Atmospheric Environment (v.44, #29)
Editorial board (i).
A study of emissions from a Euro 4 light duty diesel vehicle with the European particulate measurement programme by Harry Dwyer; Alberto Ayala; Sherry Zhang; John Collins; Tao Huai; Jorn Herner; Wilson Chau (3469-3476).
The California Air Resources Board, CARB, has participated in a program to quantify particulate matter (PM) emissions with a European methodology, which is known as the Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP). The essence of the PMP methodology is that the diesel PM from a Euro 4 vehicle equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists primarily of solid particles with a size range greater than 23 nm. The PMP testing and the enhanced testing performed by CARB have enabled an increased understanding of both the progress that has been made in PM reduction, and the future remaining challenges for new and improved DPF-equipped diesel vehicles. A comparison of measured regulated emissions and solid particle number emissions with the results obtained by the PMP participating international laboratories was a success, and CARB’s measurements and standard deviations compared well with the other laboratories. Enhanced measurements of the influence of vehicle conditioning prior to testing on PM mass and solid particle number results were performed, and some significant influences were discovered. For example, the influence of vehicle preconditioning on particle number results was significant for both the European and USA test driving cycles. However, the trends for the cycles were opposite with one cycle showing an increase and the other cycle showing a decrease in particle number emissions. If solid particle size distribution and total particle numbers are to be used as proposed in PMP, then a greater understanding of the quality and errors associated with measurement technologies is advisable.In general, particle counting instruments gave results with similar trends, but cycle-to-cycle testing variation was observed. Continuous measurements of particle number concentrations during test cycles have given detailed insight into PM generation. At the present time there is significant variation in the capabilities of the particle counting instruments in terms of particle size and concentration.Current measurements show the existence of a large number of volatile and semi-volatile particles of yet-to-be-resolved chemical composition in diesel exhaust, especially during DPF regeneration, and these particles are not included in the PMP methodology because they are smaller than 20 nm. It will be very challenging to improve our understanding of this class of diesel particulate matter.
Keywords: Traffic emission; Automotive emissions; Ultrafine particles; Particle number; Particle measurement;
Characteristics and provenance of dustfall during an unusual floating dust event by Y.L. Lue; L.Y. Liu; X. Hu; L. Wang; L.L. Guo; S.Y. Gao; X.X. Zhang; Y. Tang; Z.Q. Qu; H.W. Cao; Z.J. Jia; H.Y. Xu; Y.Y. Yang (3477-3484).
This study aims to investigate the characteristics, provenance, and particle-related pollution of an intense dustfall event that occurred in Beijing on 16–17 April 2006. Satellite images reveal that the aeolian dust originated in northeastern Alxa League of Inner Mongolia and passed southeastward across northern Ningxia, middle Inner Mongolia, northern Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei provinces. The dust then moved out of continental China in the vicinity of Beijing and Tianjin. The floating dust led to severe air pollution in Huhhot, Datong, and Beijing. We measured dustfall by collecting dust samples, investigated particle morphology, and calculated the mass medium diameter (MMD) of the dustfall using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Major elements and mineral content of the dust particles were determined by electron probe and powder X-ray diffractometer, respectively. The relative abundance of dustfall during this event was 12.5–15.0 g m−2, making up about 10% of the total annual dustfall in Beijing. Dustfall amounted to 205 thousand tons in Beijing, the largest amount observed in recent years. The dust particles were mostly angular, subangular and subrounded in morphology, and the MMD was nearly 12 μm. Particles <10 μm accounted for 54.7% by number, but fine sand particles (larger than 50 μm) made up 53.7% by volume. Particles with diameters larger than 20 μm made up of the predominant volume of the samples (90.35%). Hence, this dustfall event was characterized by a high content of fine sand and coarse silt particles. The principal elements in the dust particles were C, O, Si, Al, Fe, and Ca, whereas the major minerals were quartz, Na-feldspar, calcite, and clay minerals.
