International Journal of Pharmaceutics (v.201, #2)

Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics in drug research by Ramesh Panchagnula; Narisetty Sunil Thomas (131-150).
With the synergistic and multiplicative interactions of rational drug design, recombinant biotechnology, combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening, millions of compounds are being synthesized by chemists. However, development of these drug candidates has often been impeded, if not terminated, due to biopharmaceutic and/or pharmacokinetic constraints. This has resulted in delays in development time and escalation of cost in the drug research programmes. So, the present emphasis is to reduce development time and cost, which is analogous to added patent life besides the enormous reduction in human suffering. In this compilation the important biopharmaceutic and pharmacokinetic approaches are discussed, which will help in the development of safe and more efficacious drugs with reduced development time and cost.
Keywords: New drug development; Biopharmaceutics; Pharmacokinetics; Solubility; Permeability; Lipophilicity;

The aim of this study was to develop methods for the design of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) tablets with specified drug profiles. This was achieved by the use of a mathematical model developed to predict the release kinetics of water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices. The required model parameters were determined experimentally for propranolol HCl and chlorpheniramine maleate in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer pH 7.4, respectively. Then, the effects of the dimensions and aspect ratio (radius/height) of the tablets on the drug release rate were evaluated. Independent experiments were conducted to verify the theoretical predictions. Acceptable agreement between theory and experiment was found, irrespective of the type of release medium and drug. However, statistical analysis revealed a structure in the resulting residuals. Drug release rates are overestimated at the beginning and underestimated at the end of the process. Possible explanations and modifications of the model are thoroughly discussed. Both, theoretical and experimental data showed that a broad spectrum of drug release patterns can be achieved by varying the size and shape of the tablet. The effect of the initial matrix radius on release was found to be more pronounced than the effect of the initial thickness. The practical benefit of the proposed method is to predict the required size and shape of new controlled drug delivery systems to achieve desired release profiles, thus significantly facilitating the development of new pharmaceutical products.
Keywords: Controlled release; Geometry; Hydrophilic matrix; Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; Modeling;

Pelanserin is a weakly basic experimental drug with a short half-life and a prolonged release formulation was developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and citric acid to set up a system bringing about gradual release of this drug. For this purpose powder mixtures were wet granulated with water and compressed with a hydraulic press at 55 MPa. Dissolution studies were made using 900 ml HCl 0.1 N, the first 3 h, and phosphate buffer pH 7.4, h 3–8. Dissolution curves were described by M t /M inf=kt n , applied separately for each dissolution medium. The dissolution mechanism involved a coupled diffusion/relaxation with a trend favoring the diffusion mechanism with increasing citric acid concentrations. Increasing concentrations of citric acid produced increasing values of the kinetic constants, in a cubic relationship. Higher HPMC proportions produced slower dissolution rates but with a citric acid compensating more clearly a decreased solubility of pelanserin at pH 7.4. Individually calculated dissolution curves showed experimental 8 h pelanserin dissolution in a range of 65–99% for matrices with 100 mg HPMC/tab., while those with 200 mg HPMC/tab. were in the range 57–73%.
Keywords: Pelanserin; Release mechanism; HPMC, Sustained release; Citric acid; pH effect;

The dose-related hypoglycemic effects of insulin emulsions incorporating highly purified EPA and DHA by Mariko Morishita; Masako Kajita; Atsuyuki Suzuki; Kozo Takayama; Yoshiyuki Chiba; Shingi Tokiwa; Tsuneji Nagai (175-185).
The dose-related pharmacological effects of insulin emulsion incorporating highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were investigated. Water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions (insulin dose, 0, 10, 25 and 50 IU/kg) incorporating 2% DHA or EPA were administered directly into the colonic and rectal loops in situ. Serum insulin levels rose and serum glucose levels decreased in an insulin dose-related fashion. The relationship of insulin dose and C max or AUC insulin was linear at the rectum, but a non-linear relationship was observed at the colon. The trend was more predominant in DHA. In the in vivo rectal absorption experiment using emulsions incorporating 2% DHA, 5 IU/kg of insulin emulsion produced a rapid, transitory increase in serum insulin levels and strong reduction of serum glucose levels. The pharmacological availability determined from the dose–response curve by s.c. administration of insulin reached 43.2±26.3% (mean±S.D.). Mucosal irritation caused by administration of emulsions incorporating 2% EPA or DHA was evaluated by a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release study, and compared with those of the emulsion incorporating 2% oleic or linolenic acid. Only when emulsion incorporating 2% oleic acid was applied in the intestine did significant LDH release into the mesenteric veins occur. Our results indicate that emulsion incorporating highly purified long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, especially DHA, has the potential of becoming the formulation for enteral delivery of insulin.
Keywords: Insulin; Docosahexaenoic acid; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Emulsion; Unsaturated fatty acid; Intestinal absorption;

