Atmospheric Environment (v.41, #30)

Harbours and air quality by Emilia Georgieva; Elisa Canepa; Peter Builtjes (6319-6321).

VOC emissions during outdoor ship painting and health-risk assessment by Laure Malherbe; Corinne Mandin (6322-6330).
Painting of ship external surfaces in building or repair shipyards generates significant emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to the atmosphere. Such emissions have not been specifically regulated so far. The purpose of our study is therefore to evaluate the quantities and as far as possible the nature of the emitted VOC, to characterize the dispersion of these chemicals in the atmosphere and to assess the exposure and resulting health risks for surrounding populations.This study is focused on VOC emitted during outdoor work involving use of paints and solvents. VOC emissions are diffuse, since they come from the whole painted surfaces. A methodology for quantifying them is developed and tested, using information provided by ALSTOM—Chantiers de l’Atlantique and data found in paint technical sheets. Its reliability is checked against emission values established by ALSTOM or found in literature.Then, for two particular situations, construction on one hand, repair on the other hand, atmospheric dispersion of total VOC is simulated to assess the long-term impact (characterized by the plume extension and the annual mean concentrations) of these compounds.Finally, a health-risk assessment based on the estimates is carried out to evaluate the risks by inhalation for people living near the site. Considering the presumed composition of paints and the available reference toxicological values, total VOC are entirely assimilated to toluene. In both examples (construction and repair) and in the current state of knowledge, the calculated risk is not of health concern.Several ways for taking this study further are proposed: a more exhaustive collection of data relative to VOC and other substances contained in paints, on-site measurement of VOC in the ambient air, characterization of diffuse emissions related to other activities, such as purging or welding, and other pollutants, like particles.
Keywords: Shipyards; Outdoor painting; Volatile organic compounds; Diffuse emissions; Health-risk assessment;

Characterisation of dust material emitted during harbour operations (HADA Project) by N. Moreno; A. Alastuey; X. Querol; B. Artiñano; A. Guerra; J.A. Luaces; A. Lorente; J. Basora (6331-6343).
Harbour activities such as loading, unloading and transport of dusty loose materials may be an important source of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Depending on the materials, the type of operation and the meteorological scenarios, these activities may have an impact on the levels of ambient air PM around harbour areas. Moreover, air quality at harbours may be affected by nearby urban and industrial emissions. The aim of this work is to compile an inventory of the main characteristics (chemical, morphological, mineralogical and grain size parameters) of the bulk cargo materials and of the material emitted during different port operations for possible use as tracers of the fugitive PM emission sources. For all cases, the tracer characteristics determined for each bulk material were also identified in the corresponding PM material emitted. This inventory could assist the harbour authorities to identify the origin of high PM events recorded by air quality monitoring networks in harbour areas, and could also help modellers to predict the impact of harbour activities on ambient PM levels. The harbour of Tarragona (north-east Spain) was selected for this study given the high volume of solids in bulk handled. To this end, 12 handling operations of selected materials (clinker, phosphate, pyrite ash, Mn mineral, fine Si–Mn, coke (coal), bituminous coal, tapioca, soybean, alfalfa, corn, andalusite) were selected for the characterisation of suspended and deposited PM. In spite of the coarse grain size distribution of these bulk cargo materials, with a very low % in the fraction <10 μm, manipulation of these materials during harbour operations may result in high emissions of PM10 with relatively high levels of potential toxic elements. Furthermore, ambient PM10 in the area with the highest traffic density of the harbour was also sampled and characterised.
Keywords: Particulate matter; Air quality; Solid in bulk; Harbour;

