BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1801, #6)

Mammalian and arthropod cells acquire phospholipids by protein-mediated pathways that comprise selective and whole particle uptake routes. Phospholipid uptake critically supports cellular incorporation of nutrition-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids. It can occur jointly with cholesterol uptake, but intracellular processing of phospholipids is distinctively different from sterol processing. The newly imported phospholipids are utilized for production of bioactive lipids, such as thromboxane A2 and lyso phosphatidic acid, and for synthesis of triacylglycerol. Class B scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) represents a major mediator of the uptake of various phospholipids. The related scavenger receptor CD36, as shown here, also facilitates cellular phospholipid uptake. CD36 supports import of the choline phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM), but not of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Other transferases trigger cellular uptake of selective phospholipids, such as phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatases that facilitate PA import and thereby modify cell survival and synaptic transmission. Phospholipid uptake depends on the activation status of cells. Activation of blood platelets indeed increases PE uptake. This is mediated by the serpin protein C inhibitor (PCI) and enhances thrombin formation. Exchange of phospholipids between blood cells and lipoproteins partially adjusts the lipid distribution pattern of blood cells to the one of lipoprotein particles. This in turn modifies the activities of cell membrane sodium transporters and could thereby contribute to sodium flux alterations in the metabolic syndrome. The in vivo relevance of phospholipid uptake in humans is indicated by comparable and reversible changes in the same phospholipid species in both lipoproteins and cells after rapid removal of low-density lipoproteins. Finally, cells also incorporate oxidized (pathogenic) phospholipids using partially overlapping entry pathways as native phospholipids which might support the ability of oxidized lipids to promote atherothrombosis.
Keywords: Prothrombinase activity; Protein C inhibitor; Cardiovascular disease; HDL; LDL; VLDL;

Gangliosides influence EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimer stability but they do not modify EGF-dependent ErbB2 phosphorylation by Simona Milani; Elena Sottocornola; Stefania Zava; Mariarita Galbiati; Bruno Berra; Irma Colombo (617-624).
Gangliosides are well-known regulators of cell differentiation through specific interactions with growth factor receptors. Previously, our group provided the first evidence about stable association of ganglioside GM3 to EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimers in mammary epithelial cells. Goals of the present study were to better define the role of gangliosides in EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimerization and receptor phosphorylation events and to analyze their involvement in mammary cell differentiation. Experiments have been conducted using the ceramide analogue (+/−)-treo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol hydrochloride ([D]-PDMP), which inhibits ceramide glucosyltransferase resulting in the endogenous ganglioside depletion, and the lactogenic hormone mix DIP (dexamethasone, insulin, prolactin), which induces cell differentiation and β-casein mRNA synthesis. In addition, treatments of ganglioside-depleted cells with exogenous GM3 have been carried out to ascertain the specific involvement of this ganglioside. Results from co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot experiments have shown that the endogenous ganglioside depletion resulted in the disappearance of SDS-stable EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimers and in the appearance of tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR also in the absence of EGF stimulation; exogenous GM3 added in combination with [D]-PDMP reversed both these effects. In contrast, the tyrosine phosphorylation of ErbB2 in ganglioside-depleted cells occurred only after EGF stimulation. Moreover, when ganglioside-depleted cells were treated with DIP in absence of EGF, β-casein gene expression appeared strongly down-regulated, and β-casein mRNA levels were partially restored by exogenous GM3 treatment. Altogether, although the involvement of other ganglioside species cannot be excluded, these findings sustain the ganglioside GM3 as an essential molecule for EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimer stability and important regulator of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, but it is not crucial for tyrosine phosphorylation of the heterodimerization partner ErbB2. Moreover, modulation of EGFR phosphorylation may explain how gangliosides contribute to regulate the lactogenic hormone-induced mammary cell differentiation.
Keywords: ErbB2; EGFR; Gangliosides; [D]-PDMP; HC11 cell line;