Indomethacin-loaded polystyrene microparticles were prepared by emulsion-solvent evaporation method from an aqueous system. The effect of different parameters like concentration of aqueous phase emulsion stabilizer, volume of the organic disperse phase and initial drug loading on drug content and release of drug were investigated. Keeping the drug-polymer ratio constant, variation in the concentration of emulsion stabilizer and volume of the organic disperse phase did not produce any significant change either in the actual drug content or in the drug release. The initial drug loading, however, greatly influenced the drug release which, as revealed by different analyses, was due to the presence of drug in different physical forms in the microparticles. Physical characterization using thin layer chromatography and infrared spectroscopy apparently revealed the absence of drug degradation and sizeable interaction between the drug and the polymer. Regardless of lack of interaction, thermodynamic properties such as solubility of the drug in the polymer and fraction of the drug present in crystalline form were determined by using differential scanning calorimetry and was further substantiated with scanning electron micrography and X-ray diffraction analysis.
Keywords: Indomethacin; Polystyrene microparticles; Drug release; Soluble form; Crystalline form;

A model was established for the dissolution of non-disintegrating salicylic acid tablets as a function of hydrodynamic conditions in the Flow Through Cell system (USP Apparatus 4). The approach was to model the dissolution rate of the material as a function of the Reynold’s number, the dimensionless engineering term that describes the degree of turbulence. The dissolution rate of USP calibrator salicylic acid tablets was measured as a function of tablet size, orientation within the cell, dissolution media flow rate, and cell size. All of these variables were found to have an effect on dissolution rate, consistent with theory. An equation to predict this dissolution was established as: N SH=−21.1+12.6×N RE 0.5, R 2=0.99; 10<N re<292.
Keywords: Dissolution; Hydrodynamics; Reynold’s number; Flow through cell dissolution;

Stearic acid coated cefuroxime axetil (SACA) microspheres have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high sensitivity DSC (HSDSC) in order to examine the interaction between the spheres and a range of buffer systems, with a view to further enhance the understanding of the mechanism of drug release developed in earlier studies []. DSC studies indicated that after immersion in Sorensens modified phosphate buffer (SMPB) pH 5.9 followed by washing and drying, no change in the thermal properties of the spheres was detected up to 60 min of immersion, with a single endotherm noted at circa 56°C, that corresponded to the melting of the stearic acid used in this study; similar results were obtained for systems immersed in distilled water. After immersion in SMPB pH 7.0 and 8.0 , however, a second peak was noted at approximately 67°C that increased in magnitude relative to the lower temperature endotherm with increasing exposure time to the medium. Spheres that had not been previously washed prior to drying showed complete conversion to the higher temperature endotherm for these two buffers. Systems which had been exposed to a range of pH 7.0 buffers (citrate–phosphate buffer (CPB), phosphate buffer mixed (PBM), boric acid buffer (BAB)) were then examined. Only the CPB systems showed evidence for conversion to the higher melting form. PBM systems to which further sodium had been added were then examined. A maximum conversion was found at 0.05 M sodium, which was in agreement with the maximum in release rate found in a previous study [Robson et al., 2000]. HSDSC was then used to examine systems that were immersed in the buffer. For SMPB, pH 5.9 and distilled water, only the endotherm corresponding to the stearic acid melting was seen. However, for SMPB pH 7.0 and 8.0, three peaks were seen, two corresponding to those seen for the DSC studies and a further lower temperature peak at circa 44°C. Studies on PBM systems to which additional sodium had been added showed small levels of conversion to the higher temperature form at higher sodium contents. The data was discussed in terms of the correlation with earlier dissolution studies on the same systems [Robson et al., 1999; 2000].
Keywords: Cefuroxime axetil; Differential scanning calorimetry; Microsphere; Stearic acid; Taste masking;

Pharmaceutical relationships of three solid state forms of stavudine by R.B. Gandhi; J.B. Bogardus; D.E. Bugay; R.K. Perrone; M.A. Kaplan (221-237).
Three solid state forms of stavudine designated forms I, II and III have been identified and characterized. Forms I and II are anhydrous polymorphs whereas form III is hydrated and is pseudopolymorphic with forms I and II. Physico–chemical and thermodynamic properties of the three solid state forms have been characterized. Solid-state stability and potential for interconversion of the forms to aid in the selection of preferred form for development and commercialization has been studied. Conditions of recrystallization governing the formation of thermodynamically most stable polymorphic form I devoid of other forms was identified.
Keywords: Stavudine; Polymorphism; Dissolution; Hydrate; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Infra-red spectroscopy;

A simple model for the prediction of blood–brain partitioning by Miklos Feher; Elizabeth Sourial; Jonathan M. Schmidt (239-247).
We derived a simple model for the prediction of blood–brain barrier penetration using three descriptors. The model contains the calculated octanol–water partition coefficient, the number of hydrogen-bond acceptors in an aqueous medium and the polar surface area. It was validated using an extensive dataset, comprising 100 diverse drug molecules. The descriptors are easily calculated and the model is suitable for the rapid prediction of the blood-brain barrier partitioning of drugs.
Keywords: Blood–brain barrier; QSAR; Drug transport; Partition coefficients; Polar surface area; Hydrogen bonding;

Index (249-250).