BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1771, #1)

A word of farewell and a word of welcome by Dennis Vance; Peter van der Vliet (1-2).

BBA in the year 2007 by Dennis E. Vance (3-4).

Hydrolysis of minor glycerophospholipids of plasma lipoproteins by human group IIA, V and X secretory phospholipases A2 by W. Pruzanski; G. Lambeau; M. Lazdunski; W. Cho; J. Kopilov; A. Kuksis (5-19).
We investigated the hydrolysis of the minor glycerophospholipids of human HDL3, total HDL and LDL using human group IIA, V and X secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s). For this purpose we employed the enzyme and substrate concentrations and incubation times optimized for hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), the major glycerophospholipid of plasma lipoproteins. In contrast to PtdCho, which was readily hydrolyzed by group V and X sPLA2s, and to a lesser extent by group IIA sPLA2, the minor ethanolamine, inositol and serine glycerophospholipids exhibited marked resistance to hydrolysis by all three sPLA2s. Thus, when PtdCho was hydrolyzed about 80%, the ethanolamine and inositol glycerophospholipids reached a maximum of 40% hydrolysis. The hydrolysis of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), which was examined to a more limited extent, showed similar resistance to group IIA, V and X sPLA2s, although the group V sPLA2 attacked it more readily than group X sPLA2 (52% versus 39% hydrolysis, respectively). Surprisingly, the group IIA sPLA2 hydrolysis remained minimal at 10–15% for all minor glycerophospholipids, and was of the order seen for the PtdCho hydrolysis by group IIA sPLA2 at the 4-h digestion time. All three enzymes attacked the oligo- and polyenoic species in proportion to their mole percentage in the lipoproteins, although there were exceptions. There was evidence of a more rapid destruction of the palmitoyl compared to the stearoyl arachidonoyl glycerophospholipids. Overall, the characteristics of hydrolysis of the molecular species of the lipoprotein-bound diradyl GroPEtn, GroPIns and GroPSer by group V and X sPLA2s differed significantly from those observed with lipoprotein-bound PtdCho. As a result, the acidic inositol and serine glycerophospholipids accumulated in the digestion residues of both LDL and HDL, and presumably increased the acidity of the residual particles. An accumulation of the ethanolamine glycerophospholipids in the sPLA2 digestion residues also had not been previously reported. These results further emphasize the diversity in the enzymatic activity of the group IIA, V and X sPLA2s. Since these sPLA2s possess comparable tissue distribution, their combined activity may exacerbate their known proinflammatory and proatherosclerotic function.
Keywords: Ethanolamine, inositol and serine glycerophospholipids; High density lipoprotein; Low density lipoprotein; In vitro incubation; Human group IIA; Group V and group X secretory phospholipases A2; Liquid chromatography/on-line mass spectrometry;

Conjugated EPA activates mutant p53 via lipid peroxidation and induces p53-dependent apoptosis in DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma human cells by Tsuyoshi Tsuzuki; Tomoko Kambe; Akira Shibata; Yuki Kawakami; Kiyotaka Nakagawa; Teruo Miyazawa (20-30).
Both conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which contains conjugated double bonds, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, have antitumor effects. Hence, we hypothesized that a combination of conjugated double bonds and an n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid may produce a stronger antitumor effect, and we have previously shown that conjugated EPA (CEPA), prepared by alkaline treatment of EPA, induces strong and selective apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, with the mechanism proceeding via lipid peroxidation. In this study, we examined CEPA-induced gene expression in DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma human cells carrying a mutant p53, in order to understand the details of CEPA-induced apoptosis via lipid peroxidation. DNA microarray analysis of 9970 genes was performed by comparison of CEPA-treated DLD-1 cells with untreated DLD-1 cells, thereby allowing determination of the differential gene expression profile induced by CEPA in these cells. CEPA treatment caused up-regulation of expression of genes induced by p53 and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway via Bax and the death pathway via TRAIL, leading to apoptosis of DLD-1 cells. In addition, activation of the mutant p53 was also induced by CEPA, and these effects showed lipid-peroxidation dependency. This is the first such gene expression analysis of the effects of CEPA, and our results confirm that CEPA induces lipid peroxidation, activates mutant p53, and causes p53-dependent apoptosis in DLD-1 cells.
Keywords: Apoptosis; Conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid; Conjugated fatty acid; DNA microarray; Lipid peroxidation; p53;