Keywords: Floating dust; Morphology; Size distribution; Elemental composition; Dust provenance;
First Europe-wide correlation analysis identifying factors best explaining the total nitrogen concentration in mosses by Winfried Schröder; Marcel Holy; Roland Pesch; Harry Harmens; Hilde Fagerli; Renate Alber; Mahmut Coşkun; Ludwig De Temmerman; Marina Frolova; Laura González-Miqueo; Zvonka Jeran; Eero Kubin; Sébastien Leblond; Siiri Liiv; Blanka Maňkovská; Juha Piispanen; Jesús M. Santamaría; Primož Simonèiè; Ivan Suchara; Lilyana Yurukova; Lotti Thöni; Harald G. Zechmeister (3485-3491).
In this study, the indicative value of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen (N) depositions and air concentrations on the one hand and site-specific and regional factors which explain best the total N concentration in mosses on the other hand were investigated for the first time at a European scale using correlation analyses. The analyses included data from mosses collected from 2781 sites across Europe within the framework of the European moss survey 2005/6, which was coordinated by the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation). Modelled atmospheric N deposition and air concentration data were calculated using the Unified EMEP Model of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). The modelled deposition and concentration data encompass various N compounds. In order to assess the correlations between moss tissue total N concentrations and the chosen predictors, Spearman rank correlation analysis and Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were applied. The Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the total N concentration in mosses and modelled N depositions and air concentrations are significantly correlated (0.53 ≤ rs ≤ 0.68, p < 0.001). Correlations with other predictors were lower than 0.55. The CART analysis indicated that the variation in the total N concentration in mosses was best explained by the variation in NH4 + concentrations in air, followed by NO2 concentrations in air, sampled moss species and total dry N deposition. The total N concentrations in mosses mirror land use-related atmospheric concentrations and depositions of N across Europe. In addition to already proven associations to measured N deposition on a local scale the study at hand gives a scientific prove on the association of N concentration in mosses and modelled deposition at the European scale.
Keywords: Biomonitoring; Correlation; Deposition; Moss; Nitrogen;
An on-line analysis of 7 odorous volatile organic compounds in the ambient air surrounding a large industrial complex by Ehsanul Kabir; Ki-Hyun Kim (3492-3502).
The concentrations of seven odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including styrene (S), toluene (T), xylene (X), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isobutyl alcohol (i-BuAl), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and butyl acetate (BuAc) were measured continuously at hourly intervals from an on-line odor monitoring station in Ansan city, Korea (August 2005 to December 2007). Their concentration data (ppb) exhibited a narrow range of mean values despite large variabilities: 1.33 ± 8.81, 16.1 ± 96.6, 3.32 ± 11.5, 7.45 ± 10.3, 20.4 ± 2.38, 1.31 ± 1.16, and 2.43 ± 3.02, respectively. However, unlike aromatics, the distribution of other VOCs was characterized by infrequent occurrences, e.g., as large as 97.5% of i-BuAl data below detection limit. Comparison of temporal patterns indicates that aromatic VOCs are the highest in summer, while others tend to peak during fall (or summer). If the relative compositions of these VOCs were compared in terms of odor intensity, their contribution in the study area is unlikely significant as the malodor components. Evaluation of the data suggests that the distribution of the target VOCs should be affected more sensitively by local traffic activities rather than industrial processes in the surrounding area. Nonetheless, the potent roles of these volatile components should not be underestimated with respect to human health.
Keywords: On-line analysis; VOC; Malodor; Ambient air; Seasonal variation;
The revised EMEP/EEA Guidebook compared to the country specific inventory system in the Netherlands by R. Dröge; J.J.P. Kuenen; M.P.J. Pulles; D.C. Heslinga (3503-3510).
Parties to the LRTAP convention have agreed to annually report atmospheric emissions and are required to set up an emission inventory. As a minimum, parties shall use the latest version of the EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Inventory Guidebook, but most countries – including the Netherlands – have set up their own inventory, which uses country specific information to supplement the information from the Guidebook. In this study, emissions estimated within the Dutch Emission Inventory are compared to emissions estimated using Guidebook emission factors and Dutch statistics for the year 2005. The objective is to explore the quality of both methods and to find major differences and similarities. The comparison shows that for most sources, emission estimates are within uncertainty ranges for both methodologies, especially for sources where a higher Tier (more detailed) methodology is used to estimate the emissions. This is in line with the Guidelines which indicate that for key categories a more detailed methodology should be used. The comparison also shows some surprising differences, such as large differences in emission factors (especially Tier 1) and missing sources (fireworks and abrasion of railway overhead wires, causing 16% of total copper emissions in the Netherlands) which have not been included in the Guidebook. This comparison is shown to be a useful tool to identify areas where improvements and further research are necessary.
