BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1771, #12)

Ceramide and glucosylceramide upregulate expression of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1 in cancer cells by Valérie Gouazé-Andersson; Jing Y. Yu; Adam J. Kreitenberg; Alicja Bielawska; Armando E. Giuliano; Myles C. Cabot (1407-1417).
In the present study we used human breast cancer cell lines to assess the influence of ceramide and glucosylceramide (GC) on expression of MDR1, the multidrug resistance gene that codes for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), because GC has been shown to be a substrate for P-gp. Acute exposure (72 h) to C8-ceramide (5 μg/ml culture medium), a cell-permeable ceramide, increased MDR1 mRNA levels by 3- and 5-fold in T47D and in MDA-MB-435 cells, respectively. Acute exposure of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to C8-GC (10 μg/ml culture medium), a cell-permeable analog of GC, increased MDR1 expression by 2- and 4- fold, respectively. Chronic exposure of MDA-MB-231 cells to C8-ceramide for extended periods enhanced MDR1 mRNA levels 45- and 390-fold at passages 12 and 22, respectively, and also elicited expression of P-gp. High-passage C8-ceramide-grown MDA-MB-231 (MDA-MB-231/C8cer) cells were more resistant to doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Incubation with [1-14C]C6-ceramide showed that cells converted short-chain ceramide into GC, lactosylceramide, and sphingomyelin. When challenged with 5 μg/ml [1-14C]C6-ceramide, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, MCF-7, and T47D cells took up 31, 17, 21, and 13%, respectively, and converted 82, 58, 62, and 58% of that to short-chain GC. Exposing cells to the GCS inhibitor, ethylenedioxy-P4, a substituted analog of 1-phenyl-2-hexadecanoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol, prevented ceramide's enhancement of MDR1 expression. These experiments show that high levels of ceramide and GC enhance expression of the multidrug resistance phenotype in cancer cells. Therefore, ceramide's role as a messenger of cytotoxic response might be linked to the multidrug resistance pathway.
Keywords: Multidrug resistance; Ceramide; Glucosylceramide; P-glycoprotein; Breast cancer;

It was previously observed that cell confluence induced up-regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) and increased ceramide levels [Marchesini N., Osta W., Bielawski J., Luberto C., Obeid L.M. and Hannun Y.A. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 25101–11]. In this study, we show that, in MCF7 cells, confluence induces the dephosphorylation of phosphorylated-β-catenin at threonine41/serine45. The effect of confluence on β-catenin dephosphorylation was prevented by down regulation of nSMase2 using siRNA; reciprocally, exogenous addition of short or very long chain ceramides induced dephosphorylation of β-catenin. The serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitors calyculin A and okadaic acid prevented β-catenin dephosphorylation during confluence. The specific phosphatase involved was determined by studies using siRNA against the major serine/threonine phosphatases, and the results showed that a specific siRNA against PP1cγ prevented dephosphorylation of β-catenin. Moreover, exogenous ceramides and confluence were found to induce the translocation of PP1cγ to the plasma membrane. All together these results establish: A) a specific intracellular pathway involving the activation of PP1 to mediate the effects of confluence-induced β-catenin dephosphorylation and B) PP1 as a lipid-regulated protein phosphatase downstream of nSMase2/ceramide. Finally, evidence is provided for a role for this pathway in regulating cell motility during confluence.
Keywords: β-catenin; Neutral sphingomyelinase 2; Protein phosphatase 1; Confluence;

Alterations in lipoprotein homeostasis during human experimental endotoxemia and clinical sepsis by Johannes H.M. Levels; Dasja Pajkrt; Marcus Schultz; Frans J. Hoek; Arie van Tol; Joost C.M. Meijers; Sander J.H. van Deventer (1429-1438).
Cell wall constituents of bacteria are potent endotoxins initiating inflammatory responses which may cause dramatic changes in lipid metabolism during the acute phase response. In this study, the sequential changes in lipoprotein composition and lipid transfer and binding proteins during clinical sepsis and during low-dose experimental endotoxemia were followed. In addition, the effect on (phospho)lipid homeostasis by administration of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) prior to low-dose LPS administration was investigated. Changes in (apo)lipoprotein concentrations typical of the acute phase response were observed during clinical sepsis and experimental endotoxemia with and without the rHDL intervention. During clinical sepsis negative correlations between the acute phase marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP) activities were seen, whereas positive correlations between plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and acute phase markers such as CRP and LPS binding protein were observed. Plasma lipid changes upon rHDL/LPS infusion were comparable with the control group (low-dose LPS only). PLTP activity decreased upon LPS infusion and transiently increased during rHDL infusion, whereas LCAT activity slightly decreased upon both LPS infusion and LPS/rHDL infusion. However, long-lasting increases of circulating HDL cholesterol, apo A-I and a high initial processing of both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lyso-PC, were indicative for extensive rHDL and LDL remodelling. Both sepsis and experimental endotoxemia lead to a disbalance of lipid homeostasis. Depending on the magnitude of the inflammatory stimulus, LCAT and PLTP activities reacted in divergent ways. rHDL infusion did not prevent the lipid alterations seen during the acute phase response. However profound changes in both HDL and LDL phospholipid composition occurred upon rHDL infusion. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that PLTP as a positive acute phase protein, can accelerate the alterations in (phospho)lipid homeostasis thereby playing a role in the attenuation of the acute phase response.
Keywords: Lipoprotein; rHDL; Sepsis; Endotoxemia; Inflammation; PLTP;

