BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (v.1485, #1)

Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase activity is elevated during cardiac cell differentiation by Julie Fotheringham; Fred Y Xu; Mona Nemer; Elissavet Kardami; Patrick C Choy; Grant M Hatch (1-10).
We examined if elevation in lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase activity was associated with elevation in phosphatidylethanolamine content during differentiation of P19 teratocarcinoma cells into cardiac myocytes. P19 cells were induced to undergo differentiation into cardiac myocytes by the addition of 1% dimethylsulfoxide to the medium. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of striated myosin at 8 days post-dimethylsulfoxide addition confirming differentiation into cardiac cells. The content of phosphatidylethanolamine was increased 2.1-fold (P<0.05) in differentiated cells compared to undifferentiated cells, whereas the content of phosphatidylcholine was reduced 29% (P<0.05). There were no alterations in the pool sizes of other phospholipids, including cardiolipin. The relative abundance of fatty acids in phospholipids of P19 cells was 18:1>18:0>16:1=18:2>16:0=14:0>20:4 and differentiation did not affect the relative amounts of these fatty acids within individual phospholipids. When cells were incubated with [1,3-3H]glycerol, radioactivity incorporated into phosphatidylethanolamine was elevated 5.8-fold, whereas radioactivity incorporated into phosphatidylcholine was unaltered. Ethanolaminephosphotransferase, cholinephosphotransferase and membrane CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase activities were elevated in differentiated cells compared to undifferentiated cells, whereas membrane and cytosolic phospholipase A2 activities were unaltered. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase activities were elevated 2.4-fold (P<0.05). Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase, monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase, acyl-Coenzyme A synthetase and acyl-Coenzyme A hydrolase activities were unaltered in differentiated cells compared to undifferentiated cells. We postulate that during cardiac cell differentiation, the observed elevation in lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase activity accompanies the elevation in phosphatidylethanolamine mass, possibly to maintain the fatty acyl composition of this phospholipid within the membrane.
Keywords: Cardiac cell differentiation; Phosphatidylethanolamine remodeling; Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase;

Plasma thiols inhibit hemin-dependent oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by Sean M Lynch; Allan L Campione; Michael K Moore (11-22).
Oxidative modification of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) renders it atherogenic. Previous studies demonstrated that plasma thiols promote oxidation of LDL by free ferric iron (Fe3+). The current study investigated effects of plasma thiols on oxidation of LDL by hemin, a physiological Fe3+–protoporphyrin IX complex thought to be capable of initiating LDL oxidation in vivo. In contrast to free Fe3+ which is incapable of oxidizing LDL in the absence of an exogenous reductant, hemin readily promoted LDL oxidation. During incubation of LDL (0.2 mg of protein/ml) with hemin (10 μM) at 37°C for 6 h, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of lipid oxidation, increased from 0.3 (±0.1) nmol/mg of LDL protein to a maximal concentration of 45.8 (±5.2) nmol/mg of LDL protein. Under the same experimental conditions, lipid-conjugated dienes, another marker of lipid oxidation, increased from non-detectable to near-maximal levels of 78–187 nmol/mg of LDL protein, and lipoprotein polyunsaturated fatty acyl-containing cholesteryl ester content decreased to 15–36% of that present in native (i.e. unoxidized) LDL. Continued incubation of LDL with hemin for up to 24 h resulted in no further significant alterations in lipoprotein levels of TBARS, lipid-conjugated dienes, and cholesteryl esters. In addition to these chemical modifications indicative of lipoprotein oxidation, agarose gel electrophoretic analysis indicated that exposure of LDL to hemin resulted in conversion of the lipoprotein to an atherogenic form as evidenced by its increased anodic electrophoretic mobility. Addition of physiological concentrations of plasma thiols (either cysteine, homocysteine or reduced glutathione; 1–100 μM, each) inhibited hemin-mediated oxidation of LDL. Thus, whereas the maximal TBARS concentration was achieved following 6 h of incubation of LDL with hemin alone, addition of thiol extended the time required to attain maximal TBARS concentration to ≥12 h. Similar antioxidant effects of thiols on formation of lipid-conjugated dienes, loss of cholesteryl esters, and lipoprotein anodic electrophoretic mobility were also observed. However, all thiols were not equally effective at inhibiting hemin-dependent LDL oxidation. Thus, whereas reduced glutathione was most effective at inhibiting hemin-dependent LDL oxidation, an intermediate effect was observed for homocysteine, and cysteine was least effective. The inhibition of hemin-mediated LDL oxidation by plasma thiols reported here confirms a previous observation that, under certain conditions, thiols can function as antioxidants, but contrasts with the previously documented pro-oxidant effect of the same thiols on oxidation of LDL by free Fe3+. These contrasting effects of plasma thiols on hemin- and free Fe3+-mediated LDL oxidation indicate that, in vivo, the ability of thiols to function as either anti- or pro-oxidants during LDL oxidation may, at least in part, be determined by the type of oxidant stress to which the lipoprotein is exposed.
Keywords: Iron; Cysteine; Homocysteine; Glutathione; Atherosclerosis; Free radical;