Limited cholesterol depletion causes aggregation of plasma membrane lipid rafts inducing T cell activation by Saleemulla Mahammad; Jelena Dinic; Jeremy Adler; Ingela Parmryd (625-634).
Acute cholesterol depletion is generally associated with decreased or abolished T cell signalling but it can also cause T cell activation. This anomaly has been addressed in Jurkat T cells using progressive cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD). At depletion levels higher than 50% there is substantial cell death, which explains reports of signalling inhibition. At 10–20% depletion levels, tyrosine phosphorylation is increased, ERK is activated and there is a small increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+. Peripheral actin polymerisation is also triggered by limited cholesterol depletion. Strikingly, the lipid raft marker GM1 aggregates upon cholesterol depletion and these aggregated domains concentrate the signalling proteins Lck and LAT, whereas the opposite is true for the non lipid raft marker the transferrin receptor. Using PP2, an inhibitor of Src family kinase activation, it is demonstrated that the lipid raft aggregation occurs independently of and thus upstream of the signalling response. Upon cholesterol depletion there is an increase in overall plasma membrane order, indicative of more ordered domains forming at the expense of disordered domains. That cholesterol depletion and not unspecific effects of MBCD was behind the reported results was confirmed by performing all experiments with MBCD–cholesterol, when no net cholesterol extraction took place. We conclude that non-lethal cholesterol depletion causes the aggregation of lipid rafts which then induces T cell signalling.
Keywords: Actin; Cholesterol; Colocalization; Lipid raft; Membrane order; Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin; T cell signalling;

Incorporation and remodeling of phosphatidylethanolamine containing short acyl residues in yeast by Lan Deng; Ryouichi Fukuda; Toru Kakihara; Koichi Narita; Akinori Ohta (635-645).
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is one of the essential phospholipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have previously shown that a yeast strain, the endogenous PE synthesis of which was controllable, grew in the presence of PE containing decanoyl residues (diC10PE) when PE synthesis was repressed. In this study, we investigated the fate of diC10PE, its uptake and remodeling in yeast. Deletion of the genes encoding Lem3p/Ros3p or P-type ATPases, Dnf1p and Dnf2p, impaired the growth of the mutants in the medium containing diC10PE, suggesting the involvement of these proteins in the uptake of diC10PE. Analysis of the metabolism of deuterium-labeled diC10PE by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that it was rapidly converted to deuterium-labeled PEs containing C16 or C18 acyl residues. The probable intermediate PEs that contained decanoic acid and C16 or C18 fatty acids as acyl residues were also detected. In addition, a substantial amount of decanoic acid was released into the culture medium during growth in the presence of diC10PE. These results imply that diC10PE was remodeled to PEs with longer acyl residues and used as membrane components. Defects in the remodeling of diC10PE in the deletion mutants of ALE1 and SLC1, products of which were capable of acyl-transfer to the sn− 2 position of lyso-phospholipids, suggested their involvement in the introduction of acyl residues to the sn− 2 position of lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine in the remodeling reaction of diC10PE. Our results also suggest the presence of a mechanism to maintain the physiological length of PE acyl residues in yeast.
Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Phosphatidylethanolamine; Remodeling; Acyl chain;

Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes by Niek C.A. van de Pas; Ans E.M.F. Soffers; Andreas P. Freidig; Ben van Ommen; Ruud A. Woutersen; Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens; Albert A. de Graaf (646-654).
Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define the scope of this model, it is essential to discriminate between important and less important processes influencing plasma cholesterol levels. To this end, we performed a systematic review of mouse knockout strains and used the resulting dataset, named KOMDIP, for the identification of key genes that determine plasma cholesterol levels. Based on the described phenotype of mouse knockout models, 36 of the 120 evaluated genes were marked as key genes that have a pronounced effect on the plasma cholesterol concentration. The key genes include well-known genes, e.g., Apoe and Ldlr, as well as genes hardly linked to cholesterol metabolism so far, e.g., Plagl2 and Slc37a4. Based on the catalytic function of the genes, a minimal conceptual model was defined. A comparison with nine conceptual models from literature revealed that each of the individual published models is less complete than our model. Concluding, we have developed a conceptual model that can be used to develop a physiologically based kinetic model to quantitatively predict plasma cholesterol levels.
Keywords: HDL; LDL; Mouse Genome Database; Key genes; Plasma levels;