Expression and physiological function of CYP4F subfamily in human eosinophils by Yasushi Kikuta; Junji Mizomoto; Henry W. Strobel; Hideo Ohkawa (1439-1445).
We investigated expression of the CYP4F subfamily in human leukocytes by flow cytometry using anti-CYP4F3A antibody and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). More than 90% of CD11b, CD13, CD14, CD33, and eosinophil marker-positive cells expressed CYP4F3A. mRNA for CYP4F3A was found in neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils. CYP4F12 mRNA was detected in eosinophils and neutrophils. In eosinophils, transcription of the CYP4F12 gene was started from two sites at 49 and 85 nucleotides upstream from the 3′ end of exon I. Recombinant CYP4F12 expressed in yeast cell microsomes catalyzed the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 6-trans-LTB4. In contrast, the CYP4F12 did not show any activity toward eicosanoids such as lipoxin A4 and 12-HETE, which are substrates for CYP4F3A, indicating that the physiological roles of CYP4F3A and CYP4F12 in eosinophils are different.
Keywords: Cytochrome P450; Eosinophil; ω-Hydroxylation; Eicosanoid;

The effects of various detergents and pH on the interfacial binding and activity of two fungal lipases from Yarrowia lipolytica (YLLIP2) and Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) were investigated using trioctanoin emulsions as well as monomolecular films spread at the air–water interface. Contrary to TLL, YLLIP2 was found to be more sensitive than TLL to interfacial denaturation but it was protected by detergent monomers and lowering the temperature. At pH 7.0, both the interfacial binding and the activities on trioctanoin of YLLIP2 and TLL were inhibited by sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC). At pH 6.0, however, YLLIP2 remained active on trioctanoin in the presence of NaTDC, whereas TLL did not. YLLIP2 activity on trioctanoin was associated with strong interfacial binding of the enzyme to trioctanoin emulsion, whereas TLL was mostly detected in the water phase. The combined effects of bile salts and pH on lipase activity were therefore enzyme-dependent. YLLIP2 binds more strongly than TLL at oil–water interfaces at low pH when detergents are present. These findings are particularly important for lipase applications, in particular for enzyme replacement therapy in patients with pancreatic enzyme insufficiency since high detergent concentrations and highly variable pH values can be encountered in the GI tract.
Keywords: Fungal lipase; Detergent; pH; Interfacial tension; Specific activity; Binding;

A N-terminal deleted version of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (ScPDAT), lacking the predicted membrane-spanning region, was fused in frame with alpha-factor secretion signal and expressed in Pichia pastoris under the control of the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase promoter. This resulted in a truncated, soluble and highly active PDAT protein secreted into the culture medium of the recombinant cells. The soluble as well as native membrane bound enzymes was shown to be glycosylated and extensive deglycosylation severely lowered the activity. The production of a soluble and extracellular PDAT allowed us to investigate substrate preferences of the enzyme without interference of endogenous lipids and enzymes. Similar to the membrane bound counterpart, the highest activity was achieved with acyl groups at sn-2 position of phosphatidylethanolamine as acyl donor and 1,2-diacylglycerols as acyl acceptor. The soluble enzyme was also able to catalyze, at a low rate, a number of transacylation reactions between various neutral lipids and between polar lipids and neutral lipids others than diacylglycerols, including acylation of long chain alcohols.
Keywords: Yeast; PDAT; Phospolipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase; Membrane spanning; Deletion; Transacylation;

Normal binding of lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, and apo-AV to GPIHBP1 containing a G56R amino acid substitution by Peter Gin; Anne P. Beigneux; Brandon Davies; Madeline F. Young; Robert O. Ryan; André Bensadoun; Loren G. Fong; Stephen G. Young (1464-1468).
GPIHBP1 is an endothelial cell protein that serves as a platform for lipoprotein lipase-mediated processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins within the capillaries of heart, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. The absence of GPIHBP1 causes severe chylomicronemia. A hallmark of GPIHBP1 is the ability to bind lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, and apolipoprotein (apo-) AV. A homozygous G56R mutation in GPIHBP1 was recently identified in two siblings with chylomicronemia, and the authors of that study suggested that the G56R substitution was responsible for the hyperlipidemia. In this study, we created a human GPIHBP1 expression vector, introduced the G56R mutation, and tested the ability of the mutant GPIHBP1 to reach the cell surface and bind lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, and apo-AV. Our studies revealed that the G56R substitution did not affect the ability of GPIHBP1 to reach the cell surface, nor did the amino acid substitution have any discernible effect on the binding of lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, or apo-AV.
Keywords: Chylomicronemia; GPIHBP1; Hypertriglyceridemia; Apolipoprotein AV; Lipoprotein lipase;