BBA - General Subjects (v.1860, #5)

Successful ITC experiments require conversion of cell reagent (titrand M) to product and production or consumption of heat. These conditions are quantified for 1:1 binding, M + X ⇔ MX.Nonlinear least squares is used in error-propagation mode to predict the precisions with which the key quantities — binding constant K, reaction enthalpy ΔH°, and stoichiometry number n — can be estimated over a wide range of the dimensionless quantity that governs isotherm shape, c  =  K[M]0. The measurement precision σ q is estimated from analysis of water–water blanks.When the product conversion exceeds 90%, the parameter relative standard errors are proportional to σ q /q tot, where the total heat q tot ≈ ΔH° [M]0V 0. Specifically, σ K /K  ×  q tot q ≈ 25 for c  = 10  − 3  − 10, ≈ 11 c 1/3 for c  = 10 − 104. For c  > 1, n and ΔH° are more precise than K; this holds also at smaller c for the product n  × ΔH° and for ΔH° when n can be held fixed. Use of as few as 10 titrant injections can outperform the customary 20–40 while also improving productivity.These principles are illustrated in experiment design using the program ITC-PLANNER15.Simple quantitative guidelines replace the “c rules” that have dominated the literature for decades. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.Display Omitted
Keywords: ITC; Experiment design; Data analysis; Nonlinear least squares; Statistical errors;

On the link between conformational changes, ligand binding and heat capacity by S. Vega; O. Abian; A. Velazquez-Campoy (868-878).
Conformational changes coupled to ligand binding constitute the structural and energetics basis underlying cooperativity, allostery and, in general, protein regulation. These conformational rearrangements are associated with heat capacity changes. ITC is a unique technique for studying binding interactions because of the simultaneous determination of the binding affinity and enthalpy, and for providing the best estimates of binding heat capacity changes.Still controversial issues in ligand binding are the discrimination between the “conformational selection model” and the “induced fit model”, and whether or not conformational changes lead to temperature dependent apparent binding heat capacities. The assessment of conformational changes associated with ligand binding by ITC is discussed. In addition, the “conformational selection” and “induced fit” models are reconciled, and discussed within the context of intrinsically (partially) unstructured proteins.Conformational equilibrium is a major contribution to binding heat capacity changes. A simple model may explain both conformational selection and induced fit scenarios. A temperature-independent binding heat capacity does not necessarily indicate absence of conformational changes upon ligand binding. ITC provides information on the energetics of conformational changes associated with ligand binding (and other possible additional coupled equilibria).Preferential ligand binding to certain protein states leads to an equilibrium shift that is reflected in the coupling between ligand binding and additional equilibria. This represents the structural/energetic basis of the widespread dependence of ligand binding parameters on temperature, as well as pH, ionic strength and the concentration of other chemical species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: Ligand binding; Conformational change; Allostery; Heat capacity change; Isothermal titration calorimetry; Conformational selection and induced fit;

The binding of metal ions to proteins is a crucial process required for their catalytic activity, structural stability and/or functional regulation. Isothermal titration calorimetry provides a wealth of fundamental information which when combined with structural data allow for a much deeper understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism.A rigorous understanding of any molecular interaction requires in part an in-depth quantification of its thermodynamic properties. Here, we provide an overview of recent studies that have used ITC to quantify the interaction of essential first row transition metals with relevant proteins and highlight major findings from these thermodynamic studies.The thermodynamic characterization of metal ion–protein interactions is one important step to understanding the role that metal ions play in living systems. Such characterization has important implications not only to elucidating proteins' structure-function relationships and biological properties but also in the biotechnology sector, medicine and drug design particularly since a number of metal ions are involved in several neurodegenerative diseases.Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements can provide complete thermodynamic profiles of any molecular interaction through the simultaneous determination of the reaction binding stoichiometry, binding affinity as well as the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the free energy change thus enabling a more in-depth understanding of the nature of these interactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.Display Omitted
Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC); Binding; Proteins; Transitions metal ions; Thermodynamics; Enthalpy/entropy;

