BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1583, #1)

Shedding light on the metabolism of phospholipids in the retina by Beatriz L Caputto; Mario E Guido (1-12).
Keywords: Metabolism; Phospholipid; Retina;

Sphingolipid functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Robert C. Dickson; Robert L. Lester (13-25).
Recent advances in understanding sphingolipid metabolism and function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have moved the field from an embryonic, descriptive phase to one more focused on molecular mechanisms. One advance that has aided many experiments has been the uncovering of genes for the biosynthesis and breakdown of sphingolipids. S. cerevisiae seems on the verge of becoming the first organism in which all sphingolipid metabolic genes are identified. Other advances include the demonstration that S. cerevisiae cells have lipid rafts composed of sphingolipids and ergosterol and that specific proteins associate with rafts. Roles for phytosphingosine (PHS) and dihydrosphingosine (DHS) in heat stress continue to be uncovered including regulation of the transient cell cycle arrest, control of putative signaling pathways that govern cell integrity, endocytosis, movement of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and regulation of protein breakdown in the plasma membrane. Other studies suggest roles for sphingolipids in exocytosis, growth regulation and longevity. Finally, some progress has been made in understanding how sphingolipid synthesis is regulated and how sphingolipid levels are maintained.
Keywords: Heat shock; Lipid raft; Signal transduction; Long-chain base; Protein kinase;

Possible participation of intracellular platelet-activating factor in NF-κB activation in rat peritoneal macrophages by Kousei Tsuyuki; Gaku Ichinowatari; Atsuo Tanimoto; Masateru Yamada; Hiroshi Yaginuma; Kazuo Ohuchi (26-34).
As we had found previously that thapsigargin, an endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, induces production of intracellular platelet-activating factor (PAF) [Br. J. Pharmacol. 116 (1995) 2141], we decided to investigate the possible roles of intracellular PAF in nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation of thapsigargin-stimulated rat peritoneal macrophages. When rat peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with thapsigargin, the level of inhibitory protein of NF-κB-α (IκB-α) was decreased and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB was increased. The thapsigargin-induced activation of NF-κB was inhibited by the PAF synthesis inhibitor SK&F 98625 and the PAF antagonist E6123. Structurally unrelated PAF antagonists such as E5880 and L-652,731 also inhibited the thapsigargin-induced activation of NF-κB. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of NF-κB was also suppressed by these drugs. In a culture of rat peritoneal macrophages, exogenously added PAF did not induce degradation of IκB-α. These findings suggest that the intracellular PAF produced by the stimulation with thapsigargin or LPS is involved in activation of the NF-κB pathway.
Keywords: Intracellular platelet-activating factor (PAF); NF-κB; Thapsigargin; Lipopolysaccharide (LPS); PAF antagonist; Macrophage;

Fatty acylation of proteins on cysteine residues is a common post-translational modification that plays roles in protein–membrane and protein–protein interactions. Recently, we described a lysosomal palmitoyl-protein thioesterase that removes long-chain fatty acids from lipid-modified cysteine residues in proteins. Deficiency in palmitoyl-protein thioesterase results in a human lysosomal storage disorder, infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL), which primarily affects the central nervous system. The pathological hallmark of the disorder is the accumulation of granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD) that resemble lipofuscin, or aging pigment. In previous work, we have shown that [35S]cysteine-labeled lipid thioesters derived from fatty acylated proteins accumulate in cultured cells derived from palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-deficient patients. In the present work, we show that the lipid cysteine thioesters accumulate in the lysosomal fraction, and we further show that the appearance of these compounds in the organic phase is blocked by inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis, demonstrating through biochemical means the lysosomal nature of the site of palmitoyl-protein thioesterase action. Furthermore, substrates for palmitoyl-protein thioesterase accumulate even in normal cells after leupeptin or chloroquine treatment. This was demonstrated by subjecting extracts of treated cells to exhaustive proteolysis to release protein-bound cysteine lipid for analysis. Cysteamine, a lysosomotropic drug recently proposed for the treatment of INCL, was found to have effects similar to leupeptin and chloroquine, suggesting that its mechanism of action may be more complex than previously understood.
Keywords: Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; Batten Disease; Lysosomal enzyme; Palmitoylation; Thioester metabolism; Leupeptin;

