BBA - General Subjects (v.1850, #3)

ABC transporters in adaptive immunity by Fabian Seyffer; Robert Tampé (449-460).
ABC transporters ubiquitously found in all kingdoms of life move a broad range of solutes across membranes. Crystal structures of four distinct types of ABC transport systems have been solved, shedding light on different conformational states within the transport process. Briefly, ATP-dependent flipping between inward- and outward-facing conformations allows directional transport of various solutes.The heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing TAP1/2 (ABCB2/3) is a crucial element of the adaptive immune system. The ABC transport complex shuttles proteasomal degradation products into the endoplasmic reticulum. These antigenic peptides are loaded onto major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and presented on the cell surface. We detail the functional modules of TAP, its ATPase and transport cycle, and its interaction with and modulation by other cellular components. In particular, we emphasize how viral factors inhibit TAP activity and thereby prevent detection of the infected host cell by cytotoxic T-cells.Merging functional details on TAP with structural insights from related ABC transporters refines the understanding of solute transport. Although human ABC transporters are extremely diverse, they still may employ conceptually related transport mechanisms. Appropriately, we delineate a working model of the transport cycle and how viral factors arrest TAP in distinct conformations.Deciphering the transport cycle of human ABC proteins is the major issue in the field. The defined peptidic substrate, various inhibitory viral factors, and its role in adaptive immunity provide unique tools for the investigation of TAP, making it an ideal model system for ABC transporters in general. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.
Keywords: ABC protein; Antigen processing; Membrane proteins; Transport ATPases; Transporter associated with antigen processing; Viral immune escape;

Structure and mechanism of ATP-dependent phospholipid transporters by Rosa L. López-Marqués; Lisbeth Rosager Poulsen; Aurélien Bailly; Markus Geisler; Thomas Günther Pomorski; Michael G. Palmgren (461-475).
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and P4-ATPases are two large and seemingly unrelated families of primary active pumps involved in moving phospholipids from one leaflet of a biological membrane to the other.This review aims to identify common mechanistic features in the way phospholipid flipping is carried out by two evolutionarily unrelated families of transporters.Both protein families hydrolyze ATP, although they employ different mechanisms to use it, and have a comparable size with twelve transmembrane segments in the functional unit. Further, despite differences in overall architecture, both appear to operate by an alternating access mechanism and during transport they might allow access of phospholipids to the internal part of the transmembrane domain. The latter feature is obvious for ABC transporters, but phospholipids and other hydrophobic molecules have also been found embedded in P-type ATPase crystal structures. Taken together, in two diverse groups of pumps, nature appears to have evolved quite similar ways of flipping phospholipids.Our understanding of the structural basis for phospholipid flipping is still limited but it seems plausible that a general mechanism for phospholipid flipping exists in nature. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.
Keywords: P-type ATPase; P4-ATPase; ABC transporter; Lipid flipping; Flippase; Transport;

Structural evidences with functional corroborations have revealed distinct features of lipid–protein interactions especially in channels and receptors. Many membrane embedded transporters are also known to require specific lipids for their functions and for some of them cellular and biochemical data suggest tight regulation by the lipid bilayer. However, molecular details on lipid–protein interactions in transporters are sparse since lipids are either depleted from the detergent solubilized transporters in three-dimensional crystals or not readily resolved in crystal structures. Nevertheless the steady increase in the progress of transporter structure determination contributed more examples of structures with resolved lipids.This review gives an overview on transporter structures in complex with lipids reported to date and discusses commonly encountered difficulties in the identification of functionally significant lipid–protein interactions based on those structures and functional in vitro data. Recent structures provided molecular details into regulation mechanism of transporters by specific lipids. The review highlights common findings and conserved patterns for distantly related transporter families to draw a more general picture on the regulatory role of lipid–protein interactions.Several common themes of the manner in which lipids directly influence membrane-mediated folding, oligomerization and structure stability can be found. Especially for LeuT-like fold transporters similarities in structurally resolved lipid–protein interactions suggest a common way in which transporter conformations are affected by lipids even in evolutionarily distinct transporters. Lipids appear to play an additional role as joints mechanically reinforcing the inverted repeat topology, which is a major determinant in the alternating access mechanism of secondary transporters.This review brings together and adds to the repertoire of knowledge on lipid–protein interactions of functional significance presented in structures of membrane transporters. Knowledge of specific lipid-binding sites and modes of lipid influence on these proteins not only accomplishes the molecular description of transport cycle further, but also sheds light into localization dependent differences of transporter function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.
Keywords: Alternating-access mechanism; Crystallization; Lipid–protein interactions; Membrane proteins; Secondary transporters; X-ray structures;