Dissecting ITC data of metal ions binding to ligands and proteins by Rachel A. Johnson; Olivia M. Manley; Anne M. Spuches; Nicholas E. Grossoehme (892-901).
ITC is a powerful technique that can reliably assess the thermodynamic underpinnings of a wide range of binding events. When metal ions are involved, complications arise in evaluating the data due to unavoidable solution chemistry that includes metal speciation and a variety of linked equilibria.This paper identifies these concerns, provides recommendations to avoid common mistakes, and guides the reader through the mathematical treatment of ITC data to arrive at a set of thermodynamic state functions that describe identical chemical events and, ideally, are independent of solution conditions. Further, common metal chromophores used in biological metal sensing studies are proposed as a robust system to determine unknown solution competition.Metal ions present several complications in ITC experiments. This review presents strategies to avoid these pitfalls and proposes and experimentally validates mathematical approaches to deconvolute complex equilibria that exist in these systems.This review discusses the wide range of complications that exists in metal-based ITC experiments. It provides a starting point for scientists new to this field and articulates concerns that will help experienced researchers troubleshoot experiments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.Display Omitted
Keywords: ITC; Metal speciation; Bioinorganic chemistry; Metal competition; Proton competition; Calorimetry;

Calorimetric and spectroscopic investigations of the binding of metallated porphyrins to G-quadruplex DNA by Jesse I. DuPont; Kate L. Henderson; Amanda Metz; Vu H. Le; Joseph P. Emerson; Edwin A. Lewis (902-909).
The human telomere contains tandem repeat of (TTAGG) capable of forming a higher order DNA structure known as G-quadruplex. Porphyrin molecules such as TMPyP4 bind and stabilize G-quadruplex structure.Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), were used to investigate the interactions between TMPyP4 and the Co(III), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes of TMPyP4 (e.g. Co(III)-TMPyP4) and a model human telomere G-quadruplex (hTel22) at or near physiologic ionic strength ([Na+] or [K+] ≈ 0.15 M).The apo-TMPyP4, Ni(II)-TMPyP4, and Cu(II)-TMPyP4 all formed complexes having a saturation stoichiometry of 4:1, moles of ligand per mole of DNA. Binding of apo-TMPyP4, Ni(II)-TMPyP4, and Cu(II)-TMPyP4 is described by a “four-independent-sites model”. The two highest-affinity sites exhibit a K in the range of 108 to 1010  M− 1 with the two lower-affinity sites exhibiting a K in the range of 104 to 105  M− 1. Binding of Co(III)-TMPyP4, and Zn(II)-TMPyP4, is best described by a “two-independent-sites model” in which only the end-stacking binding mode is observed with a K in the range of 104 to 105  M− 1.In the case of apo-TMPyP4, Ni(II)-TMPyP4, and Cu(II)-TMPyP4, the thermodynamic signatures for the two binding modes are consistent with an “end stacking” mechanism for the higher affinity binding mode and an “intercalation” mechanism for the lower affinity binding mode. In the case of Co(III)-TMPyP4 and Zn(II)-TMPyP4, both the lower affinity for the “end-stacking” mode and the loss of the intercalative mode for forming the 2:1 complexes with hTel22 are attributed to the preferred metal coordination geometry and the presence of axial ligands.The preferred coordination geometry around the metal center strongly influences the energetics of the interactions between the metallated-TMPyP4 and the model human telomeric G-quadruplex. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry; G-quadruplex; Telomere; hTel22; TMPyP4; Thermodynamics;

