grace Megumi Sotherden; Takafumi Nishida; Haruka Katamoto; Yuko Miura; Shunichi Takiguchi; Emi Yakushiji; Maki Iizuka; Masatsune Ogura; Makoto Sasaki; Makiko Yogo; Tomohiro Komatsu; Takeshi Adachi; Chizuko Maruyama; Katsunori Ikewaki (1402-1411).
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. However, the impact of SCD1 on atherosclerosis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether SCD1 affects macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in mice. Compared to the control, adenoviral-mediated SCD1 overexpression in RAW264.7 macrophages increased cholesterol efflux to HDL, but not to apoA-I, without clear changes in ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI expressions. While knockdown of ABCG1 and SR-BI did not affect the SCD1-induced cholesterol efflux to HDL, SCD1-overexpressing macrophages promoted the formation of both normal- and large-sized HDL in media, accompanying increased apolipoprotein A-I levels in HDL fractions. Transformation to larger particles of HDL was independently confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance-based lipoprotein analysis. Interestingly, media transfer assays revealed that HDL generated by SCD1 had enhanced cholesterol efflux potential, indicating that SCD1 transformed HDL to a more anti-atherogenic phenotype. To study macrophage RCT in vivo, 3H-cholesterol-labeled RAW264.7 cells overexpressing SCD1 or the control were intraperitoneally injected into mice. Supporting the in vitro data, injection of SCD1-macrophages resulted in significant increases in 3H-tracer in plasma, liver, and feces compared to the control. Moreover, there was a shift towards larger particles in the 3H-tracer distribution of HDL fractions obtained from the mice.In conclusion, macrophage-specific SCD1 overexpression promotes overall RCT through increased cholesterol efflux to HDL, suggesting that macrophage SCD1 achieves an anti-atherogenic effect by enhancing RCT.
Keywords: SCD1; Macrophage; Reverse cholesterol transport; HDL;

High glucose potentiates L-FABP mediated fibrate induction of PPARα in mouse hepatocytes by Anca D. Petrescu; Avery L. McIntosh; Stephen M. Storey; Huan Huang; Gregory G. Martin; Danilo Landrock; Ann B. Kier; Friedhelm Schroeder (1412-1425).
Although liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) binds fibrates and PPARα in vitro and enhances fibrate induction of PPARα in transformed cells, the functional significance of these findings is unclear, especially in normal hepatocytes. Studies with cultured primary mouse hepatocytes show that: 1) At physiological (6 mM) glucose, fibrates (bezafibrate, fenofibrate) only weakly activated PPARα transcription of genes in LCFA β-oxidation; 2) High (11–20 mM) glucose, but not maltose (osmotic control), significantly potentiated fibrate-induction of mRNA of these and other PPARα target genes to increase LCFA β-oxidation. These effects were associated with fibrate-mediated redistribution of L-FABP into nuclei—an effect prolonged by high glucose—but not with increased de novo fatty acid synthesis from glucose; 3) Potentiation of bezafibrate action by high glucose required an intact L-FABP/PPARα signaling pathway as shown with L-FABP null, PPARα null, PPARα inhibitor-treated WT, or PPARα-specific fenofibrate-treated WT hepatocytes. High glucose alone in the absence of fibrate was ineffective. Thus, high glucose potentiation of PPARα occurred through FABP/PPARα rather than indirectly through other PPARs or glucose induced signaling pathways. These data indicated L-FABP's importance in fibrate-induction of hepatic PPARα LCFA β-oxidative genes, especially in the context of high glucose levels.
Keywords: Fatty acid; β-Oxidation; Bezafibrate; L-FABP; PPARα; Hepatocyte;

Lysophosphatidic acid promotes secretion of VEGF by increasing expression of 150-kD Oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) in mesenchymal stem cells by Hua Wei; Fang Wang; Xianyun Wang; Jinjing Yang; Zongwei Li; Xiangfeng Cong; Xi Chen (1426-1434).
We previously reported that transplantation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enhances capillary density in the myocardium and improves myocardial function in the ischemic heart. This effect may be mediated through the release of paracrine factors by MSC and potentially involves pro-angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we examined the pharmacological and molecular regulation of VEGF secretion induced by LPA in rat MSCs. We showed that LPA stimulated VEGF secretion in MSCs but not in cardiomyocytes or cardiac fibroblasts. LPA-induced VEGF secretion occurred at the post-transcriptional levels and was mediated through the classical ER/Golgi-dependent protein secretory route. LPA also increased ORP150 protein expression. Inhibition of ORP150 upregulation by siRNA knockdown attenuated LPA-induced VEGF secretion. On the other hand, diazoxide, an activator of KATP channel, markedly inhibited LPA-induced ORP150 expression and VEGF secretion. Meanwhile, ATP concentration dependently increased VEGF secretion. In addition, l-Glutamate and NH4Cl significantly reduced VEGF secretion. Furthermore, inhibition of two major subtypes of LPA receptors by Ki16425 and specific siRNA for LPA receptors prevented LPA-induced VEGF secretion and ORP150 expression. Lastly, inhibition of Gi protein that couples with LPA receptors by PTX and siRNA knockdown had no effect on LPA-induced VEGF secretion. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that LPA promotes VEGF secretion at the post-translation level by up-regulating ORP150 expression. Both LPA1 and LPA3 are involved in the LPA-induced VEGF secretion that is independent of Gi protein coupling but associated with the inactivation of KATP channels and inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity.
Keywords: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA); 150-kD Oxygen-regulated Protein (ORP150); Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs);