Atmospheric Environment (v.44, #21-22)

A 3D aerosol and visibility information system for urban areas using remote sensing and GIS by Janet E. Nichol; Man Sing Wong; Jingzhi Wang (2501-2506).
Currently, the depiction of urban air quality at boundary layer scale uses modelled climatic and land cover data. However, such models are difficult to verify, and only low to moderate accuracy may be achieved due to the complexity of the input data required and the reliance on assumptions about dispersion patterns. The provision of comprehensive air quality data to urban residents in city districts, at a level of detail commensurate with other Location-Based Services (LBS) which are time- and place-sensitive, has therefore not been possible. A method for urban air quality monitoring over cities at boundary layer scale, other than by the use of air quality models is presented here. The system presented uses empirical Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data in near-real time, combining AOT data from AERONET with aerosol vertical profiles computed from twice-daily MODIS satellite images at 500 m resolution, to give three dimensional (3D) air quality data over the urban landscape. There has been no previous attempt to project the horizontal spatial distribution of aerosols from satellite image pixels into a vertical dimension to give a spatially comprehensive three dimensional record of air quality. The paper describes the sources and accuracy of the AOT data input to the system as well as its storage and retrieval on a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, to provide air quality and visibility information according to user query at any 3D geographical location, including individual buildings or building floor.
Keywords: Aerosol Optical Thickness; Visibility; GIS; Remote sensing;

Modelling annual pasture dynamics: Application to stomatal ozone deposition by Ignacio González-Fernández; Victoria Bermejo; Susana Elvira; Javier Sanz; Benjamín S. Gimeno; Rocío Alonso (2507-2517).
Modelling ozone (O3) deposition for impact risk assessment is still poorly developed for herbaceous vegetation, particularly for Mediterranean annual pastures. High inter-annual climatic variability in the Mediterranean area makes it difficult to develop models characterizing gas exchange behaviour and air pollutant absorption suitable for risk assessment. This paper presents a new model to estimate stomatal conductance (gs) of Trifolium subterraneum, a characteristic species of dehesa pastures. The MEDPAS (MEDiterranean PAStures) model couples 3 modules estimating soil water content (SWC), vegetation growth and g s. The g s module is a reparameterized version of the stomatal component of the EMEP DO3SE O3 deposition model. The MEDPAS model was applied to two contrasting years representing typical dry and humid springs respectively and with different O3 exposures. The MEDPAS model reproduced realistically the g s seasonal and inter-annual variations observed in the field. SWC was identified as the major driver of differences across years. Despite the higher O3 exposure in the dry year, meteorological conditions favoured 2.1 times higher g s and 56 day longer growing season in the humid year compared to the dry year. This resulted in higher ozone fluxes absorbed by T. subterraneum in the humid year. High inter-family variability was found in gas exchange rates, therefore limiting the relevance of single species O3 deposition flux modelling for dehesa pastures. Stomatal conductance dynamics at the canopy level need to be considered for more accurate O3 flux modelling for present and future climate scenarios in the Mediterranean area.
Keywords: Dehesa; Soil water content; Pasture growth; Stomatal conductance; Stomatal ozone flux;

Monsoon transport is an important process that influences the global transport of persistent organic pollutants. Only a few studies focused on the influence of monsoon on organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, 19 samples were collected in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet Autonomous Region, using a high-volume air sampler. The average concentrations of α-HCH, γ-HCH, p-p′-DDT, p-p′-DDE, o-p′-DDT, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan and PCBs (including PCB-28, 101, and 118) were 2.3, 10.3, 3.2, 2.9, 5.8, 6.3, 2.2, and 10.6 pg m−3, respectively. The weak correlation coefficients between lnp (natural logarithm of partial pressure) and 1/T (reciprocal temperature) were obtained for DDTs and β-endosulfan (r 2 values ranged from 0.13 to 0.41). However, no significant correlations were obtained for HCHs and PCBs. These results suggested that both local emission and long-range atmospheric transport (monsoon) may influence the distribution of OCPs at Lhasa. In this study, peak concentrations of DDTs, endosulfans and PCBs were found in August, when Eastern Monsoon system occurred. However, the maximum concentrations of HCHs appeared in June (Indian Monsoon is the dominant air circulation pattern). Monthly variation of OCP/PCB levels was likely associated with the different air sources of monsoon system.
Keywords: Monsoon transport; Local emission; Lhasa; Tibetan plateau;