Extradiol dioxygenases are a family of nonheme iron (and sometimes manganese) enzymes that catalyze an O2-dependent ring-opening reaction in a biodegradation pathway of aromatic compounds. Here we characterize the thermodynamics of two substrates binding in homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPCD) prior to the O2 activation step.This study uses microcalorimetry under an inert atmosphere to measure thermodynamic parameters associated with catechol binding to nonheme metal centers in HPCD. Several stopped-flow rapid mixing experiments were used to support the calorimetry experiments.The equilibria constant for 4-nitrocatechol and homoprotocatechuate binding to the iron(II) and manganese(II) forms of HPCD range from 2 × 104 to 1 × 106, suggesting there are distinctive differences in how the enzyme–substrate complexes are stabilized. Further experiments in multiple buffers allowed us to correct the experimental ΔH for substrate ionization and to fully derive the pH and buffer independent thermodynamic parameters for substrate binding to HPCD. Fewer protons are released from the iron(II) dependent processes than their manganese(II) counterparts.Condition independent thermodynamic parameters for 4-nitrocatechol and homoprotocatechuate binding to HPCD are highly consistent with each other, suggesting these enzyme–substrate complexes are more similar than once thought, and the ionization state of metal coordinated waters may be playing a role in tuning redox potential and in governing reactivity.Substrate binding to HPCD is a complex set of equilibria that includes ionization of substrate and water release, yet it is also the key step in O2 activation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: Nonheme iron(II); Extradiol dioxygenase; Manganese(II); 4-nitrocatechol; Homoprotocatechuate;

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has emerged as an excellent method to characterize drug–protein interactions. 5-Fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide have been used in combination for the treatment of breast carcinoma, though individually these drugs have also been useful in treating other types of cancer. A quantitative understanding of binding of these drugs with the transport protein under different conditions is essential for optimizing recognition by the protein and delivery at the target.The values of binding constant, enthalpy, and entropy of binding have been determined by using ITC. Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies have been used to obtain further support to calorimetric observations, monitor conformational changes in the protein and establishing stoichiometry of association.The thermodynamic parameters have enabled a quantitative understanding of the affinity of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide with bovine serum albumin. The nature of binding has been unraveled based on effect of ionic strength, tetrabutyl-ammonium bromide, and sucrose which interfere in ionic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen bonding interactions. The binding site has been identified by using site marker warfarin in combination with 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide. Further, the experiments have been done to establish whether both the drugs share the same binding site, and the effect of antibiotic drug carbenecillin and anti-inflammatory drug naproxen on their association.Tuning optimum association of drugs with the transport vehicles for effective drug delivery requires identification of the nature of interacting groups in terms of energetics of interactions. Such studies employing ITC have direct significance in rational drug design. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.Display Omitted
Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry; Bovine serum albumin; 5-Fluorouracil; Cyclophosphamide; Binding thermodynamics; Anticancer drugs;

RNA has now emerged as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. RNA targeted drug design requires detailed thermodynamic characterization that provides new insights into the interactions and this together with structural data, may be used in rational drug design. The use of calorimetry to characterize small molecule–RNA interactions has emerged as a reliable and sensitive tool after the recent advancements in biocalorimetry.This review summarizes the recent advancements in thermodynamic characterization of small molecules, particularly some natural alkaloids binding to various RNA structures. Thermodynamic characterization provides information that can supplement structural data leading to more effective drug development protocols.This review provides a concise report on the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques in characterizing small molecules, mostly alkaloids–RNA interactions with particular reference to binding of tRNA, single stranded RNA, double stranded RNA, poly(A), triplex RNA.It is now apparent that a combination of structural and thermodynamic data is essential for rational design of specific RNA targeted drugs. Recent advancements in biocalorimetry instrumentation have led to detailed understanding of the thermodynamics of small molecules binding to various RNA structures paving the path for the development of many new natural and synthetic molecules as specific binders to various RNA structures. RNA targeted drug design, that remained unexplored, will immensely benefit from the calorimetric studies leading to the development of effective drugs for many diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: RNA targeted drug design; Natural alkaloids; Calorimetry;

Nanomaterials (NMs) are often exposed to a broad range of biomolecules of different abundances. Biomolecule sorption driven by various interfacial forces determines the surface structure and composition of NMs, subsequently governs their functionality and the reactivity of the adsorbed biomolecules. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a nondestructive technique that quantifies thermodynamic parameters through in-situ measurement of the heat absorption or release associated with an interaction.This review highlights the recent applications of ITC in understanding the thermodynamics of interactions between various nanoparticles (NPs) and biomolecules. Different aspects of a typical ITC experiment that are crucial for obtaining accurate and meaningful data, as well as the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges of ITC applications to NP research were discussed.ITC reveals the driving forces behind biomolecule–NP interactions and the effects of the physicochemical properties of both NPs and biomolecules by quantifying the crucial thermodynamics parameters (e.g., binding stoichiometry, ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG). Complimentary techniques would strengthen the interpretation of ITC results for a more holistic understanding of biomolecule–NP interactions.The thermodynamic information revealed by ITC and its complimentary characterizations is important for understanding biomolecule–NP interactions that are fundamental to the biomedical and environmental applications of NMs and their toxicological effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: Nanoparticles; Protein corona; Heat exchange; Binding affinity; Isothermal titration calorimetry;