Selective mutagenesis of lysyl residues leads to a stable and active form of delta 9 stearoyl-CoA desaturase by Hassan Mziaut; George Korza; Abdellatif Benraiss; Juris Ozols (45-52).
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a short-lived integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that catalyzes the insertion of a double bond in the delta 9 position of saturated fatty acids. Its expression has been difficult in heterologous systems. In this study, recombinant adenovirus vector was used to express both wild-type (wt) and engineered forms of rat SCD in human transformed kidney cells. In the engineered form of SCD, lysyl residues at positions 33, 35, and 36 were mutated to alanine (SCD K/A). The recombinant adenovirus also contains a cDNA encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The stable reporter GFP was used to analyze the efficiency of transfection and the stability of expressed SCDs. The wt SCD was unstable upon expression, whereas expression of SCD K/A resulted in the stabilization of the protein. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 did not affect the rapid degradation of expressed wt SCD, implying that proteasome is not involved in this degradation. Functional analysis of microsomes from infected cells expressing SCD K/A resulted in the formation of holoenzyme with desaturase activity. Here we report engineering a stabilized form of a rapidly degraded membrane protein for production of an active mutant form of SCD. The adenovirus transformed cells may provide a model for the study of the effects of positive SCD expression.
Keywords: Desaturase; Adenovirus; Stabilized mutant; Protein degradation;

Human mast cells express two leukotriene C4 synthase isoenzymes and the CysLT 1 receptor by Mattias Sjöström; Per-Johan Jakobsson; Mikael Juremalm; Ahmed Ahmed; Gunnar Nilsson; Luigi Macchia; Jesper Z Haeggström (53-62).
Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) are potent smooth muscle contracting agents, especially in the respiratory tract and microcirculation, and play a key role in inflammatory and allergic diseases. The final step in the biosynthesis of LTC4, the parent compound of cys-LTs, is catalyzed by a specific GSH transferase termed LTC4 synthase, which is typically expressed in certain bone marrow-derived cells such as eosinophils and mast cells.Here we report that the human mast cell line HMC-1 as well as human mast cells derived from cord blood (CBMC) express a second enzyme capable of synthesizing leukotriene C4, i.e., microsomal GSH transferase type 2. Furthermore, these cells abundantly express CysLT 1 receptors that are mostly located at the surface of both types of mast cells, as judged by immunohistochemistry. In addition, stimulation of CBMC with LTC4 and LTD4 elicits an immediate and dose-dependent (10−7–10−11 M) mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, which can be blocked with specific CysLT 1 receptor antagonists. Taken together, our data suggest that human mast cells are equipped with two enzymes that can catalyze the committed step in the biosynthesis of cys-LTs. Moreover, the expression of the cognate receptor CysLT 1 suggests that these lipid mediators may be involved in autocrine signaling pathways regulating mast cell functions.
Keywords: Human; Mast cell; Inflammation; Lipid mediator; Molecular Biology;

The sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) is a key enzyme of the bile acid biosynthetic pathway. It regulates the composition of bile acids in bile, i.e. ratio between cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). In similarity with cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), this enzyme is subjected to a negative feedback regulation by bile acids. It has been recently reported that bile acid-activated farnesoid X receptor (FXR) induces the small heterodimer partner (SHP) that interacts with α-fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF) and down-regulates CYP7A1 transcription. We studied whether the same mechanism also regulated rat CYP8B1 gene transcription. Feeding rats with CDCA caused a 40–50% decrease of CYP8B1 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) mRNA expression levels. This was associated with an increase in FTF mRNA expression, but SHP mRNA expression was not altered. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and transient transfection assay of promoter/reporter genes coupled to mutagenesis analysis identified a putative bile acid response element (BARE) that has an HNF4α binding site embedded in two overlapping FTF binding sites. Mutation of the HNF4α binding site markedly reduced basal promoter activity and its repression by bile acids. Cotransfection with FTF strongly repressed CYP8B1 transcription. Interestingly, HNF4α could overcome the inhibitory effects of FTF and bile acids. We conclude that FTF and HNF4α not only play critical roles on CYP8B1 gene transcription, but also mediate bile acid feedback inhibition. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which bile acids inhibit rat CYP8B1 gene transcription by inducing FTF and inhibiting HNF4α expression.
Keywords: Bile acid synthesis; Nuclear receptor; Cytochrome P450; Gene regulation;

Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is known to be an inhibitor of Walker 256 tumour growth in vivo and causes changes in both mitochondrial structure and cellular metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate in greater detail the changes in energy metabolism and ultrastructure induced by GLA in this tumour model. A diet containing 5.5% GLA, which is sufficient to cause a 45% decrease in tumour growth, was found to almost double the triacylglycerol (TAG) content of the tumour and to increase the quantity of 20:3 n−6, 20:4 n−6, 22:4 n−6 and 22:5 n−6 in the TAG fraction as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. Morphometric analysis of the tumour by electron microscopy confirmed this increase in TAG content, identifying a doubling of lipid droplet content in the GLA dietary group. The surface density of mitochondrial cristae was reduced, along with a reduction in the number of contact sites (CS) and matrix granules. These three parameters are likely indicators of a reduction in mitochondrial metabolic activity. Measurement of hexokinase activity identified that much of the total hexokinase activity was in the mitochondrially bound form (66.5%) in the control tumour and that GLA caused a decrease in the amount of enzyme in the bound form (39.3%). The fatty acyl chain composition of the tumour mitochondrial subfractions, outer membranes (OM), CSs and inner membranes (IM) was determined by GCMS. All subfractions showed considerable increases in 20:3 n−6 and decreases in 18:1 n−9, 18:2 n−6 and 22:6 n−3, when exposed to GLA diet. These changes were reflected in a large increase in the n−6/n−3 ratio in the GLA OM vs. the control OM, 21.299 vs. 6.747, respectively. The maximal activity of OM carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) was found to be decreased by 61.6% in the GLA diet group. This was accompanied by a decrease in malonyl CoA sensitivity and a decrease in affinity for 16:0 CoA substrate. Such changes in CPT I may be the cause of cytoplasmic acyl CoA accumulation seen in this tumour model. These effects, together with previously reported increases in lipid peroxidation, lead to the conclusion that GLA may cause inhibition of tumour cell growth through separate but interlinked pathways, all of which eventually lead to apoptosis and a decrease in tumour development. The influence of mitochondrial OM fatty acyl chain composition upon two important enzymes of energy metabolism, hexokinase and CPT I, both of which have been linked to apoptosis, is of considerable importance for future studies on fatty acid-induced cell death.
Keywords: Gamma-linolenic acid; Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I; Walker 256 rat tumour;

Immunolocalization of long-chain acyl-CoAs in plant cells by Paraskevi Diakou; Sandrine Fedou; Jean-Pierre Carde; Claude Cassagne; Patrick Moreau; Lilly Maneta-Peyret (85-90).
Long chain acyl-Coenzyme A esters (acyl-CoAs) are key substrates in many enzymic reactions of lipid metabolism. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the membrane localization of these molecules cannot be established by subcellular membrane fractionation and usual biochemical studies. We have developed another approach based on ultrastructural immunogold cytochemistry. To preserve the acyl-CoA membrane content, the plant material was freeze substituted and cryoembedded after short aldehyde fixation followed by quick freezing. Using Arabidopsis thaliana root cells and specific antibodies raised against acyl-CoAs, we show that acyl-CoAs are mainly localized in endoplasmic reticulum membranes.Our results demonstrate the value of cryo-methods for the accurate localization of labile metabolites in plant cells.
Keywords: Acyl-CoA antibody; Endoplasmic reticulum; Freeze substitution; Immunogold labelling; Plant cell;