The Mohave coal-fired power plant has long been considered a major contributor to visibility impairment in Grand Canyon National Park. The permanent closure of the plant in 2005 provides the opportunity to test this assertion. Although this analysis, based on data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Environments (IMPROVE) Aerosol Network, shows that fine sulfate levels in the park dropped following the closure, no statistically significant improvement in visibility resulted. Difference-in-differences estimation was used to control for other influences. This finding has important implications for the methods generally employed to attribute visibility reductions to air pollution sources.
Keywords: Mohave; IMPROVE; Grand Canyon; Visibility; CALPUFF;

Error estimations of dry deposition velocities of air pollutants using bulk sea surface temperature under common assumptions by Yung-Yao Lan; Ben-Jei Tsuang; Noel Keenlyside; Shu-Lun Wang; Chen-Tung Arthur Chen; Bin-Jye Wang; Tsun-Hsien Liu (2532-2542).
It is well known that skin sea surface temperature (SSST) is different from bulk sea surface temperature (BSST) by a few tenths of a degree Celsius. However, the extent of the error associated with dry deposition (or uptake) estimation by using BSST is not well known. This study tries to conduct such an evaluation using the on-board observation data over the South China Sea in the summers of 2004 and 2006. It was found that when a warm layer occurred, the deposition velocities using BSST were underestimated within the range of 0.8–4.3%, and the absorbed sea surface heat flux was overestimated by 21 W m−2. In contrast, under cool skin only conditions, the deposition velocities using BSST were overestimated within the range of 0.5–2.0%, varying with pollutants and the absorbed sea surface heat flux was underestimated also by 21 W m−2. Scale analysis shows that for a slightly soluble gas (e.g., NO2, NO and CO), the error in the solubility estimation using BSST is the major source of the error in dry deposition estimation. For a highly soluble gas (e.g., SO2), the error in the estimation of turbulent heat fluxes and, consequently, aerodynamic resistance and gas-phase film resistance using BSST is the major source of the total error. In contrast, for a medium soluble gas (e.g., O3 and CO2) both the errors from the estimations of the solubility and aerodynamic resistance are important. In addition, deposition estimations using various assumptions are discussed. The largest uncertainty is from the parameterizations for chemical enhancement factors. Other important areas of uncertainty include: (1) various parameterizations for gas-transfer velocity; (2) neutral-atmosphere assumption; (3) using BSST as SST, and (4) constant pH value assumption.
Keywords: South China sea; Deposition resistance; Henry constant; Chemical enhancement factor; Dry deposition;

Changes in seasonal and diurnal cycles of ozone and temperature in the eastern U.S. by Bryan J. Bloomer; Konstantin Y. Vinnikov; Russell R. Dickerson (2543-2551).
The pollutant tropospheric ozone causes human health problems, and environmental degradation and acts as a potent greenhouse gas. Using long-term hourly observations at five US air quality monitoring surface stations we studied the seasonal and diel cycles of ozone concentrations and surface air temperature to examine the temporal evolution over the past two decades. Such an approach allows visualizing the impact of natural and anthropogenic processes on ozone; nocturnal inversion development, photochemistry, and stratospheric intrusion. Analysis of the result provides an option for determining the duration for a regulatory ozone season. The application of the method provides independent confirmation of observed changes and trends in the ozone and temperature data records as reported elsewhere. The results provide further evidence supporting the assertion that ozone reductions can be attributed to emission reductions as opposed to weather variation. Despite a (∼0.5 °C decade−1) daytime warming trend, ozone decreased by up to 6 ppb decade−1 during times of maximum temperature in the most polluted locations. Ozone also decreased across the emission reduction threshold of 2002 by 6–10 ppb indicating that emission reductions have been effective where and when it is most needed. Longer time series, and coupling with other data sources, may allow for the direct investigation of climate change influence on regional ozone air pollution formation and destruction over annual and daily time scales.
Keywords: Ozone; Weather; Air pollution; Temperature; Climate change; Trends;

