BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1736, #1)

Phospholipase D (PLD) has been implicated in different cellular processes in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Recent results have provided insights into the molecular mechanism by which PLD and its lipid product phosphatidic acid (PA) participate in cell signaling. Effector proteins that have been identified for PLD and PA in plants include a heterotrimeric G protein, protein phosphatase, and protein kinase. Evidence has been presented for a direct link from a PLD, PA, to a target protein in specific physiological processes. PLD and PA play multiple roles in the signaling networks of plant response to abscisic acid and reactive oxygen species.
Keywords: Phospholipase D; Phosphatidic acid; Abscisic acid; Reactive oxygen specie; Plant stress response; Root; Guard cell; G protein; Protein kinase; Protein phosphatase; Lipid signaling;

In all animals, lipoproteins are used to transport lipids through the aqueous circulation. Lipids are delivered to mammalian cells by two different mechanisms: via endocytic uptake of the complete lipoprotein particle mediated by members of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) family, or by selective delivery of lipoprotein-carried lipids at the cell surface, such as lipid uptake following the action of a lipoprotein lipase. Although many structural elements of the lipid transport system of insects are similar to those of mammals, insect lipoprotein-mediated lipid transport was thought to apply only to the latter concept, since the single lipoprotein acts as a reusable lipid shuttle. However, the recent identification of lipoprotein receptors of the LDLR family in insects suggests that lipid transport in these animals may also adopt the first concept. Yet, the endocytic properties of the insect LDLR homologue appear to deviate from those of the mammalian LDLR family members, resulting in the recycling of endocytosed lipoprotein in a transferrin-like manner. This indicates that a hitherto unknown as well as unexpected function can be added to the plethora of functions of LDLR family members. Analysis of the molecular mechanism of the ligand-recycling function of the insect receptor provides also new insight into the possible functioning of the mammalian family members. In the last several years, mammalian and insect lipoprotein-mediated lipid transport systems have been reviewed separately with respect to functioning and lipid delivery. This review, in which new and important developments in the insect field with respect to our understanding of lipid delivery are discussed with a particular focus on the involvement of the LDLR homologue, aims at comparing the two systems, also from an evolutionary biological perspective, and proposes that the two systems are more similar than assumed previously.
Keywords: Lipophorin; Ligand recycling; Receptor-mediated endocytosis; Selective lipid delivery; Non-selective lipid delivery; LpR; Transferrin;

The 5-lipoxygenase pathway in arterial wall biology and atherosclerosis by Katharina Lötzer; Colin D. Funk; Andreas J.R. Habenicht (30-37).
Leukotrienes (LTs) are powerful inflammatory lipid mediators derived from the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) cascade of arachidonic acid. Recent clinical, population genetic, cell biological, and mouse studies indicate participation of the 5-LO pathway in atherogenesis and arterial wall remodeling. 5-LO is expressed by leukocytes including blood monocytes, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. LTB4 and the cysteinyl LTs LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, act through two BLT and two cysLT receptors that are differentially expressed on hematopoietic and arterial wall cells. The precise roles of LTs or the LT receptors in cardiovascular physiology remain largely to be explored. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the 5-LO atherosclerosis connection. We will attempt to propose strategies to further explore potential links between the 5-LO pathway and blood vessel physiology and disease progression.
Keywords: 5-Lipoxygenase; Leukotriene; Arachidonic acid; Inflammation; Cardiovascular disease; Atherogenesis;

Human groups IIA, V and X secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) were incubated with human HDL3, total HDL and LDL over a range of enzyme and substrate concentrations and exposure times. The residual phosphatidylcholines (PtdChos) were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS). The enzymes varied markedly in their rates of hydrolysis of the different molecular species and in the production of lysoPtdCho. The sPLA2s were compared at a concentration of 1 μg/ml and an incubation time of 4 h, when all three enzymes showed significant activity. The groups V and X sPLA2 were up to 20 times more reactive than group IIA sPLA2. Group X sPLA2 hydrolyzed arachidonate and linoleate containing species preferentially, while group V hydrolyzed the linoleates in preference to polyunsaturates. In all instances, the arachidonoyl and linoleoyl palmitates were hydrolyzed in preference to the corresponding stearates by group X sPLA2. The group IIA enzyme appeared to hydrolyze randomly all diacyl molecular species. The minor alkylacyl and alkenylacyl glycerophosphocholines (GroPChos) were poor substrates for groups V and X sPLA2s and these phospholipids tended to accumulate. The present study demonstrates a preferential release of arachidonate from plasma lipoprotein PtdCho by group X sPLA2, as well as a relative resistance of polyunsaturated PtdChos to hydrolysis by group V enzyme, which had not been previously documented. The use of lipoprotein PtdCho as substrate with LC/ESI-MS identification of hydrolyzed molecular species eliminates much of the uncertainty about sPLA2 specificity arising from past analyses of fatty acid release from unknown or ill-defined sources.
Keywords: Phosphatidylcholine; Lysophosphatidylcholine; Molecular species; High density lipoprotein; Low density lipoprotein; In vitro incubation; Human group IIA; Group V and group X secretory phospholipases A2; Liquid chromatography/on-line mass spectrometry;