Keywords: EMEP/EEA Guidebook; Emission inventory; LRTAP convention; Air pollutants;
Seasonal variation of levoglucosan in aerosols over the western North Pacific and its assessment as a biomass-burning tracer by Michihiro Mochida; Kimitaka Kawamura; Pingqing Fu; Toshihiko Takemura (3511-3518).
Levoglucosan is considered as a useful molecular tracer of biomass-burning aerosols in the atmosphere. To characterize the seasonal variation of its concentrations over the Pacific Ocean and to assess its usefulness as a tracer after long-range transport, we investigated long-term variations of levoglucosan over Chichi-jima in the western North Pacific, from 2001 to 2004. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and d-glucose were analyzed for comparison. The seasonal variation of levoglucosan concentrations showed a maximum in the winter, which is consistent with the enhanced Asian outflow to the Pacific indicated by backward air-mass trajectories. The concentration levels of levoglucosan estimated from global aerosol model outputs in the winter are, on average, comparable to the observed levels, suggesting that a considerable fraction of levoglucosan did not decompose during long-range transport from the Asian continent by westerly/northwesterly winds. This result is supported by comparable ratios of levoglucosan to EC in Chichi-jima and the East Asian coastal region. Conversely, the measured concentrations of levoglucosan in the summer were significantly lower than the modeled one. This implies a degradation of levoglucosan in the air masses that stagnated over the Pacific, although uncertainties in the model estimate may also be partly responsible for this discrepancy. One possible degradation pathway is oxidation by OH radicals; the contribution of acid-catalyzed reactions needs further investigation.
Keywords: Levoglucosan; Biomass-burning aerosol; Long-range transport; Organic carbon; Molecular marker;
Size-resolved mass and chemical properties of dust aerosols from Australia’s Lake Eyre Basin by M. Radhi; M.A. Box; G.P. Box; R.M. Mitchell; D.D. Cohen; E. Stelcer; M.D. Keywood (3519-3528).
Australia is the dominant mineral dust source in the southern hemisphere, yet the physical, chemical and optical properties of Australian dust aerosol are presently poorly understood. We have investigated the properties of Australian aerosol at a site near Lake Eyre in central Australia, which is strongly influenced by mineral dust. During a field campaign in November 2007 we collected eight sets of size-resolved aerosol samples for laboratory analysis: six during quiescent conditions, and two during dust storms. Ion Beam Analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of all filter samples. Scatter plots showed that Fe, Al and Ti were well correlated with Si, and hence soil-derived. The Fe/Si ratio was consistently higher than the global crustal average, confirming that Australian dusts are comparatively rich in Fe. Scatter plots for Na and Cl against Si showed clear evidence of a second aerosol population, associated with maritime advection. Profiles of water soluble ions for two sample sets, showed the importance of marine influences on both the fine and coarse modes, as well as the presence of organic acids. Estimates of the mass fraction of NaCl in our samples suggest that, for quiescent days, roughly 0.5% of the sample mass was NaCl.
Keywords: Mineral dust; Size-resolved chemistry; Ion beam analysis; Lake Eyre Basin;
A land use regression model for predicting ambient volatile organic compound concentrations in Toronto, Canada by Jason G. Su; Michael Jerrett; Bernardo Beckerman; Dave Verma; M. Altaf Arain; Pavlos Kanaroglou; Dave Stieb; Murray Finkelstein; Jeffery Brook (3529-3537).