Enzyme-catalyzed and binding reaction kinetics determined by titration calorimetry by Lee D. Hansen; Mark K. Transtrum; Colette Quinn; Neil Demarse (957-966).
Isothermal calorimetry allows monitoring of reaction rates via direct measurement of the rate of heat produced by the reaction. Calorimetry is one of very few techniques that can be used to measure rates without taking a derivative of the primary data. Because heat is a universal indicator of chemical reactions, calorimetry can be used to measure kinetics in opaque solutions, suspensions, and multiple phase systems and does not require chemical labeling. The only significant limitation of calorimetry for kinetic measurements is that the time constant of the reaction must be greater than the time constant of the calorimeter which can range from a few seconds to a few minutes. Calorimetry has the unique ability to provide both kinetic and thermodynamic data.This article describes the calorimetric methodology for determining reaction kinetics and reviews examples from recent literature that demonstrate applications of titration calorimetry to determine kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed and ligand binding reactions.A complete model for the temperature dependence of enzyme activity is presented. A previous method commonly used for blank corrections in determinations of equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for binding reactions is shown to be subject to significant systematic error.Methods for determination of the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and for simultaneous determination of thermodynamics and kinetics of ligand binding reactions are reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.Display Omitted
Keywords: Calorimetry; ITC; Enzyme; Ligand binding;

Determination of affinity and efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors using isothermal titration calorimetry by Piotr Draczkowski; Anna Tomaszuk; Pawel Halczuk; Maciej Strzemski; Dariusz Matosiuk; Krzysztof Jozwiak (967-974).
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme rapidly terminating nerve signals at synapses of cholinergic neurons is an important drug target in treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related memory loss conditions. Here we present comprehensive use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for investigation of AChE kinetics and AChE-inhibitor interactions.Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC from Electrophorus electricus was assayed for interactions with five well known AChE inhibitors, galanthamine, tacrine, donepezil, edrophonium and ambenonium. In ITC experiments the inhibitors were injected to the enzyme solution solely (for thermodynamic characterization of binding) or in presence of the substrate, acetylcholine (for determination of inhibitors potency).Detailed description of various experimental protocols is presented, allowing evaluation of inhibitors potency (in terms of IC 50 and K i) and thermodynamic parameters of the binding. The potency of tested inhibitors was in nano to micromolar range which corresponded to activities determined in conventional method. Binding of all inhibitors showed to be enthalpy driven and obtained K a values demonstrated good correlation with the data from standard Ellman's assay.Obtained results confirmed the usability of the ITC technique for comprehensive characterization of AChE-inhibitor interactions and AChE kinetics. The method reduced the complexity of reaction mixture and interference problems with the advantage of using natural substrates.The work reports complete thermodynamic characteristics of the AChE — inhibitor complexes. Due to the universal character of ITC measurements, described protocols can be easily adapted to other enzymatic systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.Display Omitted
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase; Isothermal titration calorimetry; ITC; Inhibitor; Enzyme activity assay; Interactions;

Three easy pieces by Arne Schön; Ernesto Freire (975-980).
Differential scanning calorimetry is a powerful method that provides a complete thermodynamic characterization of the stability of a protein as a function of temperature. There are, however, circumstances that preclude a complete analysis of DSC data. The most common ones are irreversible denaturation transitions or transitions that take place at temperatures that are beyond the temperature limit of the instrument. Even for a protein that undergoes reversible thermal denaturation, the extrapolation of the thermodynamic data to lower temperatures, usually 25 °C, may become unreliable due to difficulties in the determination of ΔC p .The combination of differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal chemical denaturation allows reliable thermodynamic analysis of protein stability under less than ideal conditions.This paper demonstrates how DSC can be used in combination with chemical denaturation to address three different scenarios: 1) estimation of an accurate ΔC p value for a reversible denaturation using as a test system the envelope HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120; 2) determination of the Gibbs energy of stability in the region in which thermal denaturation is irreversible using HEW lysozyme at different pH values; and, 3) determination of Gibbs energy of stability for a thermostable protein, thermolysin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: DSC; ICD; Chemical denaturation; HIV-1 gp120; HEW lysozyme; Thermolysin;