Vitamin E deficiency sensitizes alveolar type II cells for apoptosis by Pranav Sinha; Ingrid Kolleck; Hans-Dieter Volk; Michael Schlame; Bernd Rüstow (91-98).
Pre-term neonates and neonates in general exhibit physiological vitamin E deficiency and are at increased risk for the development of acute lung diseases. Apoptosis is a major cause of acute lung damage in alveolar type II cells. In this paper, we evaluated the hypothesis that vitamin E deficiency predisposes alveolar type II cells to apoptosis. Therefore, we measured markers of apoptosis in alveolar type II cells isolated from control rats, vitamin E deficient rats and deficient rats that were re-fed a vitamin E-enriched diet. Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c increased, and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and Hsp25 expression was reduced in vitamin E deficiency. Furthermore, increased DNA-fragmentation and numbers of early and late apoptotic cells were seen, but caspases 3 and 8 activities and expression of Fas, Bcl-2, Bcl-x and p53 remained unchanged. Vitamin E depletion did not change the GSH/GSSG ratio and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Thus, vitamin E deficiency may induce a reversible pro-apoptotic response in lung cells and sensitise them for additional insult. In agreement with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that in vivo hyperoxia alone does not induce apoptosis in type II cells of control rats but reversibly increases DNA-fragmentation and numbers of early apoptotic type II cells in vitamin E-depleted cells.
Keywords: Lung; Alveolar type II cell; Vitamin E; Apoptosis; Protein kinase C;

Early-glycation of apolipoprotein E: effect on its binding to LDL receptor, scavenger receptor A and heparan sulfates by Isabelle Laffont; Vladimir V Shuvaev; Olivier Briand; Sophie Lestavel; Anne Barbier; Naoyuki Taniguchi; Jean-Charles Fruchart; Véronique Clavey; Gérard Siest (99-107).
Glycation is responsible for disruption of lipoprotein functions leading to the development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. The effects of apolipoprotein E (apoE) glycation were investigated with respect to its interaction with receptors. The interaction of apoE with the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor A (SR-A) was measured by competition experiments performed using, respectively, on a human fibroblast cell line 125I-LDL, and on a murine macrophage cell line (J774) 125I-acetylated LDL, and unlabeled apoE/phospholipid complexes. Glycated apoE binding to heparin and heparan sulfates (HS) was assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. Site-directed mutagenesis was then performed on Lys-75, the major glycation site of the protein. The prepared mutant protein proved to be useful as a tool to study the role of Lys-75 in apoE glycation. The findings showed that, although glycation has no effect on apoE binding either to the LDL-R or to SR-A, it impairs its binding to immobilized heparin and HS. The glycation of Lys-75 was found to be proceed rapidly and contributed significantly to total protein glycation. We propose that, in the case of diabetes, glycation may lead to the atherogenicity of apoE-containing lipoproteins disturbing their uptake via the HS proteoglycan pathway.
Keywords: Apolipoprotein E; Glycation; LDL receptor; Scavenger receptor A; Heparan sulfate;

Studies have demonstrated bile acids, principally deoxycholic acid (DCA), to be colon tumor promoters. DCA is cytotoxic and increasing evidence suggests a role for DCA-induced apoptosis in colon tumorigenesis. Although the precise mechanism by which DCA induces apoptosis remains unclear, DCA may affect cell growth and cell death via altering intracellular signaling and gene expression. In this study, we examined the effect of DCA on the GADD153 (growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153) proapoptotic gene and its role in DCA-induced apoptosis in a human colon cancer cell line, HCT116. Our results showed that GADD153 expression was strongly stimulated by DCA and disruption of this with an antisense GADD153 transcript could significantly suppress DCA-induced apoptosis, suggesting GADD153 is essential for DCA induction of apoptosis. Further studies were conducted to investigate the upstream regulatory factors that participated in DCA mediated GADD153 expression. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) was activated by DCA and an AP-1 regulatory element was identified in the human GADD153 promoter in our previous studies. However, inhibition of the AP-1 activation by the dominant negative mutant c-Jun, Tam67, caused only a partial suppression of both DCA-induced GADD153 expression and apoptosis, indicating AP-1 plays an important but not exclusive role in DCA mediated GADD153 pathway. By further promoter analyses, a novel DCA response element, which is located downstream of the AP-1 binding site in the human GADD153 promoter, was determined and identified as C/EBP regulatory element. These results suggest that GADD153 expression is critical for DCA-induced apoptosis and that multiple signaling pathways that include AP-1 and C/EBP transcription factors are involved in DCA-induced GADD153 expression.
Keywords: GADD153; Activator protein-1; CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein; Doxycholic acid; Apoptosis;