More than 25 studies have employed land use regression (LUR) models to estimate nitrogen oxides and to a lesser extent particulate matter indicators, but these methods have been less commonly applied to ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some VOCs have high plausibility as sources of health effects and others are specific indicators of motor vehicle exhaust. We used LUR models to estimate spatial variability of VOCs in Toronto, Canada. Benzene, n-hexane and total hydrocarbons (THC) were measured from July 25 to August 9, 2006 at 50 locations using the TraceAir organic vapor monitors. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was also sampled to assess its spatial pattern agreement with VOC exposures. Buffers for land use, population density, traffic density, physical geography, and remote sensing measures of greenness and surface brightness were also tested. The remote sensing measures have the highest correlations with VOCs and NO2 levels (i.e., explains >36% of the variance). Our regression models explain 66–68% of the variance in the spatial distribution of VOCs, compared to 81% for the NO2 model. The ranks of agreement between various VOCs range from 48 to 63% and increases substantially – up to 75% – for the top and bottom quartile groups. Agreements between NO2 and VOCs are much smaller with an average rank of 36%. Future epidemiologic studies may therefore benefit from using VOCs as potential toxic agents for traffic-related pollutants.
Keywords: Land use regression; Volatile organic compound; Nitrogen dioxide; GIS; Remote sensing; Air pollution; Toronto;
Speciation of volatile organic compounds from poultry production by Steven Trabue; Kenwood Scoggin; Hong Li; Robert Burns; Hongwei Xin; Jerry Hatfield (3538-3546).
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from poultry production are leading source of air quality problems. However, little is known about the speciation and levels of VOCs from poultry production. The objective of this study was the speciation of VOCs from a poultry facility using evacuated canisters and sorbent tubes. Samples were taken during active poultry production cycle and between production cycles. Levels of VOCs were highest in areas with birds and the compounds in those areas had a higher percentage of polar compounds (89%) compared to aliphatic hydrocarbons (2.2%). In areas without birds, levels of VOCs were 1/3 those with birds present and compounds had a higher total percentage of aliphatic hydrocarbons (25%). Of the VOCs quantified in this study, no single sampling method was capable of quantifying more than 55% of compounds and in several sections of the building each sampling method quantified less than 50% of the quantifiable VOCs. Key classes of chemicals quantified using evacuated canisters included both alcohols and ketones, while sorbent tube samples included volatile fatty acids and ketones. The top five compounds made up close to 70% of VOCs and included: 1) acetic acid (830.1 μg m−3); 2) 2,3-butanedione (680.6 μg m−3); 3) methanol (195.8 μg m−3); 4) acetone (104.6 μg m−3); and 5) ethanol (101.9 μg m−3). Location variations for top five compounds averaged 49.5% in each section of the building and averaged 87% for the entire building.
Keywords: CAFO; VOC; Poultry; Air quality;
Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter in Southeast Texas using a source-oriented 3D air quality model by Hongliang Zhang; Qi Ying (3547-3557).
A nested version of the source-oriented externally mixed UCD/CIT model was developed to study the source contributions to airborne particulate matter (PM) during a two-week long air quality episode during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000). Contributions to primary PM and secondary ammonium sulfate in the Houston–Galveston Bay (HGB) and Beaumont–Port Arthur (BPA) areas were determined.The predicted 24-h elemental carbon (EC), organic compounds (OC), sulfate, ammonium ion and primary PM2.5 mass are in good agreement with filter-based observations. Predicted concentrations of hourly sulfate, ammonium ion, and primary OC from diesel and gasoline engines and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) at La Porte, Texas agree well with measurements from an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS).The UCD/CIT model predicts that EC is mainly from diesel engines and majority of the primary OC is from internal combustion engines and industrial sources. Open burning contributes large fractions of EC, OC and primary PM2.5 mass. Road dust, internal combustion engines and industries are the major sources of primary PM2.5. Wildfire dominates the contributions to all primary PM components in areas near the fires. The predicted source contributions to primary PM are in general agreement with results from a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Discrepancy between the two models suggests that further investigations on the industrial PM emissions are necessary.Secondary ammonium sulfate accounts for the majority of the secondary inorganic PM. Over 80% of the secondary sulfate in the 4 km domain is produced in upwind areas. Coal combustion is the largest source of sulfate. Ammonium ion is mainly from agriculture sources and contributions from gasoline vehicles are significant in urban areas.