Comparative effects of perilla and fish oils on the activity and gene expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rat liver by Takashi Ide; Hideyuki Kobayashi; Lakshmikuttyamma Ashakumary; Isabelle A. Rouyer; Yoko Takahashi; Toshifumi Aoyama; Takashi Hashimoto; Michinao Mizugaki (23-35).
The activity and mRNA level of hepatic enzymes in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were compared in rats fed diets containing either 15% saturated fat (palm oil), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, perilla oil rich in α-linolenic acid or fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) for 15 days. The mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate was 50% higher in rats fed perilla and fish oils than in the other groups. Perilla and fish oils compared to palm and safflower oils approximately doubled and more than tripled, respectively, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate. Compared to palm and safflower oil, both perilla and fish oils caused a 50% increase in carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity. Dietary fats rich in n-3 fatty acids also increased the activity of other fatty acid oxidation enzymes except for 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The extent of the increase was greater with fish oil than with perilla oil. Interestingly, both perilla and fish oils decreased the activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase measured using short- and medium-chain substrates. Compared to palm and safflower oils, perilla and fish oils increased the mRNA level of many mitochondrial and peroxisomal enzymes. Increases were generally greater with fish oil than with perilla oil. Fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase activity and mRNA level were higher in rats fed palm oil than in the other groups. Among rats fed polyunsaturated fats, activities and mRNA levels of these enzymes were lower in rats fed fish oil than in the animals fed perilla and safflower oils. The values were comparable between the latter two groups. Safflower and fish oils but not perilla oil, compared to palm oil, also decreased malic enzyme activity and mRNA level. Examination of the fatty acid composition of hepatic phospholipid indicated that dietary α-linolenic acid is effectively desaturated and elongated to form EPA and DHA. Dietary perilla oil and fish oil therefore exert similar physiological activity in modulating hepatic fatty acid oxidation, but these dietary fats considerably differ in affecting fatty acid synthesis.
Keywords: Dietary n-3 fatty acid; Fatty acid oxidation; Fatty acid synthesis; Gene expression; Rat;

Lipid peroxidation and glutathione system in hyperlipemic rabbits: influence of olive oil administration by José Pedro De La Cruz; Lourdes Quintero; Marı́a Auxiliadora Villalobos; F. Sánchez de la Cuesta (36-44).
We studied the effect of supplementation (10% w/w) of a hyperlipemic diet (1% cholesterol) with olive oil (OLIV) for 6 weeks in four groups of 10 rabbits each. At the end of this period, we determined lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, and glutathione peroxidase, reductase and transferase activities in liver, brain, heart, aorta and platelets. The atherogenic diet increased tissue lipid peroxidation and decreased the protective antioxidant effect of glutathione. Dietary supplementation with olive oil reduced tissue lipid peroxidation by 71.6% in liver, 20.3% in brain, 84.5% in heart, 63.6% in aorta, 72% in platelets. The ratios total/oxidized glutathione were increased in all tissues (49% in liver, 48% in brain, 45% in heart, 83% in aorta, 70% in platelets). Olive oil increased glutathione peroxidase and transferase activities in all tissues. We conclude that in rabbits made hyperlipemic with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids, olive oil decreased tissue oxidative stress.
Keywords: Olive oil; Lipid peroxidation; Glutathione; Atherosclerosis; Oxidative stress;

Palmitate, a C16 fatty acid found in high concentrations in the blood in acute myocardial infarction, induces apoptotic cell death. To more completely define the nature and mechanism underlying palmitate-induced cell death, cardiomyocytes were cultured from embryonic chick heart and were treated with palmitate. Concentration-dependent loss of cell viability was established by loss of the ability of palmitate-treated cells to exclude propidium iodide (PI), metabolize 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and retain fluorescein diacetate (FDA). Dual staining with PI and FDA and subsequent analysis by FACS established that palmitate-induced cell death was predominantly necrosis whereas apoptosis occurred in 13% of all dead cells. The low proportion of palmitate-induced apoptosis was confirmed by evaluation of the DNA content or PI fluorescent staining of the DNA of permeabilized cardiomyocytes. A critical role for mitochondria in the pathogenesis of palmitate-induced cell death was demonstrated, for the first time, based on palmitate-induced reduction of mitochondrial activity as assessed by the mitochondrial-selective dye chloromethyl-X-Rosamine and the presence of a greater amount of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome C in the cytosol of palmitate-treated cardiomyocytes than in control cells. Further, cyclosporin that inhibits the development of mitochondrial transition pores blocked palmitate-induced alteration in mitochondrial function and palmitate-induced cell death. We further demonstrated the selectivity of cyclosporin A for the prevention of apoptotic cell death in the heart as there was no alteration in necrotic cell death produced by palmitate with cyclosporin pretreatment. Our data demonstrate the nature of palmitate-induced cell death in cardiomyocytes (both apoptotic and necrotic), propose a mitochondrial basis for its pathogenesis and show that cyclosporin A prevents palmitate-induced apoptotic cardiomyocyte cell death.

Egg yolk lipoproteins as substrates for lipases by Abdelkarim Abousalham; Robert Verger (56-62).
Egg yolk emulsions containing phospholipids (about 31%, w/w) are classically used as substrates for measuring phospholipase A2 activity using the pH-stat method. Here we investigated the susceptibility of egg yolk lipoproteins to lipolysis by various highly purified lipases of animal or microbial origin. Egg yolk lipoproteins, which contain up to 65% triacylglycerols, were found to be effective substrates for all the lipases tested. The specific activities measured on egg yolk lipoproteins using the pH-stat technique were found to be 8000, 1000, 1250 and 1700 U/mg in the case of human pancreatic lipase, horse pancreatic lipase, porcine pancreatic lipase and Humicola lanuginosa lipase, respectively. No activity was detected in the absence of colipase with any of the pancreatic lipases tested. Consequently, the classical egg yolk assay cannot be considered as a specific phospholipase A2 assay.
Keywords: Lipase; Egg yolk; Lag time;