The NMR-visible mobile lipid (ML) signals of C6 glioma cells have been monitored at 9.4 and 11.7 T (single pulse and 136 ms echo time) from cell pellets by 1H NMR spectroscopy. A reproducible behavior with growth has been found. ML signals increase from log phase (4 days of culture) to postconfluence (7 days of culture). This ML behavior is paralleled by the percentage of cells containing epifluorescence detectable Nile Red stained cytosolic droplets (range 23%–60% of cells). The number of positive cells increases after seeding (days 0–1), decreases at log phase (days 2–4), increases again at confluence (day 5) and even further at post-confluence (day 7). C6 cells proliferation arrest induced by growth factors deprivation induces an even higher accumulation of cytosolic droplets (up to 100% of cells) and a large ML increase (up to 21-fold with respect to 4-day log phase cells). When neutral lipid content is quantified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on total lipid extracts of C6 cells, no statistically significant change can be detected (in μg/108 cells) with growth or growth arrest in major neutral lipid containing species (triacylglycerol, TAG, diacylglycerol, DAG, cholesteryl esters, ChoEst) except for DAG, which decreased in post-confluent, 7-day cells. The apparent discrepancy between NMR, optical microscopy and TLC results can be reconciled if possible biophysical changes in the neutral lipid pool with growth are taken into account. A cellular explanation for the observed results is proposed: the TAG-droplet-size-change hypothesis.
Keywords: NMR; ML; C6 cells; Optical microscopy; Thin-layer chromatography; Membrane recycling;

Double-label expression studies of prostacyclin synthase, thromboxane synthase and COX isoforms in normal aortic endothelium by Douglas W. Kawka; Marc Ouellet; Pierre-Olivier Hétu; Irwin I. Singer; Denis Riendeau (45-54).
We have performed double-label immunofluorescence microscopy studies to evaluate the extent of co-localization of prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) and thromboxane synthase (TXS) with cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 in normal aortic endothelium. In dogs, COX-2 expression was found to be restricted to small foci of endothelial cells while COX-1, PGIS and TXS were widely distributed throughout the endothelium. Quantification of the total cross-sectioned aortic endothelium revealed a 6- to 7-fold greater expression of COX-1 relative to COX-2 (55 vs. 8%) and greater co-distribution of PGIS with COX-1 compared to COX-2 (19 vs. 3%). These results are in contrast to the extensive co-localization of PGIS and COX-2 in bronchiolar epithelium. In rat and human aortas, immunofluorescence studies also showed significant COX-1 and PGIS co-localization in the endothelium. Only minor focal COX-2 expression was detected in rat endothelium, similar to the dog, while COX-2 was not detected in human specimens. Inhibition studies in rats showed that selective COX-1 inhibition caused a marked reduction of 6-keto-PGF and TXB2 aortic tissue levels, while COX-2 inhibition had no significant effect, providing further evidence for a functionally larger contribution of COX-1 to the synthesis of prostacyclin and thromboxane in aortic tissue. The data suggest a major role for COX-1 in the production of both prostacyclin and thromboxane in normal aortic tissue. The extensive co-localization of PGIS and COX-2 in the lung also indicates significant tissue differences in the co-expression patterns of these two enzymes.
Keywords: Cyclooxygenase; Prostacyclin synthase; Vascular endothelium; Prostacyclin; Thromboxane;

We report a novel 48-kDa tear acid-lipase-like protein (TALLP), which is markedly induced in lacrimal glands (LG) and secreted in tears of hamster dams during lactation. TALLP is undetectable in LG and tears of normal hamsters, but is also induced after gonadectomy in both sexes and this is prevented by androgen, estrogen or thyroid hormone treatment. These observations and the obliteration of TALLP upon cessation of lactation suggest that endogenous estrogens (in females) and androgens (in males) completely repress TALLP expression. Purified TALLP is monomeric, contains ∼ 18% N-glycosylation and several pI isoforms. TALLP expression was tissue-specific and immunolocalized in LG acinar cells. The cDNA deduced amino-acid sequence of TALLP precursor (398 residue, containing a 19 residues signal-peptide) showed only 43–48% identity with all known mammalian acid-lipases, including even those of other rodents, suggesting that TALLP is a prototype of a new category, within the acid-lipase family. Surprisingly, although the catalytic triad residues and other sequence features important for lipolytic activity are conserved in TALLP, it has no detectable lipase activity. However, TALLP binds the polarity sensitive hydrophobic probe, 1-aminoanthracene (K d  = 12 μM). TALLP might have a unique substrate-specificity or a lipid-binding/carrier function in tears of hamster dams. This is the first report of an acid-lipase-like protein secreted in tears of any species. Since TALLP lacks the usual lipase activity, it can be an excellent model to understand better what other structural features in acid-lipases influence their catalytic activity.
Keywords: Acid lipase; Sex hormone; Thyroid hormone; Lactation; Tear film lipid; Lacrimal gland; Syrian hamster; Lipocalin; Harderian gland;

Heat shock protein 70 is translocated to lipid droplets in rat adipocytes upon heat stimulation by Hongfeng Jiang; Jinhan He; Shenshen Pu; Chaoshu Tang; Guoheng Xu (66-74).
In mammalian cells, lipid storage droplets contain a triacylglycerol and cholesterol ester core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer into which a number of proteins are imbedded. These proteins are thought to be involved in modulating the formation and metabolic functions of the lipid droplet. In this study, we show that heat stress upregulates several heat shock proteins (Hsps), including Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90, and Grp78, in primary and differentiated adipocytes. Immunostaining and immunoblotting data indicate that among the Hsps examined, only Hsp70 is induced to redirect to the lipid droplet surface in heat-stressed adipocytes. The thermal induction of Hsp70 translocation to lipid droplet does not typically happen in a temperature- or time-dependent manner and occurs abruptly at 30–40 min and rapidly achieves a steady state within 60 min after 40 °C stress of adipocytes. Though Hsp70 is co-localized with perilipin on the lipid droplets in stressed adipocytes, immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Hsp70 does not directly interact with perilipin. Alkaline treatments indicate that Hsp70 associates with the droplet surface through non-hydrophobic interactions. We speculate that Hsp70 might noncovalently associate with monolayer microdomains of the lipid droplet in a manner similar to its interaction with lipid bilayer moieties composed of specific fatty acids. As an acute and specific cellular response to the heat stimulation, accumulation of Hsp70 on adipocytes lipid droplets might be involved in stabilizing the droplet monolayer, transferring nascent proteins to the lipid droplets, or chaperoning denatured proteins on the droplet for subsequent refolding.
Keywords: Heat shock protein; Lipid droplet; Lipid body; Thermal stress; Heat shock; Translocation; Perilipin; Adipocyte; Lipid membrane;

Ontogeny of mRNA expression and activity of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) isoforms in Mus musculus heart by Hendrik de Jong; Andrea C. Neal; Rosalind A. Coleman; Tal M. Lewin (75-82).
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids (FA) and provide substrates for virtually every metabolic pathway that catabolizes FA or synthesizes complex lipids. We have hypothesized that each of the five cloned ACSL isoforms partitions FA towards specific downstream pathways. Adult heart expresses all five cloned ACSL isoforms, but their independent functional roles have not been elucidated. Studies implicate ACSL1 in both oxidative and lipid synthetic pathways. To clarify the functional role of ACSL1 and the other ACSL isoforms (3–6), we examined ACS specific activity and Acsl mRNA expression in the developing mouse heart which increases FA oxidative pathways for energy production after birth. Compared to the embryonic heart, ACS specific activity was 14-fold higher on post-natal day 1 (P1). On P1, as compared to the fetus, only Acsl1 mRNA increased, whereas transcripts for the other Acsl isoforms remained the same, suggesting that ACSL1 is the major isoform responsible for activating long-chain FA for myocardial oxidation after birth. In contrast, the mRNA abundance of Acsl3 was highest on E16, and decreased dramatically by P7, suggesting that ACSL3 may play a critical role during the development of the fetal heart. Our data support the hypothesis that each ACSL has a specific role in the channeling of FA towards distinct metabolic fates.
Keywords: Fatty acid activation; Heart ontogeny; Heart fatty acid oxidation; Heart lipid synthesis; Heart phospholipid composition;

Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity of yeast Sec14p is not essential for its function in vivo by Dana Tahotna; Roman Holic; Katarina Poloncova; Maria Simockova; Peter Griac (83-92).
Yeast phosphatidylinositol (PI)/phosphatidylcholine (PC) transfer protein, Sec14p, is essential for protein transport from the Golgi apparatus and for the cell viability. It is instrumental in maintaining the lipid composition of the Golgi membranes to be compatible with vesicle biogenesis and the secretory process by coordination of PC and PI metabolism. To address the question to which extent PC transfer ability of Sec14p is required for its essential in vivo function we generated a Sec14p mutant unable to transfer PC between membranes in the in vitro assay. Yeast cells with this modified Sec14pD115G as a sole Sec14p were viable with improved secretory activity compared to sec14 deficient strain. Thus, in vitro PC transfer ability of Sec14p is not required for its essential function(s) in living cells, however, yeast cells having PC transfer deficient Sec14pD115G as a sole Sec14p display regulatory abnormalities, including increased phospholipase D mediated PC turnover.
Keywords: Lipid transfer; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Sec14p; Phosphatidylinositol; Phosphatidylcholine;

Secretion and lysophospholipase D activity of autotaxin by adipocytes are controlled by N-glycosylation and signal peptidase by Jean Philippe Pradère; Evelyne Tarnus; Sandra Grès; Philippe Valet; Jean Sébastien Saulnier-Blache (93-102).
Autotaxin (ATX) is a lysophospholipase D involved in synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is secreted by adipocytes and is associated with adipogenesis and obesity-associated diabetes. Here we have studied the mechanisms involved in biosynthesis and secretion of ATX by mouse 3T3-F442A adipocytes. We found that inhibition of N-glycosylation with tunicamycin or by double point deletion of the amino-acids N53 and N410 of ATX inhibit its secretion. In addition, N-glycosidase treatment and point deletion of the amino-acid N410 inhibits the lysophospholipase D activity of ATX. Analysis of the amino-acid sequence of mouse ATX shows the presence of a N-terminal signal peptide. Treatment with the signal peptidase inhibitor globomycin inhibits ATX secretion by adipocytes. Transfection in Cos-7 cells of site-directed deleted ATX shows that ATX secretion is dependent on the hydrophobic core sequence of the signal peptide, not on the putative signal peptidase cleavage site sequence. Analysis of the amino-acid sequence of mouse ATX also reveals the presence of a putative cleavage site by the protein convertase furin. Treatment of adipocytes with the furin inhibitor decanoyl-Arg–Val–Lys–Arg–chloromethylketone does not modified secretion or lysophospholipase D activity of ATX. Transfection in Cos-7 cells of site-directed deleted ATX shows that the furin recognition site is not required for secretion or lysophospholipase D activity of ATX. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates the crucial role of N-glycosylation in secretion and activity of ATX. The present work also confirms the crucial role signal peptidase in secretion of ATX by adipocytes.
Keywords: autotaxine; lysophospholipase D; adipocyte; secretion; glycosylation; signal peptide; furin;