Isohumulones modulate blood lipid status through the activation of PPARα by Masako Shimura; Akiko Hasumi; Toshiko Minato; Mayu Hosono; Yutaka Miura; Satoru Mizutani; Keiji Kondo; Shinichi Oikawa; Aruto Yoshida (51-60).
Isohumulones derived from hops are the major bitter compounds in beer. It was recently reported that isohumulones activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α and γ in vitro and modulated glucose and lipid metabolism in vivo. In this study, we examined the effects of isomerized hop extract (IHE) primarily containing isohumulones in C57BL/6N male mice and found that such treatment increased their liver weight and reduced their plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Microarray analysis and quantitative real time PCR (QPCR) showed that IHE dose-dependently upregulated the expression of a battery of hepatic genes that are involved in microsomal ω-oxidation and peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation. These effects were common in both genders and very similar to those found with the PPARα agonist, fenofibrate (FF). Moreover, these effects were not found in PPARα-deficient mice. Thus, our results strongly suggest that IHE intake upregulates the expression of key genes that are involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation, and that it ameliorates the blood lipid profile by activating PPARα.
Keywords: Isohumulone; Hop; Beer; PPARα; Fatty acid oxidation; Triglyceride; Liver; Microarray; Nutrigenomics; Atherosclerosis;

Incorporation and metabolism of c9,t11 and t10,c12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in rat brain by Mauro Fa; Andrea Diana; Gianfranca Carta; Lina Cordeddu; Maria Paola Melis; Elisabetta Murru; Valeria Sogos; Sebastiano Banni (61-66).
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to exert several biological activities in different organs, in particular organs such as adipose and mammary tissue where CLA accumulates preferentially because of its high incorporation into neutral lipids. However, despite numerous studies carried out in different experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, very little is known about the accumulation and metabolism of CLA in the brain. In this communication we present data showing that the two CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12 are actively incorporated and metabolised in rat brain, and in cultures of astrocytes in vitro with patterns remarkably similar to those previously reported to occur in other tissues and cells. However, beta oxidation of CLA was found to be more efficient in brain than in other tissues, with t10,c12 a better substrate than the c9,t11 isomer. CLA incorporation and metabolism have been linked to antiinflammatory and antiproliferative activities in experimental models. Therefore, CLA activity in brain could have a positive impact on neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and adrenoleukodystrophy, where an observed increase in inflammatory responses seems to contribute heavily to the pathogenesis.
Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid; Brain; Fatty acid; Peroxisome;

In vitro polyphenol effects on activity, expression and secretion of pancreatic bile salt-dependent lipase by Véronique Sbarra; Elodie Ristorcelli; Josette Le Petit-Thévenin; Pierre-Louis Teissedre; Dominique Lombardo; Alain Vérine (67-76).
The relationship between cholesterol and atherosclerosis has gained wide credence and red wine polyphenols have been shown to have an anti-atherogenic activity. In the present in vitro studies, we have evaluated and compared the effects of resveratrol, an active compound of red wine, and of a whole red wine polyphenolic extract (RWE) on the pancreatic bile salt-dependent lipase (BSDL). BSDL is involved in the duodenal hydrolysis of lipid esters and in part of cholesteryl esters thus favoring the bioavailability of free cholesterol. Resveratrol and RWE decrease the human and rat enzyme activities. Resveratrol and RWE also impaired the secretion of BSDL by the rat pancreatic AR4-2J cells used as secreting model. This effect is reversed by the removal of resveratrol or RWE from the cell culture medium. Further, resveratrol (but not RWE) affects the transcription of the gene encoding BSDL and dramatically diminishes the quantity of the enzyme that is expressed and secreted by AR4-2J cells. Results suggest that the hypolipemic effects of red wine polyphenols could partly originate from the inhibition of BSDL activity and secretion in the duodenum. In vivo, these effects could decrease the hydrolysis of dietary lipid esters and likely the absorption of free cholesterol.
Keywords: Bile salt-dependent lipase; Pancreas; Resveratrol; Red wine extract;

Effects of fish oil feeding and fasting on LXRα/RXRα binding to LXRE in the SREBP-1c promoter in mouse liver by Teruyo Nakatani; Aki Katsumata; Shinji Miura; Yasutomi Kamei; Osamu Ezaki (77-86).
High-fish oil feeding and fasting down-regulate sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA level and suppress lipogenesis in mouse liver. Previous promoter analysis revealed that liver X receptor α (LXRα)/retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) complex was required for SREBP-1c gene expression in cell culture. In in vitro studies, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, n-6, n-3) inhibited binding of LXRα/RXRα heterodimer to LXR responsive elements (LXREs) in the SREBP-1c promoter. To examine whether fish oil feeding and fasting would also inhibit its binding to LXREs in mouse liver, active liver nuclear extracts were prepared by percoll gradient centrifugation, and gel mobility shift assay was conducted. Although 1- to 5-day fish oil feeding and 2-day fasting decreased SREBP-1c mRNA by 45–68% and 65%, respectively, fish oil feeding decreased binding of LXR/RXR heterodimer to LXREs by 0–26%, while 2-day fasting decreased their binding by 40–56%. Luciferase assay using mutation of LXREs in mouse primary hepatocytes revealed that the LXR ligand, T0901317, induced increased transcription of SREBP-1c mRNA was mediated by LXREs, but it is unknown whether fish oil/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-induced down-regulation of SREBP-1c mRNA was mediated by LXREs. These data indicate that high-fish oil feeding might decrease SREBP-1c mRNA partly by decreased transcription of SREBP-1c, but if so, the binding inhibition of LXRα to LXREs might not be a major cause, while fasting decreased SREBP-1c mRNA, mainly by its binding inhibition of LXRα to LXREs in the SREBP-1c promoter.
Keywords: Sterol regulatory element-binding protein; Liver X receptor; Fish oil; Fasting; Promoter; Polyunsaturated fatty acid;