Measurement of particulate concentrations produced during bulk material handling at the Tarragona harbor by B. Artíñano; F.J. Gómez-Moreno; M. Pujadas; N. Moreno; A. Alastuey; X. Querol; F. Martín; A. Guerra; J.A. Luaces; J. Basora (6344-6355).
Bulk material handling can be a significant source of particles in harbor areas. The atmospheric impact of a number of loading/unloading activities of diverse raw materials has been assessed from continuous measurements of ambient particle concentrations recorded close to the emission sources. Two experimental campaigns have been carried out in the Tarragona port to document the impact of specific handling operations and bulk materials. Dusty bulk materials such as silica–manganese powder, tapioca, coal, clinker and lucerne were dealt with during the experiments. The highest impacts on ambient particle concentrations were recorded during handling of clinker. For this material and silica–manganese powder, high concentrations were recorded in the fine grain size (<2.5 μm). The lowest impacts on particulate matter concentrations were recorded during handling of tapioca and lucerne, mainly in the coarse grain size (2–5–10 μm). The effectiveness of several emission abatement measures, such as ground watering to diminish coal particle resuspension, was demonstrated to reduce ambient concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. The importance of other good practices in specific handling operations, such as controlling the height of the shovel discharge, was also evidenced by these experiments. The results obtained can be further utilized as a useful experimental database for emission factor estimations.
Keywords: Atmospheric pollution; PM10; Diffuse emission sources; Loading/unloading activities; Bulk material;

Estimates of atmospheric particle emissions from bulk handling of dusty materials in Spanish Harbours by F. Martín; M. Pujadas; B. Artiñano; F. Gómez-Moreno; I. Palomino; N. Moreno; A. Alastuey; X. Querol; J. Basora; J.A. Luaces; A. Guerra (6356-6365).
The objective of this paper is to show the methodology developed to estimate particle emissions from several typical activities of bulk handling in harbours. It is based on several field experiments carried out in the Harbour of Tarragona, where high time resolution monitors were deployed close to different areas of bulk solids handling operations. Monitors recorded particle concentrations and meteorological variables. A high-resolution dispersion model is used to estimate the emission rates that best fits the observations. Results were comparable to those obtained with the AP-42 (EPA). The new emission estimates are used as input for an emission model called EMIPORT. The model also employs AP-42 (EPA) emission factors as a complement. This work is one of the activities of the LIFE project called HADA (Herramienta Automática de Diagnóstico Ambiental or in English Automatic Tool for Environmental Diagnostic).
Keywords: Atmospheric particle emission; Emission factor; PM10; Harbours;

Contribution of harbour activities to levels of particulate matter in a harbour area: Hada Project-Tarragona Spain by A. Alastuey; N. Moreno; X. Querol; M. Viana; B. Artíñano; J.A. Luaces; J. Basora; A. Guerra (6366-6378).
The present study seeks to estimate the impact of harbour activities on PM10 levels based on a complete chemical characterisation of 90 PM10 samples periodically collected between September 2004 and September 2005 in the harbour of Tarragona as part of the HADA (LIFE Program EC) project. Interpretation of the time series of major and trace PM10 components allowed us to identify peaks of PM10 components related to the activities in the harbour. A factor analysis of PM10 enabled us to identify the crustal, traffic, secondary and sea spray sources, and one other source related to the re-suspension of materials handled in the harbour. The multi-linear regression analysis demonstrated a high anthropogenic contribution (62%) for PM10 at the harbour, mainly related to traffic (34% of PM10). Comparison with an earlier study, using the same methodology, at an urban background monitoring station in Tarragona, showed a good correlation for the annual average concentrations of most PM10 components at the two stations. At the harbour higher concentrations were obtained for tracers (P and Mn, and V and Ni in a lesser extent) of some mineral bulk cargo materials. Re-suspension of loose materials by means of wind and/or traffic was identified as one of the major contributors to PM10 in the harbour. Abatement strategies designed to reduce levels of PM10 in the harbour and nearby areas are provided.
Keywords: Fugitive emissions; Source contribution; PM10; Trace elements; Air quality;