Cellular uptake of small peptides is an important physiological process mediated by the PTR family of proton-coupled peptide transporters. In bacteria peptides can be used as a source of amino acids and nitrogen. Similarly in humans peptide transport is the principle route for the uptake and retention of dietary protein in the form of short di- and tri-peptides for cellular metabolism.Recent crystal structures of bacterial PTR family transporters, combined with biochemical studies of transport have revealed key molecular details underpinning ligand promiscuity and the mechanism of proton-coupled transport within the family.Pairs of salt bridge interactions between transmembrane helices work in tandem to orchestrate alternating access transport within the PTR family. Key roles for residues conserved between bacterial and eukaryotic homologues suggest a conserved mechanism of peptide recognition and transport that in some cases has been subtly modified in individual species.Physiological studies on PepT1 and PepT2, the mammalian members of this family, have identified these transporters as being responsible for the uptake of many pharmaceutically important drug molecules, including antibiotics and antiviral medications and demonstrated their promiscuity can be used for improving the oral bioavailability of poorly absorbed compounds. The insights gained from recent structural studies combined with previous physiological and biochemical analyses are rapidly advancing our understanding of this medically important transporter superfamily. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.Display Omitted
Keywords: Major facilitator superfamily; Peptide transport; PTR/NRT1/POT family; Drug transport;

The mammalian neurotransmitter transporters are complex proteins playing a central role in synaptic transmission between neurons by rapid reuptake of neurotransmitters. The proteins which transport dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin belong to the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters (NSS). Due to their important role, dysfunctions are associated with several psychiatric and neurological diseases and they also serve as targets for a wide range of therapeutic and illicit drugs. Despite the central physiological and pharmacological importance, direct evidence on structure–function relationships on mammalian NSS proteins has so far been unsuccessful. The crystal structure of the bacterial NSS protein, LeuT, has been a turning point in structural investigations.To provide an update on what is known about the binding sites for substrates and inhibitors in the LeuT. The different binding modes and binding sites will be discussed with special emphasis on the possible existence of a second substrate binding site. It is the goal to give an insight into how investigations on ligand binding in LeuT have provided basic knowledge about transporter conformations and translocation mechanism which can pave the road for a deeper understanding of drug binding and function of the mammalian transporters.The LeuT is a suitable model for the structural investigation of NSS proteins including the possible location of drug binding sites. It is still debated whether the LeuT is a suitable model for the molecular mechanisms behind substrate translocation.Structure and functional aspects of NSS proteins are central for understanding synaptic transmission. With the purification and crystallization of LeuT as well as the dopamine transporter from Drosophila melanogaster, the application of biophysical methods such as fluorescence spectroscopy, neutron- or x-ray scattering and NMR for understanding its function becomes increasingly available. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.
Keywords: Sodium Symporter; LeuT; Alternating access mechanism; Binding site; Allosteric site; Antidepressant;