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a tool for measuring the thermal stability profiles of complex molecular interactions in biological fluids. DSC profiles (thermograms) of biofluids provide specific signatures which are being utilized as a new diagnostic approach for characterizing disease but the development of these approaches is still in its infancy.This article evaluates several approaches for the analysis of thermograms which could increase the utility of DSC for clinical application. Thermograms were analyzed using localized thermogram features and principal components (PCs). The performance of these methods was evaluated alongside six models for the classification of a data set comprised of 300 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and 300 control subjects obtained from the Lupus Family Registry and Repository (LFRR).Classification performance was substantially higher using the penalized algorithms relative to localized features/PCs alone. The models were grouped into two sets, the first having smoother solution vectors but lower classification accuracies than the second with seemingly noisier solution vectors.Coupling thermogram technology with modern classification algorithms provides a powerful diagnostic approach for analysis of biological samples. The solution vectors from the models may reflect important information from the thermogram profiles for discriminating between clinical groups.DSC thermograms show sensitivity to changes in the bulk plasma proteome that correlate with clinical status. To move this technology towards clinical application the development of new approaches is needed to extract discriminatory parameters from DSC profiles for the comparison and diagnostic classification of patients. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: Diagnostic classification; Differential scanning calorimetry; Plasma proteome; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Thermogram; Penalized classification methods;

Application of differential scanning calorimetry to measure the differential binding of ions, water and protons in the unfolding of DNA molecules by Chris M. Olsen; Ronald Shikiya; Rajkumar Ganugula; Calliste Reiling-Steffensmeier; Irine Khutsishvili; Sarah E. Johnson; Luis A. Marky (990-998).
The overall stability of DNA molecules globally depends on base-pair stacking, base-pairing, polyelectrolyte effect and hydration contributions. In order to understand how they carry out their biological roles, it is essential to have a complete physical description of how the folding of nucleic acids takes place, including their ion and water binding.To investigate the role of ions, water and protons in the stability and melting behavior of DNA structures, we report here an experimental approach i.e., mainly differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to determine linking numbers: the differential binding of ions (Δn ion), water (Δn W) and protons (Δn H +) in the helix–coil transition of DNA molecules.We use DSC and temperature-dependent UV spectroscopic techniques to measure the differential binding of ions, water, and protons for the unfolding of a variety of DNA molecules: salmon testes DNA (ST-DNA), one dodecamer, one undecamer and one decamer duplexes, nine hairpin loops, and two triplexes. These methods can be applied to any conformational transition of a biomolecule.We determined complete thermodynamic profiles, including all three linking numbers, for the unfolding of each molecule. The favorable folding of a DNA helix results from a favorable enthalpy-unfavorable entropy compensation. DSC thermograms and UV melts as a function of salt, osmolyte and proton concentrations yielded releases of ions and water. Therefore, the favorable folding of each DNA molecule results from the formation of base-pair stacks and uptake of both counterions and water molecules. In addition, the triplex with C+GC base triplets yielded an uptake of protons. Furthermore, the folding of a DNA duplex is accompanied by a lower uptake of ions and a similar uptake of four water molecules as the DNA helix gets shorter. In addition, the oligomer duplexes and hairpin thermodynamic data suggest ion and water binding depends on the DNA sequence rather than DNA composition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a general technique that allows for precise and highly sensitive measurements. These measurements may provide a complete and accurate thermodynamic description of association processes in complex systems such as colloidal mixtures.This review will address uses of ITC for studies of surfactant aggregation to form micelles, with emphasis on the thermodynamic studies of homologous surfactant series. We will also review studies on surfactant association with polymers of different molecular characteristics and with colloidal particles.ITC studies on the association of different homologous series of surfactants provide quantitative information on independent contribution from their apolar hydrocarbon chains and polar headgroups to the different thermodynamic functions associated with micellization (Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy). Studies on surfactant association to polymers by ITC provide a comprehensive description of the association process, including examples in which particular features revealed by ITC were elucidated by using ancillary techniques such as light or X-ray scattering measurements. Examples of uses of ITC to follow surfactant association to biomolecules such as proteins or DNA, or nanoparticles are also highlighted. Finally, recent theoretical models that were proposed to analyze ITC data in terms of binding/association processes are discussed.This review stresses the importance of using direct calorimetric measurements to obtain and report accurate thermodynamic data, even in complex systems. These data, whenever possible, should be confirmed and associated with other ancillary techniques that allow elucidation of the nature of the transformations detected by calorimetric results, providing a complete description of the process under scrutiny. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: Calorimetry; Thermodynamics; Micellization; Surfactants; Polymers;