An air quality survey and emissions inventory at Aberdeen Harbour by I.L. Marr; D.P. Rosser; C.A. Meneses (6379-6395).
A network of 10 stations, with passive sampling for VOCs (including benzene), NO2, and SO2, over 2-week periods, grab sampling for CO, and 48-h pumped sampling for PM10, was set up to make an air quality survey for 12 months around Aberdeen Harbour. Benzene, CO, SO2 and PM10 were always well below the AQS target values. However, NO2 frequently showed a pronounced gradient across the harbour reaching its highest concentrations at the city end, indicating that the road traffic was the principal source of the pollution. This was backed up by the predominance of aromatics in the VOCs in the city centre, derived from petrol engined vehicles, compared to the predominance of alkanes and alkenes around the docks, derived from diesel engined heavy trucks and possibly ships. Black carbon on the PM10 filters also showed a gradient with highest levels in the city centre. It is proposed that for such surveys in future, NO2 and black carbon would be the two most informative parameters.This emissions inventory has shown first, that trucks contribute very little to the total, and second, that the ro-ro ferries are the major contributors as they burn light fuel oil while the oil platform supply vessels burn low-sulphur marine gas oil with around 0.1% S. When the whole picture of the emissions from the city is considered, the emissions from the harbour constitute only a small part.
Keywords: Harbours; Air quality; VOCs; NO2; Emissions inventory;

Air quality impact due to scrap-metal handling on a sea port: A wind tunnel experiment by C. Borrego; A.M. Costa; J.H. Amorim; P. Santos; J. Sardo; M. Lopes; A.I. Miranda (6396-6405).
Emissions from cargo unloading and handling activities in sea ports can be of special importance, particularly in case of proximity to dense urban populations. In this sense, the main purpose of this work was to develop and implement a set of technical solutions intended to reduce the emissions and dispersion of particles resulting from scrap-metal handling on one of the most important Portuguese sea ports.The analysis of the atmospheric flow within the discharging berth was carried out in the Wind Tunnel Laboratory of the Department of Environment and Planning, at the University of Aveiro (Portugal). Laser sheet and hot wire anemometry techniques were applied. Two possible solutions were proposed, consisting in the use of windbreaks located upwind of the scrap-metal piles and a barrier of containers positioned downwind. Both flow visualisation and velocity-measuring techniques confirm a higher efficiency in the reduction of suspended particulate matter by using the containers plus the windbreaks. This combined solution is responsible for an important reduction on the emissions from the scrap-metal piles under typical meteorological conditions for this area, offering a good compromise between cost, time needed for implementation and efficiency.
Keywords: Sea port; Scrap-metal discharging; Particulate matter; Air quality; Wind tunnel modelling; Emission control measures;

Experimental and numerical study of wind flow behind windbreaks by J.L. Santiago; F. Martín; A. Cuerva; N. Bezdenejnykh; A. Sanz-Andrés (6406-6420).
The shelter effect of a windbreak protects aggregate piles and provides a reduction of particle emissions in harbours. RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations) simulations using three variants of kε (standard k–ε, RNG k–ε and realizable k–ε) turbulence closure models have been performed to analyse wind flow characteristics behind an isolated fence located on a flat surface without roughness elements. The performance of the three turbulence models has been assessed by wind tunnel experiments. Cases of fences with different porosities (φ) have been evaluated using wind tunnel experiments as well as numerical simulations. The aim is to determine an optimum porosity for sheltering effect of an isolated windbreak. A value of 0.35 was found as the optimum value among the studied porosities (φ=0, 0.1, 0.24, 0.35, 0.4, 0.5).
Keywords: CFD modelling; Porosity; Windbreaks; Wind tunnel experiments;

Harbour of Ravenna: The contribution of harbour traffic to air quality by Patrizia Lucialli; Pamela Ugolini; Elisa Pollini (6421-6431).
Ravenna is one of the main Italian ports and has assumed a leadership position in Italy for some products and markets. The commercial harbour and the adjacent industrial area are very important for the economic system of Ravenna but, at the same time, they are highly critical areas.In particular, on average 8000 ships per year pass through the harbour of Ravenna, influencing air quality in harbour environment.The paper originates from a study about the contribution of different sources of air pollution in Ravenna and its aim is to evaluate the maritime traffic contribution to the air quality in the port area and to determine the suitability of an urban air quality model to support the air quality management in Ravenna. NO x and PM are selected as modelled pollutants.The study is made up of two parts. The first deals with the evaluation of annual emission of PM10 and NO x coming from ships through a standard European methodology while in the second we simulated the diffusion of these pollutants in the whole area. In order to evaluate the capability of the model to treat maritime traffic emissions, we compared hour-by-hour simulated concentrations with data collected by a fixed monitoring station located near the Candiano Canal.NO x concentrations obtained by short- and long-term simulations show a good match with the values measured by the fixed monitoring station, located in the centre of harbour area, and these results are also supported by FA2 performance index.Instead the omission of the secondary particulate and the contribution of other sources of particulate matter in the port area are probably the most important causes of the PM10 underestimation.The worse results obtained according to the performance indexes indicate the need to consider the formation and transport of secondary particulate matter in order to obtain more reliable predictions.
Keywords: Air quality modelling; Ship emissions; Model evaluation; Performance index; Harbour;