Crystallographic studies of pharmacological sites in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels by Ludovic Sauguet; Azadeh Shahsavar; Marc Delarue (511-523).
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast chemical transmission of nerve signals in the central and peripheral nervous system. On the functional side, these molecules respond to the binding of a neurotransmitter (glycine, GABA, acetylcholine or 5HT3) in the extracellular domain (ECD) by opening their ionotropic pore in the transmembrane domain (TMD). The response to the neurotransmitter binding can be modulated by several chemical compounds acting at topographically distinct sites, as documented by a large body of literature. Notably, these receptors are the target of several classes of world-wide prescribed drugs, including general anesthetics, smoking cessation aids, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, hypnotics and anti-emetics. On the structural side recent progress has been made on the crystallization of pLGICs in its different allosteric states, especially pLGICs of bacterial origin. Therefore, structure–function relationships can now be discussed at the atomic level for pLGICs.This review focuses on the crystallographic structure of complexes of pLGICs with a number of ligands of pharmacological interest. First, we review structural data on two key functional aspects of these receptors: the agonist-induced activation and ion transport itself. The molecular understanding of both these functional aspects is important, as they are those that most pharmacological compounds target. Next, we describe modulation sites that have recently been documented by X-ray crystallography. Finally, we propose a simple geometric classification of all these pharmacological sites in pLGICs, based on icosahedrons.This review illustrates the wealth of structural insight gained by comparing all available structures of members of the pLGIC family to rationalize the pharmacology of structurally diverse drugs acting at topographically distinct sites. It will be highlighted how sites that had been described earlier using biochemical techniques can be rationalized using structural data. Surprisingly, the use of icosahedral symmetry allows to link together several modulation sites, in a way that was totally unanticipated.Overall, understanding the interplay between the different modulation sites at the structural level should help the design of future drugs targeting pLGICs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.Display Omitted
Keywords: Ligand-gated ion channels; Allostery; Crystallography; Neurotransmitters; Binding sites;

Towards defining the substrate of orphan P5A-ATPases by Danny Mollerup Sørensen; Henrik Waldal Holen; Tine Holemans; Peter Vangheluwe; Michael G. Palmgren (524-535).
P-type ATPases are ubiquitous ion and lipid pumps found in cellular membranes. P5A-ATPases constitute a poorly characterized subfamily of P-type ATPases present in all eukaryotic organisms but for which a transported substrate remains to be identified.This review aims to discuss the available evidence which could lead to identification of possible substrates of P5A-ATPases.The complex phenotypes resulting from the loss of P5A-ATPases in model organisms can be explained by a role of the P5A-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where loss of function leads to broad and unspecific phenotypes related to the impairment of basic ER functions such as protein folding and processing. Genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae point to a role of the endogenous P5A-ATPase Spf1p in separation of charges in the ER, in sterol metabolism, and in insertion of tail-anchored proteins in the ER membrane. A role for P5A-ATPases in vesicle formation would explain why sterol transport and distribution are affected in knock out cells, which in turn has a negative impact on the spontaneous insertion of tail-anchored proteins. It would also explain why secretory proteins destined for the Golgi and the cell wall have difficulties in reaching their final destination. Cations and phospholipids could both be transported substrates of P5A-ATPases and as each carry charges, transport of either might explain why a charge difference arises across the ER membrane.Identification of the substrate of P5A-ATPases would throw light on an important general process in the ER that is still not fully understood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.
Keywords: P5A-ATPase; Membrane transport; Primary active pump; Endoplasmic reticulum; Unfolded protein response;

Bacteriorhodopsin: Would the real structural intermediates please stand up? by Cecilia Wickstrand; Robert Dods; Antoine Royant; Richard Neutze (536-553).
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is the simplest known light driven proton pump and has been heavily studied using structural methods: eighty four X-ray diffraction, six electron diffraction and three NMR structures of bR are deposited within the protein data bank. Twenty one X-ray structures report light induced structural changes and changes induced by mutation, changes in pH, thermal annealing or X-ray induced photo-reduction have also been examined.We argue that light-induced structural changes that are replicated across several studies by independent research groups are those most likely to represent what is happening in reality. We present both internal distance matrix analyses that sort deposited bR structures into hierarchal trees, and difference Fourier analysis of deposited X-ray diffraction data.An internal distance matrix analysis separates most wild-type bR structures according to their different crystal forms, indicating how the protein's structure is influenced by crystallization conditions. A similar analysis clusters eleven studies of illuminated bR crystals as one branch of a hierarchal tree with reproducible movements of the extracellular portion of helix C towards helix G, and of the cytoplasmic portion of helix F away from helices A, B and G. All crystallographic data deposited for illuminated crystals show negative difference density on a water molecule (Wat402) that forms H-bonds to the retinal Schiff Base and two aspartate residues (Asp85, Asp212) in the bR resting state. Other recurring difference density features indicated reproducible side-chain, backbone and water molecule displacements. X-ray induced radiation damage also disorders Wat402 but acts via cleaving the head-groups of Asp85 and Asp212.A remarkable level of agreement exists when deposited structures and crystallographic observations are viewed as a whole. From this agreement a unified picture of the structural mechanism of light-induced proton pumping by bR emerges. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.Display Omitted
Keywords: Bacteriorhodopsin; Structural intermediates; Proton pumping; Global structural analysis;