The relevance of estrogen functions in lipid metabolism has been suggested in patients with estrogen-signaling deficiencies. Their importance was further implied by studies in estrogen-deficient mice (ArKO mice), which progressively developed hepatic steatosis. As circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels are known to positively correlate with disturbances in lipid metabolism, we investigated the impact of the loss of TNF-α signaling on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in ArKO mice. Histological examinations of the livers of mice at 5 months of age revealed that ArKO male mice lacking the TNF-α receptor type 1 (TNFR1) gene (ArKO/TNFR1KO) or both the TNFR 1 and 2 genes (ArKO/TNFR1&2KO) developed more severe hepatic steatosis than ArKO or ArKO/TNFR2KO mice. Serum analyses demonstrated a clear increase in cholesterol and insulin levels in the ArKO/TNFR1KO mice compared with the ArKO mice. Glucose- and insulin-tolerance tests further revealed exacerbation of the systemic insulin resistant phenotype in the ArKO/TNFR1KO mice. Hepatic expression of lipogenic genes including fatty-acid synthase and stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 were more markedly upregulated in the ArKO/TNFR1KO mice than the ArKO mice. These findings indicate that under estrogen-deficient physiological conditions, hepatic lipid metabolism would benefit from TNF-α mediated signaling via TNFR1.
Keywords: Aromatase; Estrogen; Fatty acid; Hepatic steatosis; Insulin resistance; Tumor necrosis factor-α receptor type 1;

Gelucire®44/14 improves fat absorption in rats with impaired lipolysis by S. Lukovac; K.E.G. Gooijert; P.C. Gregory; G. Shlieout; F. Stellaard; E.H.H.M. Rings; H.J. Verkade (665-673).
Clinically relevant fat malabsorption is usually due to impaired intestinal fat digestion (lipolysis) and/or to impaired solubilization of the lipolytic metabolites. We hypothesized that Gelucire®44/14 – a semi-solid self-micro-emulsifying excipient – could increase fat absorption. In relevant rat models for impaired lipolysis or for impaired solubilization we tested whether administration of Gelucire®44/14 enhanced fat absorption. Rats with impaired lipolysis (lipase inhibitor Orlistat diet) and rats with reduced solubilization (permanent bile diversion) underwent a 72 h fat balance test to assess fat absorption. The absorption kinetics of a stable isotope-labeled fatty acid was assessed in rats with reduced solubilization, in the presence or absence of Gelucire®44/14. Gelucire®44/14 improved fat absorption in rats with impaired lipolysis (from 70% to 82%, p  < 0.001). In rats with reduced solubilization, Gelucire®44/14 did not increase fat absorption nor did it reconstitute the absorption kinetics of 13C-labeled palmitate, compared with control rats administered buffer without Gelucire®44/14. The present data show that Gelucire®44/14 might enhance fat absorption under conditions of impaired lipolysis, but not during impaired solubilization. We speculate that, due to its self-micro-emulsification properties, Gelucire®44/14 stabilizes and improves residual lipolytic enzyme activity in vivo, which could be of therapeutic value in clinical conditions of fat malabsorption due to impaired lipolysis.
Keywords: Fat absorption; Gelucire®44/14; Lipolysis; Orlistat; Solubilization;

Marked variability in hepatic expression of cytochromes CYP7A1 and CYP27A1 as compared to cerebral CYP46A1. Lessons from a dietary study with omega 3 fatty acids in hamsters by Natalia Mast; Marjan Shafaati; Wahiduz Zaman; Wenchao Zheng; Deborah Prusak; Thomas Wood; G.A.S. Ansari; Anita Lövgren-Sandblom; Maria Olin; Ingemar Bjorkhem; Irina Pikuleva (674-681).
Two diets simulating the recommendations of the American Heart Association to increase the intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) were tested on Golden Syrian hamsters and compared to the diet simulating the current estimated consumption of fat in the United States. N-3 PUFAs were evaluated for their effects on serum and brain lipids and on the three cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs 7A1, 27A1, and 46A1) that play key roles in cholesterol elimination from different organs. Hamsters on the highest concentration of n-3 PUFAs had a statistically significant decrease in LDL and HDL cholesterol and no change in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. CYP27A1 and CYP46A1 mRNA levels were increased in the liver and brain, respectively, whereas possible effects on CYP7A1 were obscured by a marked intergroup variability at mRNA, protein, and sterol product levels. Increased levels of CYP46A1 mRNA in the brain did not lead to significant changes in the levels of lathosterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol or cholesterol in this organ. The data obtained are discussed in relation to inconsistent effects of n-3 PUFAs on serum lipids in human trials and reported positive effects of fish oil on cognitive function.
Keywords: Fish oil; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; American Heart Association; Dietary guidelines; Cholesterol turnover; Brain; CYP7A1; CYP27A1; CYP46A1;