Keywords: Regional source apportionment; Primary particulate matter; Ammonium sulfate; AMS; TexAQS 2000;
Multi-model vs. EPS-based ensemble atmospheric dispersion simulations: A quantitative assessment on the ETEX-1 tracer experiment case by S. Galmarini; F. Bonnardot; A. Jones; S. Potempski; L. Robertson; M. Martet (3558-3567).
Several techniques have been developed over the last decade for the ensemble treatment of atmospheric dispersion model predictions. Among them two have received most of the attention, the multi-model and the ensemble prediction system (EPS) modeling. The multi-model approach relies on model simulations produced by different atmospheric dispersion models using meteorological data from potentially different weather prediction systems. The EPS-based ensemble is generated by running a single atmospheric dispersion model with the ensemble weather prediction members. In the paper we compare both approaches with the help of statistical indicators, using the simulations performed for the ETEX-1 tracer experiment. Both ensembles are also evaluated against measurement data. Among the most relevant results is that the multi-model median and the mean of EPS-based ensemble produced the best results, hence we consider a combination of multi-model and EPS-based approaches as an interesting suggestion for further research.
Keywords: Atmospheric dispersion; Ensemble prediction system; Multi-model ensemble; ETEX;
Simulating chemistry–aerosol–cloud–radiation–climate feedbacks over the continental U.S. using the online-coupled Weather Research Forecasting Model with chemistry (WRF/Chem) by Yang Zhang; X.-Y. Wen; C.J. Jang (3568-3582).
The chemistry–aerosol–cloud–radiation–climate feedbacks are simulated using WRF/Chem over the continental U.S. in January and July 2001. Aerosols can reduce incoming solar radiation by up to −9% in January and −16% in July and 2-m temperatures by up to 0.16 °C in January and 0.37 °C in July over most of the continental U.S. The NO2 photolysis rates decrease in July by up to −8% over the central and eastern U.S. where aerosol concentrations are high but increase by up to 7% over the western U.S. in July and up to 13% over the entire domain in January. Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height reduces by up to −23% in January and −24% in July. Temperatures and wind speeds in July in big cities such as Atlanta and New York City reduce at/near surface but increase at higher altitudes. The changes in PBL height, temperatures, and wind speed indicate a more stable atmospheric stability of the PBL and further exacerbate air pollution over areas where air pollution is already severe. Aerosols can increase cloud optical depths in big cities in July, and can lead to 500–5000 cm−3 cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at a supersaturation of 1% over most land areas and 10–500 cm−3 CCN over ocean in both months with higher values over most areas in July than in January, particularly in the eastern U.S. The total column cloud droplet number concentrations are up to 4.9 × 106 cm−2 in January and up to 11.8 × 106 cm−2 in July, with higher values over regions with high CCN concentrations and sufficient cloud coverage. Aerosols can reduce daily precipitation by up to 1.1 mm day−1 in January and 19.4 mm day−1 in July thus the wet removal rates over most of the land areas due to the formation of small CCNs, but they can increase precipitation over regions with the formation of large/giant CCN. These results indicate potential importance of the aerosol feedbacks and an urgent need for their accurate representations in current atmospheric models to reduce uncertainties associated with climate change predictions.
Keywords: WRF/Chem; Aerosol direct effects; Aerosol indirect effects; CCN; Cloud droplet number concentrations;
Dynamic evaluation of a regional air quality model: Assessing the emissions-induced weekly ozone cycle by Thomas Pierce; Christian Hogrefe; S. Trivikrama Rao; P. Steven Porter; Jia-Yeong Ku (3583-3596).
