BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1636, #1)

Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is made in mammalian cells by two PtdSer synthases, PSS1 and PSS2. In the plasma membrane PtdSer is normally localized on the inner leaflet but undergoes transbilayer movement during apoptosis and becomes exposed on the cell surface. We induced apoptosis with staurosporine in four Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that are deficient in PSS1 and/or PSS2 to determine if PtdSer generated by either of these enzymes is required for externalization on the cell surface during apoptosis. The onset of apoptosis was confirmed by the appearance of morphological changes and DNA fragmentation while the plasma membrane remained largely intact. In all cell lines, regardless of their content of PSS1 and/or PSS2, apoptosis occurred to approximately the same extent, and within approximately the same time frame, as in parental CHO-K1 cells. The exposure of PtdSer on the cell surface was assessed by annexin V labeling and flow cytometry. Cells that were deficient in either PSS1 or PSS2, as well as cells that were deficient in both PSS1 and PSS2, externalized normal amounts of PtdSer. Our study demonstrates, that reduction of in vitro serine-exchange activity, even by 97%, does not restrict the externalization of PtdSer during apoptosis. Moreover, a normal level of expression of PSS1 and/or PSS2 is not required for generating the pool of PtdSer externalized during apoptosis.
Keywords: Externalization; Phosphatidylserine; Synthase;

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid mediator generated from sphingosine by sphingosine kinase (SPHK). S1P acts both extracellularly and intracellularly as a signaling molecule, although its intracellular targets are still undefined. Intracellular level of S1P is under strict regulatory control of SPHK regulation, S1P degradation, and S1P dephosphorylation. Therefore, clarifying the mechanisms regulating SPHK activity may help us understand when and where S1P is generated. In this study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening to search for SPHK1a-binding molecules that may be involved in the regulation of the kinase localization or activity. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) was identified as a protein potentially associating with SPHK1a. Their association was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis using HEK293 cells overexpressing PECAM-1 and SPHK1a. Moreover, the kinase activity appeared to be reduced in stable PECAM-1-expressing cells. PECAM-1 is expressed on the cell surface of vascular cells, and several stimuli are known to induce phosphorylation of its tyrosine residues. We found that such phosphorylation attenuated its association with SPHK1a. This association/dissociation of SPHK with PECAM-1, regulated by the phosphorylated state of the membrane protein, may be involved in the control of localized kinase activity in certain cell types.
Keywords: Sphingosine kinase; Sphingosine 1-phosphate; PECAM-1; Phosphorylation; Wheat germ agglutinin;

Binding site for fungal β-lactone hymeglusin on cytosolic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase by Hiroshi Tomoda; Naomi Ohbayashi; Yuko Morikawa; Hidetoshi Kumagai; Satoshi Ōmura (22-28).
We studied the molecular mechanism through which the fungal β-lactone, hymeglusin, potently and specifically inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase. [14C]Hymeglusin covalently bound to purified rat liver and to recombinant hamster cytosolic HMG-CoA synthases. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited at a binding ratio of 1.6–2.0 mol [14C]hymeglusin/mol HMG-CoA synthase. Incubating the enzyme with 2 mM iodoacetamide (IAA) or 2 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) but not with 1.0 mM diisopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP) completely inhibited the binding, suggesting that hymeglusin binds to a Cys residue of HMG-CoA synthase. Recombinant hamster HMG-CoA synthase labeled with [3H]hymeglusin was digested with V8 protease, and the [3H]peptide was purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sequence of the peptide was Ser-Gly-Asn-Thr-Asp-Ile-Glu-Gly-Ile-Asp-Thr-Thr-Asn-Ala-[3H]hymeglusyl Cys-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Thr-Ala-Ala-Val-Phe-Asn-Ala-Val-Asn-, which corresponds to the active site sequence (from Ser 115 to Asn 141) of hamster HMG-CoA synthase. These findings showed that hymeglusin inhibits hamster cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase by covalently modifying the active Cys 129 residue of the enzyme.
Keywords: Binding site; Hymeglusin; Cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase;

Phospholipase D (PLD) is expressed in many tissues and stimulated by growth factors and cytokines. However, the role of PLD in signal transduction is still not well-understood. Human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells exhibit low levels of both PLD1 and PLD2 mRNA, however, only PLD1 protein was detected by Western blot. When either isoform of PLD was stably expressed in HEK-293 cells, we observed an increased PLD activity in a cell-free system and a 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol acetate (TPA)-stimulated increase in PLD activity in intact cells. This system was then used to elucidate the effects of PLD activity on TPA-stimulated signaling pathways. Two such pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 are activated by growth factors and cellular stress, respectively. We found that TPA stimulated ERK phosphorylation regardless of the expression status of PLD. In contrast to ERK kinase, HEK-293 cells were unable to induce p38 phosphorylation by TPA stimulation. When HEK-293 cells expressed either PLD1 or PLD2, we observed elevated p38 phosphorylation in response to TPA stimulation. The ERK and p38 MAPKs can also stimulate the expression of both cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). We used this system to differentiate the effect of PLD1 or PLD2 activity on the expression of Cox-2 and IL-8. Increased Cox-2 and IL-8 expression was found only in HEK-293 cells expressing PLD1. These data identify a novel role for the PLD1 isoform in the induction of gene expression and provide new insight into the differential role of PLD1 and PLD2 in cells.
Keywords: Phospholipase D; Mitogen-activated protein kinase; Extracellular regulated protein kinase;

Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the endothelial lipase (LIPG) gene and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by Amy R. Mank-Seymour; Kathryn L. Durham; John F. Thompson; Albert B. Seymour; Patrice M. Milos (40-46).
Endothelial lipase (LIPG) is the latest addition to the triglyceride lipase family of genes that includes pancreatic lipase (PL), hepatic lipase (HL), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). These lipolytic enzymes demonstrate both triglyceride lipase as well as phospholipase activities and are integrally involved in lipid absorption, transport, and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that LIPG is important for affecting lipid levels in mice but the data in humans is less complete. To more thoroughly characterize the LIPG gene, we resequenced it from an ethnically diverse population. Thirteen novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and seven others confirmed. High linkage disequilibrium was found among these SNPs spanning the length of the transcript, allowing interrogation of the entire gene for functional variation. Subjects with either high or low HDL cholesterol were used to investigate its association with LIPG gene variation. Associations were found with the most significant being the intronic variants C+42T/In5 and T+2864C/In8 (P=0.007 and 0.004, respectively). A trend for an association of the same SNPs with fewer myocardial infarctions (P=0.03) was also observed but was not significant after correction for multiple testing. The results of this study provide data linking variation in the human LIPG gene with HDL cholesterol levels as well as further evidence in support of LIPG as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
Keywords: Lipid; Genetics; Association study;

To elucidate the reaction mechanism of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), the enzyme from guava (Psidium guajava) fruits, was incubated for 10–60 s at 0 °C with 13-HPOT. The products were rapidly extracted and derivatized by trimethylsilylation. Two trapping products, namely the trimethylsilyl ether/ester derivatives of the hemiacetal 12-(1′-hydroxy-3′-hexenyloxy)-9,11-dodecadienoic acid and the enol (9Z,11E)-12-hydroxy-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The structural assignments were supported by mass spectra recorded for (a) hydrogenated products; (b) products biosynthesized from [9,10,12,13,15,16] 13-HPOT or [18O2]13-HPOT; (c) chemically prepared reference compounds. Kinetic experiments showed that the hemiacetal and enol were both unstable and transiently appearing compounds (half-lives, ca. 20 s and 2 min, respectively). Hemiacetal and enol biosynthesized from [18O2]13-HPOT retained two and one 18O atoms, respectively, whereas no 18O was incorporated from [18O]water. The data demonstrated that: (1) the true enzymatic product formed from 13-HPOT in the presence of HPL is a short-lived hemiacetal; (2) the hemiacetal spontaneously dissociates into (3Z)-hexenal and the unstable enol form of (9Z)-12-oxo-9-dodecenoic acid; (3) the enzymatic isomerization of 13-HPOT into the hemiacetal occurs homolytically.
Keywords: Hydroperoxide lyase; α-Linolenic acid 13-hydroperoxide; Hemiacetal; Oxylipin; Guava (Psidium guajava);

Induction of lipolysis in vitro and loss of body fat in vivo by zinc-α2-glycoprotein by Steven T. Russell; Thomas P. Zimmerman; Barbara A. Domin; Michael J. Tisdale (59-68).
Loss of adipose tissue in cancer cachexia has been associated with tumour production of a lipid-mobilizing factor (LMF) which has been shown to be homologous with the plasma protein zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG). The aim of this study was to compare the ability of human ZAG with LMF to stimulate lipolysis in vitro and induce loss of body fat in vivo, and to determine the mechanisms involved. ZAG was purified from human plasma using a combination of Q Sepharose and Superdex 75 chromatography, and was shown to stimulate glycerol release from isolated murine epididymal adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was enhanced by the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro20-1724, and attenuated by freeze/thawing and the specific β3-adrenoreceptor antagonist SR59230A. In vivo ZAG caused highly significant, time-dependent, decreases in body weight without a reduction in food and water intake. Body composition analysis showed that loss of body weight could be attributed entirely to the loss of body fat. Loss of adipose tissue may have been due to the lipolytic effect of ZAG coupled with an increase in energy expenditure, since there was a dose-dependent increase in expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that ZAG may be effective in the treatment of obesity.
Keywords: Zinc-α2-glycoprotein; Cachexia; Obesity; Lipid catabolism; β3-adrenoreceptor;

The effect of inhibition of acylCoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) was studied on high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. An inhibitor of ACAT, MCC-147, was given mouse peritoneal macrophages and expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) was examined. ABCA1 was increased both at the mRNA and protein levels, only when the cells are cholesterol-loaded and thereby the inhibitor decreased esterified cholesterol and increased unesterified cholesterol. In this condition, the ACAT inhibitor increased reversible binding of apoA-I to the cells and enhanced apoA-I-mediated release of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid, but did not influence nonspecific cellular cholesterol efflux to lipid microemulsion. It was therefore concluded that the ACAT inhibitor increased the release of cholesterol from the cholesterol-loaded macrophages by increasing the expression of ABCA1, putatively through shifting cholesterol distribution from the esterified to the free compartments.
Keywords: ACAT inhibitor; Cholesterol; Macrophage; apoA-I; ABCA1; HDL;