A case of hyperlipidemia with homozygous apolipoprotein E5 (Glu3→Lys) by Junji Kobayashi; Kouji Shirai; Takeyoshi Murano; Yoshiki Misawa; Jun Tashiro; Tomohiko Yoshida; Masaki Shinomiya (117-121).
In this study, we present clinical feature of a novel case with homozygous apolipoprotein (apo) E5.The patient was a 53-year-old Japanese woman. She was from a small island off the coast of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Her parents were first degree cousins. No corneal opacification, xanthomatosis, lymphadenopathy, or hepatosplenomegaly was observed. There have been no signs of clinically overt atherosclerosis to date. Her serum total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels were 11.6, 6.1 and 1.2 mmol/l, respectively, and apo A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III and E levels were 121, 34.8, 269, 10.4, 25.7 and 10.3 mg/dl, respectively. Serum lipoprotein profile analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and differential staining revealed markedly increased cholesterol and TG in both β and preβ-migrated lipoproteins, whereas α-migrated lipoprotein showed decreased cholesterol. Her apo E isoform analyzed by isoelectric focusing (IEF) was found to be homozygous apo E5.Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of her apo E and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genes revealed that she had a homozygous apo E (Glu3→Lys) and heterozygous LPL variant Ser447 to Ter. Her son and daughter, both of whom had hyperlipidemia, were found to have apo E3/5 phenotype. Direct sequencing analysis of her apo E gene confirmed a homozygous one nucleotide change: G to A at nucleotide position of 2836 in the exon 3, resulting in Glu3→Lys mutation.This is the first report of lipids and lipoprotein profiles in patients with homozygous apo E5 (Glu3→Lys).
Keywords: Apolipoprotein E5; Glu3→Lys mutation; Lipoprotein lipase;

Sphingomyelinase (SMase), a water-soluble enzyme from Bacillus cereus, is shown to bind with high affinity to vesicles of sphingomyelin (SM) but not to vesicles of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The reaction progress by SMase bound to SM vesicles occurs in the scooting mode with virtually infinite processivity of the successive interfacial turnover cycles. Three conditions for the microscopic steady state during the reaction progress at the interface are satisfied: the bound SMase does not leave the interface even after all the SM in the outer layer is converted to ceramide; the SMase-treated vesicles remain intact; and the ceramide product does not exchange with SM present in excess vesicles or in the inner layer of the hydrolyzed vesicle. Within these constraints, on accessibility and replenishment of the substrate, the extent of hydrolysis in the scooting mode reaction progress is a measure of the number of vesicles containing enzyme. The slope of the Poisson distribution plot, for the enzyme per vesicle versus the logarithm of the fraction of the total accessible substrate remaining unhydrolyzed in excess vesicles, shows that a single 32 kDa subunit of SMase is fully catalytically active. The maximum initial rate of hydrolysis, at the limit of the maximum possible substrate mol fraction, X S*=1, is 400 s−1 in H2O and 220 s−1 in D2O, which is consistent with the rate-limiting chemical step. The integrated reaction progress suggests that the ceramide product does not codisperse ideally on the hydrolyzed vesicles. Furthermore, complex reaction progress seen with covesicles of SM+PC are attributed to slow secondary changes in the partially hydrolyzed SM vesicles.
Keywords: Sphingomyelinase; Bacillus cereus; Catalytic turnover;