Air quality models are used to predict changes in pollutant concentrations resulting from envisioned emission control policies. Recognizing the need to assess the credibility of air quality models in a policy-relevant context, we perform a dynamic evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system for the “weekend ozone effect” to determine if observed changes in ozone due to weekday-to-weekend (WDWE) reductions in precursor emissions can be accurately simulated. The weekend ozone effect offers a unique opportunity for dynamic evaluation, as it is a widely documented phenomenon that has persisted since the 1970s. In many urban areas of the Unites States, higher ozone has been observed on weekends than weekdays, despite dramatically reduced emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]) on weekends. More recent measurements, however, suggest shifts in the spatial extent or reductions in WDWE ozone differences. Using 18 years (1988–2005) of observed and modeled ozone and temperature data across the northeastern United States, we re-examine the long-term trends in the weekend effect and confounding factors that may be complicating the interpretation of this trend and explore whether CMAQ can replicate the temporal features of the observed weekend effect. The amplitudes of the weekly ozone cycle have decreased during the 18-year period in our study domain, but the year-to-year variability in weekend minus weekday (WEWD) ozone amplitudes is quite large. Inter-annual variability in meteorology appears to influence WEWD differences in ozone, as well as WEWD differences in VOC and NOx emissions. Because of the large inter-annual variability, modeling strategies using a single episode lasting a few days or a few episodes in a given year may not capture the WEWD signal that exists over longer time periods. The CMAQ model showed skill in predicting the absolute values of ozone concentrations during the daytime. However, early morning NOx concentrations were underestimated and ozone levels were overestimated. Also, the modeled response of ozone to WEWD differences in emissions was somewhat less than that observed. This study reveals that model performance may be improved by (1) properly estimating mobile source NOx emissions and their temporal distributions, especially for diesel vehicles; (2) reducing the grid cell size in the lowest layer of CMAQ; and, (3) using time-dependent and more realistic boundary conditions for the CMAQ simulations.
Keywords: Dynamic model evaluation; CMAQ model; Weekend ozone effect; Air quality modeling; Ozone;
Elevated nitrogen isotope ratios of tropical Indian aerosols from Chennai: Implication for the origins of aerosol nitrogen in South and Southeast Asia by Chandra Mouli Pavuluri; Kimitaka Kawamura; Eri Tachibana; T. Swaminathan (3597-3604).
To better understand the origins of aerosol nitrogen, we measured concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and its isotope ratios (δ15N) in tropical Indian aerosols (PM10) collected from Chennai (13.04°N; 80.17°E) on day- and night-time basis in winter and summer 2007. We found high δ15N values (+15.7 to +31.2‰) of aerosol N (0.3–3.8 μg m−3), in which NH4 + is the major species (78%) with lesser contribution from NO3 − (6%). Based on the comparison of δ15N in Chennai aerosols with those reported for atmospheric aerosols from mid-latitudes and for the particles emitted from point sources (including a laboratory study), as well as the δ15N ratios of cow-dung samples (this study), we found that the atmospheric aerosol N in Chennai has two major sources; animal excreta and bio-fuel/biomass burning from South and Southeast Asia. We demonstrate that a gas-to-particle conversion of NH3 to NH4HSO4 and (NH4)2SO4 and the subsequent exchange reaction between NH3 and NH4 + are responsible for the isotopic enrichment of 15N in aerosol nitrogen.
Keywords: Nitrogen isotope ratios; Tropical Indian aerosols; Cow-dung samples; Source of aerosol nitrogen; South Asia;
Meteorologically adjusted long-term trend of ground-level ozone concentrations in Kaohsiung County, southern Taiwan by H.C. Li; K.S. Chen; C.H. Huang; H.K. Wang (3605-3608).
Since meteorological changes strongly affect ambient ozone concentrations, trends in concentrations of ozone upon the adjustment of meteorological variations are important of evaluating emission reduction efforts. The goal of this work is to study meteorological effects on the long-term trends of ozone concentration using a multi-variable additive model. Data on the hourly concentrations of ozone were collected from four air-quality stations from 1997 to 2006 in Kaohsiung County to determine the monthly, seasonal and annual average concentrations of ozone. The model incorporates seven meteorological parameters – pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, duration of sunshine and cloud cover. The simulated results show that the long-term ozone concentration increases at 13.84% (or 13.06%) monthly (or annually) after meteorological adjustments, less than at 26.10% (or 23.80%) without meteorological adjustments. Wind speed, duration of sunshine and pressure are the three dominant factors that influence the ground-level ozone levels.
Keywords: Ambient ozone; Ozone trend; Meteorological adjustment; Multi-variable additive model;