BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1791, #11)

New insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying effects of estrogen on cholesterol gallstone formation by Helen H. Wang; Min Liu; Deborah J. Clegg; Piero Portincasa; David Q.-H. Wang (1037-1047).
Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that at all ages women are twice as likely as men to form cholesterol gallstones, and this gender difference begins since puberty and continues through the childbearing years, which highlight the importance of female sex hormones. Estrogen is a crucial hormone in human physiology and regulates a multitude of biological processes. The actions of estrogen have traditionally been ascribed to two closely related classical nuclear hormone receptors, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and ESR2. Recent studies have revealed that the increased risk for cholesterol gallstones in women vs. men is related to differences in how the liver metabolizes cholesterol in response to estrogen. A large number of human and animal studies have proposed that estrogen increases the risk of developing cholesterol gallstones by increasing the hepatic secretion of biliary cholesterol, which, in turn, leads to an increase in cholesterol saturation of bile. Furthermore, it has been identified that hepatic ESR1, but not ESR2, plays a major role in cholesterol gallstone formation in mice in response to high doses of 17β-estradiol. The mechanisms mediating estrogen's action have become more complicated with the recent identification of a novel estrogen receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence for the lithogenic actions of estrogen through ESR1 and discuss the cellular and physiological actions of GPR30 in estrogen-dependent processes and the relationship between GPR30 and classical ESR1 on gallstone formation.
Keywords: Bile; Bile salt; Crystallization; Estrogen; Estrogen receptor; Female gender; G protein-coupled receptor;

Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex by Slim Abdelkafi; Hiroyuki Ogata; Nathalie Barouh; Benjamin Fouquet; Régine Lebrun; Michel Pina; Frantz Scheirlinckx; Pierre Villeneuve; Frédéric Carrière (1048-1056).
An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 41 kDa was obtained by SDS-PAGE. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (679 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 1029 bp encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 38 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpEst was identified as a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase belonging to the SGNH protein family and four potential N-glycosylation sites were identified. The putative catalytic triad was localised (Ser35-Asp307-His310) with the nucleophile serine being part of the GDSL-motif. A 3D-model of CpEst was built from known X-ray structures and sequence alignments and the catalytic triad was found to be exposed at the surface of the molecule, thus confirming the results of CpEst inhibition by tetrahydrolipstatin suggesting a direct accessibility of the inhibitor to the active site.
Keywords: Carica papaya; Latex; GDSL; Esterase; Gene; Mass spectrometry;

Our aim was to identify an insulin response element (IRE) in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. We identified a 19 bp sequence as a putative IRE in LPL non-coding exon 10 using bioinformatics. Upon sequencing the IRE region, a novel 5 bp deletion was identified in Hispanics (N  = 406) with a carrier frequency of 4.2% but not in non-Hispanic whites (N  = 604) or Africans. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed binding sites for regulatory factor(s) in muscle cell nuclear extracts with putative IRE sequence. Antibody supershift assay using human aorta smooth muscle cell nuclear extract revealed that Elk-1 specifically binds to putative IRE. TaqMan real-time RT-PCR of the 5 bp deletion, the mutant and wild type cDNA expressed in COS-1 and human muscle cells revealed that the 5 bp deletion was associated with modest reduction in LPL expression. There was also a slight reduction in LPL translation in the deletion mutant. Our data suggest the presence of an IRE in the 3′UTR of the LPL gene.
Keywords: Lipoprotein lipase; Exon 10 mutation; Electrophoretic mobility shift assay;

Lipid bodies in oxidized LDL-induced foam cells are leukotriene-synthesizing organelles: a MCP-1/CCL2 regulated phenomenon by Adriana R. Silva; Patricia Pacheco; Adriana Vieira-de-Abreu; Clarissa M. Maya-Monteiro; Barbara D'Alegria; Kelly G. Magalhães; Edson F. de Assis; Christianne Bandeira-Melo; Hugo C. Castro-Faria-Neto; Patricia T. Bozza (1066-1075).
Lipid-laden foam macrophages are emerging as key players in early atherogenesis. Even though cytoplasmic lipid bodies (lipid droplets) are now recognized as organelles with cell functions beyond lipid storage, the mechanisms controlling lipid body biogenesis within macrophages and their additional functions in atherosclerosis are not completely elucidated. Here we studied oxLDL-elicited macrophage machinery involved in lipid body biogenesis as well as lipid body roles in leukotriene (LT) synthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro, oxLDL (but not native LDL) induced rapid assembly of cytoplasmic lipid bodies-bearing ADRP within mice macrophages. Such oxLDL-elicited foamy-like phenotype was a pertussis toxin-sensitive process that depended on a paracrine activity of endogenous MCP-1/CCL2 and activation of ERK. Pretreatment with neutralizing anti-MCP-1/CCL2 inhibited macrophage ADRP protein expression induced by oxLDL. By directly immuno-localizing leukotrienes at their sites of synthesis, we showed that oxLDL-induced newly formed lipid bodies function as active sites of LTB4 and LTC4 synthesis, since oxLDL-induced lipid bodies within foam macrophages compartmentalized the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase and five lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) as well as newly formed LTB4 and LTC4. Consistent with MCP-1/CCL-2 role in ox-LDL-induced lipid body biogenesis, in CCR2 deficient mice both ox-LDL-induced lipid body assembly and LT release were reduced as compared to wild type mice. In conclusion, oxLDL-driven foam cells are enriched with leukotriene-synthesizing lipid bodies – specialized organelles whose biogenic process is mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-triggered CCR2 activation and ERK-dependent downstream signaling – that may amplify inflammatory mediator production in atherosclerosis.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Foam cell; Lipid droplet; Lipoxygenase; Leukotriene; Inflammation; MCP-1/CCL2; ERK; Macrophage;