Reprint of “Biogenesis and adhesion of type 1 and P pili” by James Lillington; Sebastian Geibel; Gabriel Waksman (554-564).
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) in approximately 50% of women. These bacteria use type 1 and P pili for host recognition and attachment. These pili are assembled by the chaperone-usher pathway of pilus biogenesis.The review examines the biogenesis and adhesion of the UPEC type 1 and P pili. Particular emphasis is drawn to the role of the outer membrane usher protein. The structural properties of the complete pilus are also examined to highlight the strength and functionality of the final assembly.The usher orchestrates the sequential addition of pilus subunits in a defined order. This process follows a subunit-incorporation cycle which consists of four steps: recruitment at the usher N-terminal domain, donor-strand exchange with the previously assembled subunit, transfer to the usher C-terminal domains and translocation of the nascent pilus.Adhesion by the type 1 and P pili is strengthened by the quaternary structure of their rod sections. The rod is endowed with spring-like properties which provide mechanical resistance against urine flow. The distal adhesins operate differently from one another, targeting receptors in a specific manner.The biogenesis and adhesion of type 1 and P pili are being therapeutically targeted, and efforts to prevent pilus growth or adherence are described.The combination of structural and biochemical study has led to the detailed mechanistic understanding of this membrane spanning nano-machine. This can now be exploited to design novel drugs able to inhibit virulence. This is vital in the present era of resurgent antibiotic resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.
Keywords: Chaperone; Usher; Pilus; Donor-strand exchange; Pilicides; Macromolecular machine;

All organisms use cofactors to extend the catalytic capacities of proteins. Many bacteria and archaea can synthesize cofactors from primary metabolites, but there are also prokaryotes that do not have the complete biosynthetic pathways for all essential cofactors. These organisms are dependent on the uptake of cofactors, or at least their precursors that cannot be synthesized, from the environment. Even in those organisms that contain complete biosynthetic pathways membrane transporters are usually present, because the synthesis of cofactors is more costly than uptake.Here we give an overview of bacterial and archaeal transport systems for B-type vitamins, which are either cofactors or precursors thereof.Prokaryotic vitamin transporters are extremely diverse, and found in many families of transporters. A few of these transport systems have been characterized in detail, but for most of them mechanistic insight is lacking.The lack of structural and functional understanding of bacterial vitamin transporters is unfortunate because they may be targets for new antibiotics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins. Guest Editor: Bjorn Pedersen.
Keywords: membrane transport; bacterial vitamin uptake;

Structural insight into the PTS sugar transporter EIIC by Jason G. McCoy; Elena J. Levin; Ming Zhou (577-585).
The enzyme IIC (EIIC) component of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) is responsible for selectively transporting sugar molecules across the inner bacterial membrane. This is accomplished in parallel with phosphorylation of the sugar, which prevents efflux of the sugar back across the membrane. This process is a key part of an extensive signaling network that allows bacteria to efficiently utilize preferred carbohydrate sources.The goal of this review is to examine the current understanding of the structural features of the EIIC and how it mediates concentrative, selective sugar transport. The crystal structure of an N,N′-diacetylchitobiose transporter is used as a structural template for the glucose superfamily of PTS transporters.Comparison of protein sequences in context with the known EIIC structure suggests that members of the glucose superfamily of PTS transporters may exhibit variations in topology. Despite these differences, a conserved histidine and glutamate appear to have roles shared across the superfamily in sugar binding and phosphorylation. In the proposed transport model, a rigid body motion between two structural domains and movement of an intracellular loop provide the substrate binding site with alternating access, and reveal a surface required for interaction with the phosphotransfer protein responsible for catalysis.The structural and functional data discussed here give a preliminary understanding of how transport in EIIC is achieved. However, given the great sequence diversity between varying glucose-superfamily PTS transporters and lack of data on conformational changes needed for transport, additional structures of other members and conformations are still required. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.
Keywords: Phosphotransferase system; Enzyme IIC; ChbC; Transporter; Membrane protein; Sugar transport;