BBA - Reviews on Cancer (v.1551, #1)
Glioma models by Chengkai Dai; Eric C Holland (M19-M27).
Gliomas are primary central nervous system tumors that arise from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes or their precursors. Gliomas can be classified into several groups according to their histologic characteristics, the most malignant of the gliomas is glioblastoma multiforme. In contrast to the long-standing and well-defined histopathology, the underlying molecular and genetic bases for gliomas are only just emerging. Many genetic alterations have been identified in human gliomas, however, establishing unequivocal correlation between these genetic alterations and gliomagenesis requires accurate animal models for this disease. Here we are reviewing the existing animal models for gliomas with different strategies and our current knowledge on the important issues about this disease, such as activation of signal transduction pathways, disruption of cell cycle arrest pathways, cell-of-origin of gliomas, and therapeutic strategies.
Keywords: Glioma; Animal model; Transgene; Gene targeting; Retroviral gene transfer; Genetic alterations;
Morphology and dynamics of chromosome territories in living cells by Peter Edelmann; Harald Bornfleth; Daniele Zink; Thomas Cremer; Christoph Cremer (M29-M39).
Chromosome territories formed by fluorescence-labeled sub-chromosomal foci were analyzed in time-lapse series of 3D confocal data sets of living HeLa and human neuroblastoma cells. The quantitative analysis of the chromosome territory morphology confirmed previous results obtained by visual observation [Zink et al., Hum. Genet. 102 (1998) 241–251] that chromosome territories persisted as stable entities over an observation time >4 h. The changes in morphology with time of single chromosome territories were found to be less pronounced than differences in morphology of different chromosome territories in fixed cells. The analysis of the individual motion of chromosome territories recently showed ‘Brownian’ diffusion-like motion at very slow rates [Bornfleth et al., Biophys. J. 77 (1999) 2871–2886]. Here, we show that the mutual motion of different chromosome territories was independent and also ‘Brownian’ diffusion-like.
Keywords: Nuclear structure; Chromosome territories; Living cells; Image analysis;
Bcr-Abl inhibition as a modality of CML therapeutics by Elisabeth Buchdunger; Alex Matter; Brian J. Druker (M11-M18).
Keywords: Chronic myelogenous leukemia; Bcr-Abl; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor; STI571;
Chromatin modifiers and tumor suppression by Agnes Klochendler-Yeivin; Moshe Yaniv (M1-M10).
Keywords: Chromatin remodeling; SWI/SNF complex; Histone acetylation/deacetylation; Tumor suppressor;