Inhibition of transcellular tumor cell migration and metastasis by novel carba-derivatives of cyclic phosphatidic acid by Ayako Uchiyama; Mutsuko Mukai; Yuko Fujiwara; Susumu Kobayashi; Nobuyuki Kawai; Hiromu Murofushi; Masahiro Inoue; Shigenori Enoki; Yuichiro Tanaka; Tamotsu Niki; Tetsuyuki Kobayashi; Gabor Tigyi; Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi (103-112).
Cyclic phosphatidic acid (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-2,3-cyclic phosphate; cPA) is a naturally occurring analog of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) with a variety of distinctly different biological activities from those of LPA. In contrast to LPA, a potent inducer of tumor cell invasion, palmitoyl-cPA inhibits FBS- and LPA-induced transcellular migration and metastasis. To prevent the conversion of cPA to LPA we synthesized cPA derivatives by stabilizing the cyclic phosphate ring; to prevent the cleavage of the fatty acid we generated alkyl ether analogs of cPA. Both sets of compounds were tested for inhibitory activity on transcellular tumor cell migration. Carba derivatives, in which the phosphate oxygen was replaced with a methylene group at either the sn-2 or the sn-3 position, showed much more potent inhibitory effects on MM1 tumor cell transcellular migration and the pulmonary metastasis of B16-F0 melanoma than the natural pal-cPA. The antimetastatic effect of carba-cPA was accompanied by the inhibition of RhoA activation and was not due to inhibition of the activation of LPA receptors.
Keywords: Cyclic phosphatidic acid; Lysophosphatidic acid, LPA; Invasion; Metastasis;

Adipose tissue contributes to plasma levels of lipid transfer proteins and is also the major source of plasma adipokines. We hypothesized that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET, a measure of CETP action) are determined by adipokine levels. In this study, relationships of plasma CETP mass, PLTP activity and CET with leptin, resistin and adiponectin were analyzed in type 2 diabetic patients and control subjects. Plasma PLTP activity (P  < 0.001), CET (P  < 0.001), leptin (P  = 0.003), resistin (P  < 0.001), high sensitive C-reactive protein (P  = 0.005), and insulin resistance (HOMAir) (P  < 0.001) were higher, whereas HDL cholesterol (P  < 0.001) and plasma adiponectin (P  < 0.001) were lower in 83 type 2 diabetic patients (32 females) than in 83 sex-matched control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that in diabetic patients plasma leptin levels were related to plasma CETP mass (P  = 0.018) and PLTP activity (P  < 0.001), but not to the other adipokines measured. Plasma CET was inversely correlated with adiponectin in univariate analysis, but this association disappeared in multivariate models that included plasma lipids and CETP. In conclusion, both plasma CETP mass and PLTP activity are associated with plasma leptin in type 2 diabetes. The elevated CET in these patients is not independently related to any of the measured plasma adipokines.
Keywords: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein; Phospholipid transfer protein; Leptin; Resistin; Adiponectin; Type 2 diabetes;

Although each of the five mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) can bind saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ranging from 12 to 22 carbons, ACSL4 prefers longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. In order to gain a better understanding of ACSL4 fatty acid binding, we based a mutagenesis approach on sequence alignments related to ttLC-FACS crystallized from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Four residues selected for mutagenesis corresponded to residues in ttLC-FACS that comprise the fatty acid binding pocket; the fifth residue aligned with a region thought to be involved in fatty acid selectivity of the Escherichia coli acyl-CoA synthetase, FadD. Changing an amino acid at the entry of the putative fatty acid binding pocket, G401L, resulted in an inactive enzyme. Mutating a residue near the pocket entry, L399M, did not significantly alter enzyme activity, but mutating a residue at the hydrophobic terminus of the pocket, S291Y, altered ACSL4's preference for 20:5 and 22:6 and increased its apparent K m for ATP. Mutating a site in a region previously identified as important for fatty acid binding also altered activation of 20:4 and 20:5. These studies suggested that the preference of ACSL4 for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids can be modified by altering specific amino acid residues.
Keywords: Acyl-CoA synthetase; Polyunsaturated fatty acid; Mutagenesis; Fatty acid binding; Kinetics; Arachidonic acid;

Acknowledgement (126-128).