We report on ambient atmospheric aerosols present at sea during the Atlantic–Mediterranean voyage of Oceanic II (The Scholar Ship) in spring 2008. A record was obtained of hourly PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 particle size fraction concentrations and 24-h filter samples for chemical analysis which allowed for comparison between levels of crustal particles, sea spray, total carbon, and secondary inorganic aerosols. On-board monitoring was continuous from the equatorial Atlantic to the Straits of Gibraltar, across the Mediterranean to Istanbul, and back via Lisbon to the English Channel. Initially clean air in the open Atlantic registered PM10 levels <10 μg m−3 but became progressively polluted by increasingly coarse PM as the ship approached land. Away from major port cities, the main sources of atmospheric contamination identified were dust intrusions from North Africa (NAF), smoke plumes from biomass burning in sub-Saharan Africa and Russia, industrial sulphate clouds and other regional pollution sources transported from Europe, sea spray during rough seas, and plumes emanating from islands. Under dry NAF intrusions PM10 daily mean levels averaged 40–60 μg m−3 (30–40 μg m−3 PM2.5; c. 20 μg m−3 PM1), peaking briefly to >120 μg m−3 (hourly mean) when the ship passed through curtains of higher dust concentrations amassed at the frontal edge of the dust cloud. PM1/PM10 ratios ranged from very low during desert dust intrusions (0.3–0.4) to very high during anthropogenic pollution plume events (0.8–1).
Keywords: PM10 levels; Marine aerosols; Air pollution at sea;

Physicochemical variations in atmospheric aerosols recorded at sea onboard the Atlantic–Mediterranean 2008 Scholar Ship cruise (Part II): Natural versus anthropogenic influences revealed by PM10 trace element geochemistry by Teresa Moreno; Noemi Pérez; Xavier Querol; Fulvio Amato; Andrés Alastuey; Ravinder Bhatia; Baruch Spiro; Melanie Hanvey; Wes Gibbons (2563-2576).
The geochemistry of PM10 filter samples collected at sea during the Scholar Ship Atlantic–Mediterranean 2008 research cruise reveals a constantly changing compositional mix of pollutants into the marine atmosphere. Source apportionment modelling using Positive Matrix Factorization identifies North African desert dust, sea spray, secondary inorganic aerosols, metalliferous carbon, and V–Ni-bearing combustion particles as the main PM10 factors/sources. The least contaminated samples show an upper continental crust composition (UCC)-normalised geochemistry influenced by seawater chemistry, with marked depletions in Rb, Th and the lighter lanthanoid elements, whereas the arrival of desert dust intrusions imposes a more upper crustal signature enriched in “geological” elements such as Si, Al, Ti, Rb, Li and Sc. Superimposed on these natural background aerosol loadings are anthropogenic metal aerosols (e.g. Cu, Zn, Pb, V, and Mn) which allow identification of pollution sources such as fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, metalliferous industries, and urban–industrial ports. A particularly sensitive tracer is La/Ce, which rises in response to contamination from coastal FCC oil refineries. The Scholar Ship database allows us to recognise seaborne pollution sourced from NW Africa, the Cape Verde and Canary islands, and European cities and industrial complexes, plumes which in extreme cases can produce a downwind deterioration in marine air quality comparable to that seen in many cities, and can persist hundreds of kilometres from land.
Keywords: PM10 trace element chemistry; Marine aerosols; Air pollution at sea;