Application of a Lagrangian particle model to assess the impact of harbour, industrial and urban activities on air quality in the Taranto area, Italy by Claudio Gariazzo; Vincenzo Papaleo; Armando Pelliccioni; Giuseppe Calori; Paola Radice; Gianni Tinarelli (6432-6444).
This paper evaluates the relative impact on air quality of harbour emissions, with respect to other emission sources located in the same area. The impact assessment study was conducted in the city of Taranto, Italy. This area was considered as representative of a typical Mediterranean harbour region, where shipping, industries and urban activities co-exist at a short distance, producing an ideal case to study the interaction among these different sources. Chemical and meteorological field campaigns were carried out to provide data to this study. An emission inventory has been developed taking into account industrial sources, traffic, domestic heating, fugitive and harbour emissions. A 3D Lagrangian particle dispersion model (SPRAY) has then been applied to the study area using reconstructed meteorological fields calculated by the diagnostic meteorological model MINERVE. 3D short term hourly concentrations have been computed for both all and specific sources. Industrial activities are found to be the main contributor to SO2. Industry and traffic emissions are mainly responsible for NO x simulated concentrations. CO concentrations are found to be mainly related to traffic emissions, while primary PM10 simulated concentrations tend to be linked to industrial and fugitive emissions. Contributions of harbour activities to the seasonal average concentrations of SO2 and NO x are predicted to be up to 5 and 30 μg m−3, respectively to be compared to a overall peak values of 60 μg m−3 for SO2 and 70 μg m−3 for NO x . At selected urban monitoring stations, SO2 and NO x average source contributions are predicted to be both of about 9% from harbour activities, while 87% and 41% respectively of total concentrations are predicted to be of industrial origin.
Keywords: Harbour; Industrial; Emission; Model; SODAR;

On the influence of meteorological input on photochemical modelling of a severe episode over a coastal area by G. Pirovano; I. Coll; M. Bedogni; S. Alessandrini; M.P. Costa; V. Gabusi; F. Lasry; L. Menut; R. Vautard (6445-6464).
The modelling reconstruction of the processes determining the transport and mixing of ozone and its precursors in complex terrain areas is a challenging task, particularly when local-scale circulations, such as sea breeze, take place. Within this frame, the ESCOMPTE European campaign took place in the vicinity of Marseille (south-east of France) in summer 2001. The main objectives of the field campaign were to document several photochemical episodes, as well as to constitute a detailed database for chemistry transport models intercomparison.CAMx model has been applied on the largest intense observation periods (IOP) (June 21–26, 2001) in order to evaluate the impacts of two state-of-the-art meteorological models, RAMS and MM5, on chemical model outputs. The meteorological models have been used as best as possible in analysis mode, thus allowing to identify the spread arising in pollutant concentrations as an indication of the intrinsic uncertainty associated to the meteorological input.Simulations have been deeply investigated and compared with a considerable subset of observations both at ground level and along vertical profiles. The analysis has shown that both models were able to reproduce the main circulation features of the IOP. The strongest discrepancies are confined to the Planetary Boundary Layer, consisting of a clear tendency to underestimate or overestimate wind speed over the whole domain.The photochemical simulations showed that variability in circulation intensity was crucial mainly for the representation of the ozone peaks and of the shape of ozone plumes at the ground that have been affected in the same way over the whole domain and all along the simulated period. As a consequence, such differences can be thought of as a possible indicator for the uncertainty related to the definition of meteorological fields in a complex terrain area.
Keywords: Chemistry-transport model; Meteorological model; Ozone; ESCOMPTE; Sensitivity analysis;