While a number of reports appear on ionic liquids–proteins interactions, their thermodynamic behaviour using suitable technique like isothermal titration calorimetry is not systematically presented.Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a key technique which can directly measure the thermodynamic contribution of IL binding to protein, particularly the enthalpy, heat capacities and binding stoichiometry.Ionic liquids (ILs), owing to their unique and tunable physicochemical properties have been the central area of scientific research besides graphene in the last decade, and growing unabated. Their encounter with proteins in the biological system is inevitable considering their environmental discharge though most of them are recyclable for a number of cycles. In this article we will cover the thermodynamics of proteins upon interaction with ILs as osmolyte and surfactant. The up to date literature survey of IL–protein interactions using isothermal titration calorimetry will be discussed and parallel comparison with the results obtained for such studies with other techniques will be highlighted to demonstrate the accuracy of ITC technique.Net stability of proteins can be obtained from the difference in the free energy (ΔG) of the native (folded) and denatured (unfolded) state using the Gibbs–Helmholtz equation (ΔG = ΔH − TΔS). Isothermal titration calorimetry can directly measure the heat changes upon IL–protein interactions. Calculation of other thermodynamic parameters such as entropy, binding constant and free energy depends upon the proper fitting of the binding isotherms using various fitting models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.Display Omitted
Keywords: Ionic liquids; Osmolytes; Surfactants; Proteins; Thermodynamics; Isothermal titration calorimetry;

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a biophysical technique widely used to study molecular interactions in biological and non-biological systems. It can provide important information about molecular interactions (such as binding constant, number of binding sites, free energy, enthalpy, and entropy) simply by measuring the heat absorbed or released during an interaction between two liquid solutions.In this review, we present an overview of ITC applications in food science, with particular focus on understanding the fate of lipids within the human gastrointestinal tract. In this area, ITC can be used to study micellization of bile salts, inclusion complex formation, the interaction of surface-active molecules with proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, and the interactions of lipid droplets.ITC is an extremely powerful tool for measuring molecular interactions in food systems, and can provide valuable information about many types of interactions involving food components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, surfactants, and minerals. For systems at equilibrium, ITC can provide fundamental thermodynamic parameters that can be used to establish the physiochemical origin of molecular interactions.It is expected that ITC will continue to be utilized as a means of providing fundamental information about complex materials such as those found in foods. This knowledge may be used to create functional foods designed to behave in the gastrointestinal tract in a manner that will improve human health and well-being. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: Foods; Digestion; Gastrointestinal; Binding; Micelles; Aggregation;

Pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) is a biophysical method that allows direct determination of the volume changes upon conformational transitions in macromolecules.This review provides novel details of the use of PPC to analyze unfolding transitions in proteins. The emphasis is made on the data analysis as well as on the validation of different structural factors that define the volume changes upon unfolding. Four case studies are presented that show the application of these concepts to various protein systems.The information provided here gives a better understanding and deeper insight into the role played by various factors in defining the volume changes upon protein unfolding. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences — Principles and Applications, edited by Fadi Bou-Abdallah.
Keywords: Protein folding; Protein stability; Pressure perturbation calorimetry; Volume changes; Expansivity;