Atmospheric deposition of Hg and selected trace elements was reconstructed over the past 150 years using sediment cores collected from nine remote, high-elevation lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana. Cores were age dated by 210Pb, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply model. Hg concentrations in most of the cores began to increase around 1900, reaching a peak sometime after 1980. Other trace elements, particularly Pb and Cd, showed similar post-industrial increases in lake sediments, confirming that anthropogenic contaminants are reaching remote areas of the Rocky Mountains via atmospheric transport and deposition. Preindustrial (pre-1875) Hg fluxes in the sediment ranged from 5.7 to 42 μg m−2  yr−1 and modern (post-1985) fluxes ranged from 17.7 to 141 μg m−2  yr−1. The average ratio of modern to preindustrial fluxes was 3.2, which is similar to remote lakes elsewhere in North America. Estimates of net atmospheric deposition based on the cores were 3.1 μg m−2  yr−1 for preindustrial and 11.7 μg m−2  yr−1 for modern times. Current-day measurements of wet deposition range from 5.0 to 8.6 μg m−2  yr−1, which are lower than the modern sediment-based estimate of 11.7 μg m−2  yr−1, perhaps owing to inputs of dry-deposited Hg to the lakes.
Keywords: Mercury; Lake; Sediment; Trace elements; Atmospheric deposition;

Aerosol optical properties based on ground measurements over the Chinese Yangtze Delta Region by Liang Pan; Huizheng Che; Fuhai Geng; Xiangao Xia; Yaqiang Wang; Chize Zhu; Min Chen; Wei Gao; Jianping Guo (2587-2596).
The characteristics of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent were analyzed and compared using Cimel sunphotometer data from 2007 to 2008 at five sites located in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. The simultaneous measurements between Lin’an and ZFU showed a very high consistency of AOD at all wavelengths. The differences are less than 0.02 for Angstrom exponent and AOD at all wavelengths. The mean values of AOD at 440 nm at the Pudong, Taihu and Lin’an were about 0.74 ± 0.43, 0.85 ± 0.46, and 0.89 ± 0.46, respectively. The mean values of Angstrom exponents were about 1.27 ± 0.30, 1.20 ± 0.28 and 1.32 ± 0.35, respectively. The variation of monthly averaged AOD over Pudong showed a single peak distribution, with the maximum value occurring in July (AOD440nm 1.26 ± 0.61) and minimum in January (AOD440nm 0.50 ± 0.27). However, the variations of monthly averaged AOD at Taihu and Lin’an showed a bi-modal distribution. There were peak values of AOD occurring in July (AOD440nm 1.41 ± 0.49) and September (AOD440nm 1.22 ± 0.52) for Taihu. For Lin’an, the two peak values of AOD occurred in June (AOD440nm 1.17 ± 0.69) and September (AOD440nm 1.28 ± 0.46). The AOD accumulated mainly between 0.30–0.90(68%), 0.30–1.20(75%) and 0.30–1.20 (∼75%) at Pudong, Taihu, and Lin’an, respectively. The Angstrom exponent accumulated mainly between 1.10–1.60 (75%), 1.10–1.50 (63%) and 1.20–1.60, 50% (50%) at Pudong, Taihu, and Lin’an, respectively.The synchronized observation showed that the AOD at Pudong was larger than those at Dongtan by 0.03, 0.03, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.08 at wavelengths of 1020 nm, 870 nm, 670 nm, 500 nm and 440 nm, respectively. The synchronized observations at Pudong, Taihu and Lin’an showed that the three stations had high level AOD with means at 440 nm about 0.68, 0.73, and 0.78, respectively. The relationship between MODIS retrieved and ground-based measured AOD shows good agreement with R 2 ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 at Pudong, Taihu, Lin’an and Dongtan. The MODIS results were overestimated comparing the ground measurements at Pudong, Taihu, and Dongtan but exceptional at Lin’an.The analysis results between aerosol optical properties and wind measurement at Pudong showed that the wind speed from the east correlates with the lower observed AOD. The back trajectory analysis indicates that more than 50% airmasses were from the marine area at Pudong, while back trajectories distribution is relatively homogeneous at Lin’an.
Keywords: Aerosol optical properties; Yangtze Delta Region; China;