A pan-PPAR ligand induces hepatic fatty acid oxidation in PPARα−/− mice possibly through PGC-1 mediated PPARδ coactivation by Therese H. Røst; Line L. Haugan Moi; Kjetil Berge; Bart Staels; Gunnar Mellgren; Rolf K. Berge (1076-1083).
Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a hypolipidemic modified fatty acid and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligand. The mechanisms of TTA-mediated effects seem to involve the PPARs, but the effects have not been assigned to any specific PPAR subtype. PPARα−/− mice were employed to study the role of PPARα after TTA treatment. We also performed in vitro transfection assays to obtain mechanistic knowledge of how TTA affected PPAR activation in the presence of PPARγ coactivator (PGC)-1 and steroid receptor coactivators (SRC)-1 and SRC-2, which are associated with energy balance and mitochondrial biogenesis. We show that TTA increases hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation in PPARα−/− mice. TTA acts as a pan-PPAR ligand in vitro, and PGC-1, SRC-1 and SRC-2 have cell type and PPAR-specific effects together with TTA. In the absence of exogenous ligands, SRC-1 did not induce PPAR activity, while PGC-1 was the most potent PPAR coactivator. When the coactivators were overexpressed, pronounced effects of TTA were observed especially for PPARδ and PPARγ. We conclude that PPARα is involved in, but not required for, the hypolipidemic mechanisms of TTA. It appears that the activity of PPARδ, with substantial contribution of nuclear receptor coactivators, PGC-1 in special, is conducive to TTA's mechanism of action.
Keywords: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors; Nuclear receptor coactivators; Tetradecylthioacetic acid; Hypolipidemic; Acyl-CoA oxidase; Acyl-CoA synthetase;

The arachidonic acid effect on platelet nitric oxide level by Maria Grazia Signorello; Alessia Segantin; Giuliana Leoncini (1084-1092).
Arachidonic acid can act as a second messenger regulating many cellular processes among which is nitric oxide (NO) formation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the arachidonic acid effect on platelet NO level. Thus NO, cGMP and superoxide anion level, the phosphorylation status of nitric oxide synthase, the protein kinase C (PKC), and NADPH oxidase activation were measured. Arachidonic acid dose-dependently reduced NO and cGMP level. The thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 behaved in a similar way. The arachidonic acid or U46619 effect on NO concentration was abolished by the inhibitor of the thromboxane A2 receptor SQ29548 and partially reversed by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X or by the phospholipase C pathway inhibitor U73122. Moreover, it was shown that arachidonic acid activated PKC and decreased nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activities. The phosphorylation of the inhibiting eNOSthr495 residue mediated by PKC was increased by arachidonic acid, while no changes at the activating ser1177 residue were shown. Finally, arachidonic acid induced NADPH oxidase activation and superoxide anion formation. These effects were greatly reduced by GF109203X, U73122, and apocynin. Likely arachidonic acid reducing NO bioavailability through all these mechanisms could potentiate its platelet aggregating power.
Keywords: Arachidonic acid; Human platelet; Nitric oxide; Protein kinase C; Nitric oxide synthase; NADPH oxidase; Superoxide anion;

Expression of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis genes during zebrafish Danio rerio early embryogenesis by Óscar Monroig; Josep Rotllant; Elisa Sánchez; José M. Cerdá-Reverter; Douglas R. Tocher (1093-1101).
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential in important physiological processes, many of which are particularly vital during embryonic development. This study investigated the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis, namely fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and Elovl5- and Elovl2-like elongases, during early embryonic development of zebrafish. First, zebrafish elovl2 cDNA was isolated and functionally characterised in yeast, showing high specificity towards C20- and C22-PUFAs, compared to C18 substrates. Second, spatial-temporal expression for elovl2 and the previously cloned fad and elovl5 were studied during zebrafish early embryonic development. Temporal expression shows that all three genes are expressed from the beginning of embryogenesis (zygote), suggesting maternal mRNA transfer to the embryo. However, a complete activation of the biosynthetic pathway seems to be delayed until 12 hpf, when noticeable increases of fad and elovl2 transcripts were observed, in parallel with high docosahexaenoic acid levels in the embryo. Spatial expression was studied by whole-mount in situ hybridisation in 24 hpf embryos, showing that fad and elovl2 are highly expressed in the head area where neuronal tissues are developing. Interestingly, elovl5 shows specific expression in the pronephric ducts, suggesting an as yet unknown role in fatty acid metabolism during zebrafish early embryonic development. The yolk syncytial layer also expressed all three genes, suggesting an important role in remodelling of yolk fatty acids during zebrafish early embryogenesis. Tissue distribution in zebrafish adults demonstrates that the target genes are expressed in all tissues analysed, with liver, intestine and brain showing the highest expression.
Keywords: Development; Elovl2-like elongase; Elovl5-like elongase; Fatty acyl desaturase; LC-PUFA biosynthesis; Zebrafish;