Altitude distribution of aerosols over Southeast Arabian Sea coast during pre-monsoon season: Elevated layers, long-range transport and atmospheric radiative heating by K. Rajeev; K. Parameswaran; Bijoy V. Thampi; Manoj Kumar Mishra; Anish Kumar M. Nair; S. Meenu (2597-2604).
Every year, during the pre-monsoon period (March–May), a pronounced increase in aerosol optical depth (AOD) is observed over the eastern Arabian Sea, which is attributed to the transport of continental aerosols. This paper presents the altitude distribution of tropospheric aerosols, characteristics of elevated aerosol layers and aerosol radiative heating of the atmosphere during the pre-monsoon season over Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E), a station located at the southwest coast of Indian peninsula which is covered by the eastern Arabian Sea plume. Altitude profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient (βa) and linear depolarization ratio (LDR) reveal two distinct aerosol layers persisting between 0–2 km and 2–4 km. The layer at 2–4 km, which contributes about 25% of the AOD during polluted conditions, contains significant amount of non-spherical aerosols. This layer is prominent only when the advection of dry airmass occurs from the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent and northern Arabian Sea. Role of long-range transport in the development of this aerosol layer is further confirmed using latitude–altitude cross-section of βa observed by CALIPSO. Aerosol content in the layer below 2 km is large when advection of air occurs from the north and east Arabian Sea and is significantly small when it occurs from the southwest Arabian Sea or Indian Ocean. During the highly polluted conditions, aerosols tend to increase the diurnal mean atmospheric radiative heating rate by ∼0.8 K day−1 at 500 m and 0.3 K day−1 at 3 km, which are about 80% and 30% of the respective radiative heating in the aerosol-free atmosphere.
Keywords: Aerosols; Elevated aerosol layer; Depolarization ratio; Lidar; Aerosol radiative heating;

A tall tower flux measurement setup was established in metropolitan Houston, Texas, to measure trace gas fluxes from emission sources in the urban surface layer. We describe a new relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID used for VOC flux measurements, focusing on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) results. Ambient air sampled from 60 m above the ground next to a sonic anemometer was subsampled by a membrane pump and pushed into an REA valve system with two Teflon bag reservoirs, then transferred to two preconcentration units for thermal desorption. We discuss the performance of our system and the selected BTEX measurement results using approximately 8 weeks of data (May 22–July 22, 2008), presenting diurnal variations of concentrations and fluxes of these traffic tracers. The measured values exhibited diurnal cycles with dominant morning and midday peaks during weekdays related to rush hour traffic and additional weekday daytime toluene and xylenes emissions. Local evaporative emissions, likely from solvent usage, significantly contributed to the measured fluxes. We upscaled measured emissions to the county level using a high resolution land cover data set and compared the results with EPA’s National Emission Inventory (NEI).
Keywords: Urban flux measurement; Volatile organic compounds (VOCs); Relaxed eddy accumulation (REA); Emission inventory; Geographic Information System (GIS);

Using Si depletion in aerosol to identify the sources of crustal dust in two Chinese megacities by Qing Zhao; Kebin He; Kenneth A. Rahn; Yongliang Ma; Fumo Yang; Fengkui Duan (2615-2624).
Depletion of Si in transported dust has been recognized for many years. It can be used to distinguish between transported and local dust in cities, although it rarely has been. Here we use the variations of the Si/Al ratio in 15 months of continuous PM2.5 samples at Beijing (northern China) and Chongqing (southwestern China) to reveal the seasonal patterns of their dust sources. For both cities, peaks of concentration for Si and Al in PM2.5 corresponded with minima of Si/Al, and could often be linked to pulsed air flow from deserts to the northwest. With significant depletion (up to 80%) and homogeneous distribution at urban and rural sites, Si/Al showed a clear seasonal evolution, which decreased from spring to summer, increased from fall to winter, and collapsed during Chinese Spring Festival, indicating the dominance of transported dust, local fugitive dust and firework influence, respectively. The low ratios implied that desert dust is a common source during spring at Chongqing, whereas its presence during cold season at Beijing was also more frequent than expected. Failing to recognize the depletion of Si may lead to an overestimate of desert dust by 15%–65% when using the average abundance of Al in crust (6%–8%), as in previous studies. The difference in Si/Al ratio between local and transported dust implies that >60% of the dust at Beijing came from outside the city during the springs of 2004–2006. This result can help resolve the contradictory findings on this topic that have been presented earlier.
Keywords: Elemental indicator; Desert dust; Local fugitive dust; Long-range transport;

Ambient sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ammonia at ten background and rural sites in China during 2007–2008 by Zhao-Yang Meng; Xiao-Bin Xu; Tao Wang; Xing-Ying Zhang; Xiao-Lan Yu; Shu-Feng Wang; Wei-Li Lin; Yi-Zhen Chen; Yi-An Jiang; Xing-Qin An (2625-2631).
We present two years (January 2007–December 2008) of atmospheric SO2, NO2 and NH3 measurements from ten background or rural sites in nine provinces in China. The measurements were made on a monthly basis using passive samplers under careful quality control. The results show large geographical and seasonal variations in the concentrations of these gases. The mean SO2 concentration varied from 0.7 ± 0.4 ppb at Waliguan on Qinghai Plateau to 67.3 ± 31.1 ppb at Kaili in Guizhou province. The mean NO2 concentration ranged from 0.6 ± 0.4 ppb at Waliguan to 23.9 ± 6.9 ppb at Houma in southern Shanxi. The mean NH3 concentration ranged from 2.8 ± 3.0 ppb at Shangdianzi in northeastern Beijing to 13.7 ± 8.4 ppb at Houma. At most sites, SO2 and NO2 peaked in winter and reached minima in summer, while NH3 showed maximum values in summer and lower values in cold seasons. On the whole, the geographical distributions of the observed gas concentrations are consistent with those of emissions. The ground measurements of SO2 and NO2 are contrasted to the SCIAMACHY SO2 and OMI NO2 tropospheric columns, respectively. Although the satellite data can capture the main features of emissions and concentrations of SO2, they do not reflect the variations of SO2 in the surface layer. The situation is better for the case of NO2. The OMI NO2 columns capture the geographical differences in the ground NO2 and correlate fairly well with the ground levels of NO2 at six of the ten sites.
Keywords: Background and rural sites; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen dioxide; Ammonia; Passive sampling;

Variations and sources of ambient formaldehyde for the 2008 Beijing Olympic games by Yang Li; Min Shao; Sihua Lu; Chih-Chung Chang; Purnendu K. Dasgupta (2632-2639).
As the host city of the 2008 Olympic games, Beijing implemented a series of air pollution control measures before and during the Olympic games. Ambient formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were measured using a fluorometric instrument based on a diffusion scrubber and the Hantzsch reaction; hydrocarbons were simultaneously measured using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Meteorological parameters, CO, O3, and NO2 concentrations were measured by standard commercial instrumentation. In four separate periods: (a) before the vehicle plate number control (3–19 July); (b) during the Olympic Games (8–24 August); (c) during the Paralympic Games (6–17 September) and (d) after the vehicle control was ceased (21–28 September), the average HCHO mixing ratios were 7.31 ± 2.67 ppbv, 5.54 ± 2.41 ppbv, 8.72 ± 2.48 ppbv, and 6.42 ± 2.79 ppbv, while the total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) measured were 30.41 ± 18.08 ppbv, 18.12 ± 9.38 ppbv, 30.50 ± 13.37 ppbv, and 33.33 ± 15.85 ppbv, respectively. Both HCHO and NMHC levels were the lowest during the Olympic games, and increased again during the Paralympic games even with the same vehicle control measures operative. Similar diurnal HCHO and O3 patterns indicated that photo-oxidation of NMHCs may be the major source of HCHO. The diurnal profile of total NMHCs was very similar to that of NO2 and CO: morning and evening peaks appeared in rush hours, indicating even after strict vehicle control, automobile emission may still be the dominant source of the HCHO precursors. The contributions of HCHO, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics to OH loss rates were also calculated. HCHO contributed 22 ± 3% to the total VOCs and 24 ± 1% to the total OH loss rate. HCHO was not only important in term of abundance, but also important in chemical reactivity in the air.
Keywords: HCHO; Vehicle control; Source; Beijing Olympics;

An approach for determining air pollution monitoring sites by Enrique González Ferradás; Marta Doval Miñarro; Isabel María Morales Terrés; Francisco José Marzal Martínez (2640-2645).
EC Directive 2008/50/CE on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe specifies the obligations of Member States regarding fixed measurements of atmospheric pollutants in areas where maximum concentration levels exceed the lower assessment threshold. However, indications as to the siting of atmospheric monitoring stations are less precise and sometimes confusing. Campaigns to measure benzene and other volatile organic compounds in Murcia in 2007 and 2008 revealed that the areas where measurements coincided with the mean concentration for the whole city were always practically the same. Consequently, we propose a method for siting atmospheric monitoring stations in cities for which emission sources remain steady throughout the year, as is the case for cities in most southern European countries, where the most important emission source is traffic. The method is particularly useful for towns in which only one fixed measuring point is compulsory and should help local authorities in making correct decisions in this context.
Keywords: Benzene; Air pollution monitoring sites;

We analyzed metals (Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and Bi), water-soluble ions (Na+, NH4 +, K+, Ca2+, Cl, NO3 and SO4 2−) and carbonaceous mass (EC and OC) in SPM aerosol samples using an ICP-MS, ion chromatograph and CHN corder, respectively. The SPM samples were collected from 1999 to 2005 at two locations (urban site A and industrial site B) of Yokohama, Japan with concentrations in mean and ranges of 34.2 and 19.7–50.3 μg m−3 and 22.9 and 12.7–35.1 μg m−3 for the respective location. Source apportionment of SPM aerosol was conducted appropriately for the first time to these locations employing PCA-APCS technique. Major sources of SPM at site A were a) crustal source, b) urban origin, c) undefined, and d) mineral rock. At site B, the sources were predicted as a) urban origin, b) undefined, c) crustal source, and d) secondarily formed aerosol. The tracers and nature of the source related to urban origin at both sites were similar but retaining different source strength. Secondarily formed aerosol was quite unique at site B. However, mineral rock was remarkable at site A.
Keywords: Suspended particulate matter; Hazardous elements; Source apportionment;

Organosulfates from glycolaldehyde in aqueous aerosols and clouds: Laboratory studies by Mark J. Perri; Yong B. Lim; Sybil P. Seitzinger; Barbara J. Turpin (2658-2664).
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is enhanced on acidic seed particles; SOA also forms during cloud processing reactions where acidic sulfate is prevalent. Recently several studies have focused on the identification of organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols or smog chamber experiments, and upon the mechanism of formation for these products. We identify several organosulfate products formed during the laboratory OH radical oxidation of dilute aqueous glycolaldehyde in the presence of sulfuric acid. We propose a radical–radical reaction mechanism as being consistent with formation of these products under our experimental conditions. Using a kinetics model we estimate that organosulfates account for less than 1% of organic matter formed from these precursors during cloud processing. However, in wet acidic aerosols, where precursors are highly concentrated and acidic sulfate makes up close to half of the aerosol mass, this radical–radical reaction could account for significant organosulfate production.
Keywords: Secondary organic aerosol; Organosulfate; Cloud processing; Glycolaldehyde; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry;