BBA - General Subjects (v.1840, #8)

Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties by Nikos K. Karamanos (2385).

Cell jamming: Collective invasion of mesenchymal tumor cells imposed by tissue confinement by Anna Haeger; Marina Krause; Katarina Wolf; Peter Friedl (2386-2395).
Cancer invasion is a multi-step process which coordinates interactions between tumor cells with mechanotransduction towards the surrounding matrix, resulting in distinct cancer invasion strategies. Defined by context, mesenchymal tumors, including melanoma and fibrosarcoma, develop either single-cell or collective invasion modes, however, the mechanical and molecular programs underlying such plasticity of mesenchymal invasion programs remain unclear.To test how tissue anatomy determines invasion mode, spheroids of MV3 melanoma and HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells were embedded into 3D collagen matrices of varying density and stiffness and analyzed for migration type and efficacy with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-dependent collagen degradation enabled or pharmacologically inhibited.With increasing collagen density and dependent on proteolytic collagen breakdown and track clearance, but independent of matrix stiffness, cells switched from single-cell to collective invasion modes. Conversion to collective invasion included gain of cell-to-cell junctions, supracellular polarization and joint guidance along migration tracks.The density of the extracellulair matrix (ECM) determines the invasion mode of mesenchymal tumor cells. Whereas fibrillar, high porosity ECM enables single-cell dissemination, dense matrix induces cell–cell interaction, leader–follower cell behavior and collective migration as an obligate protease-dependent process.These findings establish plasticity of cancer invasion programs in response to ECM porosity and confinement, thereby recapitulating invasion patterns of mesenchymal tumors in vivo. The conversion to collective invasion with increasing ECM confinement supports the concept of cell jamming as a guiding principle for melanoma and fibrosarcoma cells into dense tissue.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Melanoma; Fibrosarcoma; Cell migration; Collagen matrix; Elastic modulus; Matrix metalloproteinase;

Thrombospondin-2 and extracellular matrix assembly by Nicole E. Calabro; Nina J. Kristofik; Themis R. Kyriakides (2396-2402).
Numerous proteins and small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) make up the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Assembly of individual fibrillar components in the ECM, such as collagen, elastin, and fibronectin, is understood at the molecular level. In contrast, the incorporation of non-fibrillar components and their functions in the ECM are not fully understood.This review will focus on the role of the matricellular protein thrombospondin (TSP) 2 in ECM assembly. Based on findings in TSP2-null mice and in vitro studies, we describe the participation of TSP2 in ECM assembly, cell–ECM interactions, and modulation of the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).Evidence summarized in this review suggests that TSP2 can influence collagen fibrillogenesis without being an integral component of fibrils. Altered ECM assembly and excessive breakdown of ECM can have both positive and negative consequences including increased angiogenesis during tissue repair and compromised cardiac tissue integrity, respectively.Proper ECM assembly is critical for maintaining cell functions and providing structural support. Lack of TSP2 is associated with increased angiogenesis, in part, due to altered endothelial cell–ECM interactions. Therefore, minor changes in ECM composition can have profound effects on cell and tissue function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Extracellular matrix; Thrombospondin; Angiogenesis; Collagen; Decellularization;

Non-collagenous ECM proteins in blood vessel morphogenesis and cancer by Vassiliki Kostourou; Vassilis Papalazarou (2403-2413).
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is constituted by diverse composite structures, which determine the specific to each organ, histological architecture and provides cells with biological information, mechanical support and a scaffold for adhesion and migration. The pleiotropic effects of the ECM stem from the dynamic changes in its molecular composition and the ability to remodel in order to effectively regulate biological outcomes. Besides collagens, fibronectin and laminin are two major fiber-forming constituents of various ECM structures.This review will focus on the properties and the biological functions of non-collagenous extracellular matrix especially on laminin and fibronectin that are currently emerging as important regulators of blood vessel formation and function in health and disease.The ECM is a fundamental component of the microenvironment of blood vessels, with activities extending beyond providing a vascular scaffold; extremely versatile it directly or indirectly modulates all essential cellular functions crucial for angiogenesis, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation and lumen formation. Specifically, fibronectin and laminins play decisive roles in blood vessel morphogenesis both during embryonic development and in pathological conditions, such as cancer.Emerging evidence demonstrates the importance of ECM function during embryonic development, organ formation and tissue homeostasis. A wealth of data also illustrates the crucial role of the ECM in several human pathophysiological processes, including fibrosis, skeletal diseases, vascular pathologies and cancer. Notably, several ECM components have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for various diseases, including cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.Display Omitted
Keywords: Extracellular matrix; Integrin; Fibronectin; Laminin; Vascular;

Cartilage tissue engineering: Molecular control of chondrocyte differentiation for proper cartilage matrix reconstruction by Magali Demoor; David Ollitrault; Tangni Gomez-Leduc; Mouloud Bouyoucef; Magalie Hervieu; Hugo Fabre; Jérôme Lafont; Jean-Marie Denoix; Fabrice Audigié; Frédéric Mallein-Gerin; Florence Legendre; Philippe Galera (2414-2440).
Articular cartilage defects are a veritable therapeutic problem because therapeutic options are very scarce. Due to the poor self-regeneration capacity of cartilage, minor cartilage defects often lead to osteoarthritis. Several surgical strategies have been developed to repair damaged cartilage. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) gives encouraging results, but this cell-based therapy involves a step of chondrocyte expansion in a monolayer, which results in the loss in the differentiated phenotype. Thus, despite improvement in the quality of life for patients, reconstructed cartilage is in fact fibrocartilage. Successful ACI, according to the particular physiology of chondrocytes in vitro, requires active and phenotypically stabilized chondrocytes.This review describes the unique physiology of cartilage, with the factors involved in its formation, stabilization and degradation. Then, we focus on some of the most recent advances in cell therapy and tissue engineering that open up interesting perspectives for maintaining or obtaining the chondrogenic character of cells in order to treat cartilage lesions.Current research involves the use of chondrocytes or progenitor stem cells, associated with “smart” biomaterials and growth factors. Other influential factors, such as cell sources, oxygen pressure and mechanical strain are considered, as are recent developments in gene therapy to control the chondrocyte differentiation/dedifferentiation process.This review provides new information on the mechanisms regulating the state of differentiation of chondrocytes and the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells that will lead to the development of new restorative cell therapy approaches in humans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Cartilage; Chondrocyte; Mesenchymal stem cell; Cell therapy; Tissue engineering; Osteoarthritis;

Versican and the regulation of cell phenotype in disease by Thomas N. Wight; Michael G. Kinsella; Stephen P. Evanko; Susan Potter-Perigo; Mervyn J. Merrilees (2441-2451).
Versican is an extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycan that is present in the pericellular environment of most tissues and increases in many different diseases. Versican interacts with cells to influence the ability of cells to proliferate, migrate, adhere and assemble an ECM.The structure of the versican molecule is briefly reviewed and studies highlighting those factors that promote versican synthesis and degradation and their impact on cell phenotype in disease are discussed. Particular attention is given to vascular disease, but other diseases where versican is important are covered as well, most notably different forms of cancers. Attention is given to mechanisms(s) by which versican influences cell behaviors through either direct or indirect processes. Versican produced by either stromal cells or myeloid cells can have a major impact influencing immunity and inflammation. Finally, studies controlling versican accumulation that either delay or inhibit the progression of disease will be highlighted.Versican is one component of the ECM that can influence the ability of cells to proliferate, migrate, adhere, and remodel the ECM. Targeting versican as a way to control cell phenotype offers a novel approach in the treatment of disease.ECM molecules such as versican contribute to the structural integrity of tissues and interact with cells through direct and indirect means to regulate, in part, cellular events that form the basis of disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Elastic fibers; Extracellular matrix; Hyaluronan; Inflammation; Proteoglycans;

Hyaluronan: Biosynthesis and signaling by Davide Vigetti; Eugenia Karousou; Manuela Viola; Sara Deleonibus; Giancarlo De Luca; Alberto Passi (2452-2459).
Hyaluronan is a critical component of extracellular matrix with several different roles. Besides the contribution to the tissue hydration, mechanical properties and correct architecture, hyaluronan plays important biological functions interacting with different molecules and receptors.The review addresses the control of hyaluronan synthesis highlighting the critical role of hyaluronan synthase 2 in this context as well as discussing the recent findings related to covalent modifications which influence the enzyme activity. Moreover, the interactions with specific receptors and hyaluronan are described focusing on the importance of polymer size in the modulation of hyaluronan signaling.Due to its biological effects on cells recently described, it is evident how hyaluronan is to be considered not only a passive component of extracellular matrix but also an actor involved in several scenarios of cell behavior.The effects of metabolism on the control of hyaluronan synthesis both in healthy and pathologic conditions are critical and still not completely understood. The hyaluronan capacity to bind several receptors triggering specific pathways may represent a valid target for new approach in several therapeutic strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Glycosaminoglycan; Extracellular matrix; AMPK; O-GlcNacylation; Hyaluronan receptor;

Key roles for the small leucine-rich proteoglycans in renal and pulmonary pathophysiology by Madalina V. Nastase; Renato V. Iozzo; Liliana Schaefer (2460-2470).
Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are molecules that have signaling roles in a multitude of biological processes. In this respect, SLRPs play key roles in the evolution of a variety of diseases throughout the human body.We will critically review current developments in the roles of SLRPs in several types of disease of the kidney and lungs. Particular emphasis will be given to the roles of decorin and biglycan, the best characterized members of the SLRP gene family.In both renal and pulmonary disorders, SLRPs are essential elements that regulate several pathophysiological processes including fibrosis, inflammation and tumor progression. Decorin has remarkable antifibrotic and antitumorigenic properties and is considered a valuable potential treatment of these diseases. Biglycan can modulate inflammatory processes in lung and renal inflammation and is a potential target in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.SLRPs can serve as either treatment targets or as potential treatment in renal or lung disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Extracellular matrix; Biglycan; Decorin; Cancer; TGF-β; Toll-like receptor;

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparin regulate melanoma cell functions by D. Nikitovic; M. Mytilinaiou; Ai. Berdiaki; N.K. Karamanos; G.N. Tzanakakis (2471-2481).
The solid melanoma tumor consists of transformed melanoma cells, and the associated stromal cells including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells, as well as, soluble macro- and micro-molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) forming the complex network of the tumor microenvironment. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are an important component of the melanoma tumor ECM. Importantly, there appears to be both a quantitative and a qualitative shift in the content of HSPGs, in parallel to the nevi–radial growth phase–vertical growth phase melanoma progression. Moreover, these changes in HSPG expression are correlated to modulations of key melanoma cell functions.This review will critically discuss the roles of HSPGs/heparin in melanoma development and progression.We have correlated HSPGs' expression and distribution with melanoma cell signaling and functions as well as angiogenesis.The current knowledge of HSPGs/heparin biology in melanoma provides a foundation we can utilize in the ongoing search for new approaches in designing anti-tumor therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Melanoma; Heparan sulfate proteoglycan; Heparin; Cell function;

While syndecan-2 is usually considered a mesenchymal transmembrane proteoglycan, it can be upregulated in some tumour cells, such as the malignant breast carcinoma cell line, MDA-MB231. Depletion of this syndecan by siRNA, but not other syndecans, has a marked effect on cell morphology, increasing spreading, microfilament bundle and focal adhesion formation, with reduced cell migration.A combination of siRNA transfection, immunofluorescence microscopy, phosphoprotein analysis and migration assays was used to determine how syndecan-2 may influence the cytoskeleton.The altered adhesion upon syndecan-2 depletion was dependent on the RhoGTPases. p190ARhoGAP relocated to the margins of spreading cells, where it codistributed with syndecan-4 and active β1-integrin. This was accompanied by increased RhoGAP tyrosine phosphorylation, indicative of activity and RhoGTPase suppression. Consistent with this, GTP-RhoA was strongly present at the edges of control cells, but lost after syndecan-2 reduction by siRNA treatments. Further, RhoA, but not RhoC was shown to be essential for the anchored phenotype of these breast carcinoma cells that accompanied siRNA-mediated loss of syndecan-2.Syndecan-2 has a key role in promoting the invasive activity of these cells, in part by regulating the RhoGTPases.Syndecan-2, as a cell surface receptor is accessible for targeting to determine whether breast tumour progression is altered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Heparan sulfate; Proteoglycan; Cytoskeleton; Cell adhesion; RhoGAP; RhoGTPases;

Nuclear translocation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans and their functional significance by Ilona Kovalszky; Anders Hjerpe; Katalin Dobra (2491-2497).
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are important constituents of the cell membrane and they act as co-receptors for cellular signaling. Syndecan-1, glypican and perlecan also translocate to the nucleus in a regulated manner. Similar nuclear transport of growth factors and heparanase indicate a possible co-regulation and functional significance.In this review we dissect the structural requirement for the nuclear translocation of HSPGs and their functional implications.sThe functions of the nuclear HSPGs are still incompletely understood. Evidence point to possible functions in hampering cell proliferation, inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I activity and inhibition of gene transcription.HSPGs influence the behavior of malignant tumors in many different ways. Modulating their functions may offer powerful tools to control fundamental biological processes and provide the basis for subsequent targeted therapies in cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Heparan sulfate; Proteoglycan; Nuclear translocation; Proliferation; Gene transcription;

Serglycin secretion is part of the inflammatory response in activated primary human endothelial cells in vitro by Trine M. Reine; Tram Thu Vuong; Trond G. Jenssen; Svein O. Kolset (2498-2505).
Endothelial cells have important functions in e.g. regulating blood pressure, coagulation and host defense reactions. Serglycin is highly expressed by endothelial cells, but there is limited data on the roles of this proteoglycan in immune reactions.Cultured primary human endothelial cells were exposed to proinflammatory agents lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). The response in serglycin synthesis, secretion and intracellular localization and effect on the proteoglycan binding chemokines CXCL-1 and CXCL-8 were determined by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, ELISA and serglycin knockdown experiments.Both LPS and IL-1β increased the synthesis and secretion of serglycin, while only IL-1β increased serglycin mRNA expression. Stimulation increased the number of serglycin containing vesicles, with a greater portion of large vesicles after LPS treatment. Also, increased intracellular and secreted levels of CXCL-1 and CXCL-8 were observed. The increase in CXCL-8 secretion was unchanged in serglycin knockdown cells. However, the increase in CXCL-1 secretion from IL-1β stimulation was reduced 27% in serglycin knockdown cells; while the LPS-induced secretion was not affected. In serglycin expressing cells CXCL-1 positive vesicles were evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm, while confided to the Golgi region in serglycin knockdown cells. This was the case only for IL-1β stimulated cells. LPS-induced CXCL-1 distribution was unaffected by serglycin expression.These results suggest that different signaling pathways are involved in regulating secretion of serglycin and partner molecules in activated endothelial cells.This knowledge increases our understanding of the roles of serglycin in immune reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Serglycin; Chemokine; Primary human endothelial cell; Inflammation; Lipopolysaccharide; Interleukin-1 beta;

Extracellular matrix: A dynamic microenvironment for stem cell niche by Francesca Gattazzo; Anna Urciuolo; Paolo Bonaldo (2506-2519).
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic and complex environment characterized by biophysical, mechanical and biochemical properties specific for each tissue and able to regulate cell behavior. Stem cells have a key role in the maintenance and regeneration of tissues and they are located in a specific microenvironment, defined as niche.We overview the progresses that have been made in elucidating stem cell niches and discuss the mechanisms by which ECM affects stem cell behavior. We also summarize the current tools and experimental models for studying ECM–stem cell interactions.ECM represents an essential player in stem cell niche, since it can directly or indirectly modulate the maintenance, proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. Several ECM molecules play regulatory functions for different types of stem cells, and based on its molecular composition the ECM can be deposited and finely tuned for providing the most appropriate niche for stem cells in the various tissues. Engineered biomaterials able to mimic the in vivo characteristics of stem cell niche provide suitable in vitro tools for dissecting the different roles exerted by the ECM and its molecular components on stem cell behavior.ECM is a key component of stem cell niches and is involved in various aspects of stem cell behavior, thus having a major impact on tissue homeostasis and regeneration under physiological and pathological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Extracellular matrix; Stem cell; Stem cell niche; Cell receptor; Growth factor; Tissue engineering;

Matrix regulators in neural stem cell functions by Anna Wade; Andrew McKinney; Joanna J. Phillips (2520-2525).
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) reside within a complex and dynamic extracellular microenvironment, or niche. This niche regulates fundamental aspects of their behavior during normal neural development and repair. Precise yet dynamic regulation of NSPC self-renewal, migration, and differentiation is critical and must persist over the life of an organism.In this review, we summarize some of the major components of the NSPC niche and provide examples of how cues from the extracellular matrix regulate NSPC behaviors. We use proteoglycans to illustrate the many diverse roles of the niche in providing temporal and spatial regulation of cellular behavior.The NSPC niche is comprised of multiple components that include; soluble ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, chemokines, and neurotransmitters, the extracellular matrix, and cellular components. As illustrated by proteoglycans, a major component of the extracellular matrix, the NSPC, niche provides temporal and spatial regulation of NSPC behaviors.The factors that control NSPC behavior are vital to understand as we attempt to modulate normal neural development and repair. Furthermore, an improved understanding of how these factors regulate cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, crucial for malignancy, may reveal novel anti-tumor strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Extracellular matrix; Proteoglycan; HSPG; Sulfs; Neural stem cell; NSC;

Developmentally regulated collagen/integrin interactions confer adhesive properties to early postnatal neural stem cells by Tobias Bergström; Karin Holmqvist; Tatsiana Tararuk; Staffan Johansson; Karin Forsberg-Nilsson (2526-2532).
It is becoming increasingly apparent that the extracellular matrix acts as an important regulator of the neural stem niche. Previously we found that neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) derived from the early postnatal subventricular zone of mice adhere to a collagen/hyaluronan hydrogel, whereas NSPCs from the adult and embryonic brain do not.To examine the specific adhesive properties of young stem cells in more detail, NSPCs isolated from embryonic, postnatal day 6 (P6), and adult mouse brains were cultured on collagen I.Early postnatal NSPCs formed paxillin-positive focal adhesions on collagen I, and these adhesions could be prevented by an antibody that blocked integrin β1. Furthermore, we found the corresponding integrin alpha subunits α2 and α11 levels to be highest at the postnatal stage. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes showed higher expression of transcripts involved in vasculature development and morphogenesis in P6 stem cells, compared to adult.The ability to interact with the extracellular matrix differs between postnatal and adult NSPCs.Our observations that the specific adhesive properties of early postnatal NSPCs, which are lost in the adult brain, can be ascribed to the integrin subunits expressed by the former furthering our understanding of the developing neurogenic niche. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Cell adhesion; Integrin beta1; Integrin alpha; Neurovascular niche;

Molecular composition and function of integrin-based collagen glues—Introducing COLINBRIs by Cédric Zeltz; Joseph Orgel; Donald Gullberg (2533-2548).
Despite detailed knowledge about the structure and signaling properties of individual collagen receptors, much remains to be learned about how these receptors participate in linking cells to fibrillar collagen matrices in tissues. In addition to collagen-binding integrins, a group of proteins with affinity both for fibrillar collagens and integrins link these two protein families together. We have introduced the name COLINBRI (COLlagen INtegrin BRIdging) for this set of molecules. Whereas collagens are the major building blocks in tissues and defects in these structural proteins have severe consequences for tissue integrity, the mild phenotypes of the integrin type of collagen receptors have raised questions about their importance in tissue biology and pathology.We will discuss the two types of cell linkages to fibrillar collagen (direct- versus indirect COLINBRI-mediated) and discuss how the parallel existence of direct and indirect linkages to collagens may ensure tissue integrity.The observed mild phenotypes of mice deficient in collagen-binding integrins and the relatively restricted availability of integrin-binding sequences in mature fibrillar collagen matrices support the existence of indirect collagen-binding mechanisms in parallel with direct collagen binding in vivo.A continued focus on understanding the molecular details of cell adhesion mechanisms to collagens will be important and will benefit our understanding of diseases like tissue- and tumor fibrosis where collagen dynamics are disturbed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Fibrillar collagen; Collagen-binding integrin; Collagen integrin bridging molecule; COLINBRI;

Breast cancer–endothelium interactions provide regulatory signals facilitating tumor progression. The endothelial cells have so far been mainly viewed in the context of tumor perfusion and relatively little is known regarding the effects of such paracrine interactions on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM), proteasome activity and properties of endothelial cells.To address the effects of breast cancer cell (BCC) lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 on the endothelial cells, two cell culture models were utilized; one involves endothelial cell culture in the presence of BCCs-derived conditioned media (CM) and the other co-culture of both cell populations in a Transwell system. Real-time PCR was utilized to evaluate gene expression, an immunofluorescence assay for proteasome activity, and functional assays (migration, adhesion and invasion) and immunofluorescence microscopy for cell integrity and properties.BCC-CM decreases the cell migration of HUVEC. Adhesion and invasion of BCCs are favored by HUVEC and HUVEC-CM. HA levels and the expression of CD44 and HA synthase-2 by HUVEC are substantially upregulated in both cell culture approaches. Adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, are also highly upregulated, whereas MT1-MMP and MMP-2 expressions are significantly downregulated in both culture systems. Notably, the expression and activity of the proteasome β5 subunit are increased, especially by the action of MDA-MB-231-CM on HUVEC.BCCs significantly alter the expression of matrix macromolecules, proteasome activity and functional properties of endothelial cells. Deep understanding of such paracrine interactions will help to design novel drugs targeting breast cancer at the ECM level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.Display Omitted
Keywords: Breast cancer cell; Endothelium; Extracellular matrix; Hyaluronan; Proteosome; Cell functional properties;

Cysteine cathepsins and extracellular matrix degradation by Marko Fonović; Boris Turk (2560-2570).
Cysteine cathepsins are normally found in the lysosomes where they are involved in intracellular protein turnover. Their ability to degrade the components of the extracellular matrix in vitro was first reported more than 25 years ago. However, cathepsins were for a long time not considered to be among the major players in ECM degradation in vivo. During the last decade it has, however, become evident that abundant secretion of cysteine cathepsins into extracellular milieu is accompanying numerous physiological and disease conditions, enabling the cathepsins to degrade extracellular proteins.In this review we will focus on cysteine cathepsins and their extracellular functions linked with ECM degradation, including regulation of their activity, which is often enhanced by acidification of the extracellular microenvironment, such as found in the bone resorption lacunae or tumor microenvironment. We will further discuss the ECM substrates of cathepsins with a focus on collagen and elastin, including the importance of that for pathologies. Finally, we will overview the current status of cathepsin inhibitors in clinical development for treatment of ECM-linked diseases, in particular osteoporosis.Cysteine cathepsins are among the major proteases involved in ECM remodeling, and their role is not limited to degradation only. Deregulation of their activity is linked with numerous ECM-linked diseases and they are now validated targets in a number of them. Cathepsins S and K are the most attractive targets, especially cathepsin K as a major therapeutic target for osteoporosis with drugs targeting it in advanced clinical trials.Due to their major role in ECM remodeling cysteine cathepsins have emerged as an important group of therapeutic targets for a number of ECM-related diseases, including, osteoporosis, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Cathepsin; Extracellular matrix; Lysosome; Collagen; Osteoporosis; Glycosaminoglycan;

Matrix metalloproteinases in inflammation by Liisa Nissinen; Veli-Matti Kähäri (2571-2580).
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of ubiquitously expressed zinc-dependent endopeptidases with broad substrate specificity and strictly regulated tissue specific expression. They are expressed in physiological situations and pathological conditions involving inflammation. MMPs regulate several functions related to inflammation including bioavailability and activity of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. There is also evidence that MMPs regulate inflammation in tumor microenvironment, which plays an important role in cancer progression.Here, we discuss the current view on the role of MMPs in the regulation of inflammation.MMPs modulate inflammation by regulating bioavailability and activity of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, as well as integrity of physical tissue barriers. MMPs are also involved in immune evasion of tumor cells and in regulation of inflammation in tumor microenvironment.There is increasing evidence for non-matrix substrates of MMPs that are related to regulation of inflammatory processes. New methods have been employed for identification of the substrates of MMPs in inflammatory processes in vivo. Detailed information on the substrates of MMPs may offer more specific and effective ways of inhibiting MMP function by blocking the cleavage site in substrate or by inhibition of the bioactivity of the substrate. It is expected, that more precise information on the MMP–substrate interaction may offer novel strategies for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory diseases and cancer without blocking beneficial actions of MMPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Proteinase; Matrix; Inflammation; Signaling; Cancer;

EMMPRIN/CD147-encriched membrane vesicles released from malignant human testicular germ cells increase MMP production through tumor–stroma interaction by Eleni Milia-Argeiti; Samia Mourah; Benoit Vallée; Eric Huet; Nikos K. Karamanos; Achilleas D. Theocharis; Suzanne Menashi (2581-2588).
Elevated levels of EMMPRIN/CD147 in cancer tissues have been correlated with tumor progression but the regulation of its expression is not yet understood. Here, the regulation of EMMPRIN expression was investigated in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCTs) cell lines.EMMPRIN expression in seminoma JKT-1 and embryonal carcinoma NT2/D1 cell lines was determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted from these cells, treated or not with EMMPRIN siRNA, were isolated by differential centrifugations of their conditioned medium. MMP-2 was analyzed by zymography and qRT-PCR.The more aggressive embryonic carcinoma NT2/D1 cells expressed more EMMPRIN mRNA than the seminoma JKT-1 cells, but surprisingly contained less EMMPRIN protein, as determined by immunoblotting and immunostaining. The protein/mRNA discrepancy was not due to accelerated protein degradation in NT2/D1 cells, but by the secretion of EMMPRIN within MVs, as the vesicles released from NT2/D1 contained considerably more EMMPRIN than those released from JKT-1. EMMPRIN-containing MVs obtained from NT2/D1, but not from EMMPRIN-siRNA treated NT2/D1, increased MMP-2 production in fibroblasts to a greater extent than those from JKT-1 cells.The data presented show that the more aggressive embryonic carcinoma cells synthesize more EMMPRIN than seminoma cells, but which they preferentially target to secreted MVs, unlike seminoma cells which retain EMMPRIN within the cell membrane. This cellular event points to a mechanism by which EMMPRIN expressed by malignant testicular cells can exert its MMP inducing effect on distant cells within the tumor microenvironment to promote tumor invasion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Testicular germ cell; Seminoma; Embryonic carcinoma; EMMPRIN/CD147; MMPs; Membrane vesicles (MVs);

Matrikines from basement membrane collagens: A new anti-cancer strategy by Jean Claude Monboisse; Jean Baptiste Oudart; Laurent Ramont; Sylvie Brassart-Pasco; François Xavier Maquart (2589-2598).
Tumor microenvironment is a complex system composed of a largely altered extracellular matrix with different cell types that determine angiogenic responses and tumor progression. Upon the influence of hypoxia, tumor cells secrete cytokines that activate stromal cells to produce proteases and angiogenic factors. In addition to stromal ECM breakdown, proteases exert various pro- or anti-tumorigenic functions and participate in the release of various ECM fragments, named matrikines or matricryptins, capable to act as endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors and to limit tumor progression.We will focus on the matrikines derived from the NC1 domains of the different constitutive chains of basement membrane-associated collagens and mainly collagen IV.The putative targets of the matrikine control are the proliferation and invasive properties of tumor or inflammatory cells, and the angiogenic and lymphangiogenic responses. Collagen-derived matrikines such as canstatin, tumstatin or tetrastatin for example, decrease tumor growth in various cancer models. Their anti-cancer activities comprise anti-proliferative effects on tumor or endothelial cells by induction of apoptosis or cell cycle blockade and the induction of a loss of their migratory phenotype. They were used in various preclinical therapeutic strategies: i) induction of their overexpression by cancer cells or by the host cells, ii) use of recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides or structural analogues designed from the structure of the active sequences, iii) used in combined therapies with conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy.Collagen-derived matrikines strongly inhibited tumor growth in many preclinical cancer models in mouse. They constitute a new family of anti-cancer agents able to limit cancer progression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Cancer; Extracellular matrix; Angiogenesis; Matrikine; Preclinical trial;

Heparanase expression and localization in different types of human lung cancer by Teresa Cristina Fernandes dos Santos; Angélica Maciel Gomes; Marcos Eduardo Machado Paschoal; Mariana Paranhos Stelling; Vivian Mary Barral Dodd Rumjanek; Alyson do Rosário Junior; Paulo Marcos Valiante; Kalil Madi; Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza; Mauro Sergio Gonçalves Pavão; Morgana Teixeira Lima Castelo-Branco (2599-2608).
Heparanase is the only known mammalian glycosidase capable of cleaving heparan sulfate chains. The expression of this enzyme has been associated with tumor development because of its ability to degrade extracellular matrix and promote cell invasion.We analyzed heparanase expression in lung cancer samples to understand lung tumor progression and malignancy. Of the samples from 37 patients, there were 14 adenocarcinomas, 13 squamous cell carcinomas, 5 large cell carcinomas, and 5 small cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed to ascertain the expression and localization of heparanase.All of the tumor types expressed heparanase, which was predominantly localized within the cytoplasm and nucleus. Significant enzyme expression was also observed in cells within the tumor microenvironment, such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Adenocarcinomas exhibited the strongest heparanase staining intensity and the most widespread heparanase distribution. Squamous cell carcinomas, large cell carcinomas, and small cell carcinomas had a similar subcellular distribution of heparanase to adenocarcinomas but the distribution was less widespread. Heparanase expression tended to correlate with tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging in non-small cell lung carcinoma.In this study, we showed that heparanase was localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus of tumor cells and to cells within the microenvironment in different types of lung cancer. This enzyme exhibited a differential distribution based on the type of lung tumor.General significanceElucidating the heparanase expression patterns in different types of lung cancer increased our understanding of the crucial role of heparanase in lung cancer biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Heparanase; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous cell carcinoma; Large cell carcinoma; Small cell carcinoma;

MicroRNA-dependent targeting of the extracellular matrix as a mechanism of regulating cell behavior by Sherif Abdelaziz Ibrahim; Hebatallah Hassan; Martin Götte (2609-2620).
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by inducing mRNA degradation or translational repression. MicroRNA-dependent modulation of the extracellular matrix and its cellular receptors has emerged as a novel mechanism of regulating numerous matrix-dependent processes, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell adhesion and migration, cell differentiation and stem cell properties.In this review, we will present different mechanisms by which microRNAs and extracellular matrix constituents mutually regulate their expression, and we will demonstrate how these expression changes affect cell behavior. We will also highlight the importance of dysregulated matrix-related microRNA expression for the pathogenesis of inflammatory and malignant disease, and discuss the potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.MicroRNAs and matrix-dependent signal transduction processes form novel regulatory circuits, which profoundly affect cell behavior. As misexpression of microRNAs targeting extracellular matrix constituents is observed in a variety of diseases, a pharmacological intervention with these processes has therapeutic potential, as successfully demonstrated in vitro and in advanced animal models. However, a deeper mechanistic understanding is required to address potential side effects prior to clinical applications in humans.A full understanding of the role and function of microRNA-dependent regulation of the extracellular matrix may lead to new targeted therapies and new diagnostics for malignant and inflammatory diseases in humans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.Display Omitted
Keywords: MicroRNA; Competing endogenous RNA; Proteoglycan; Integrin; Laminin; Therapeutics;

TGFβ and matrix-regulated epithelial to mesenchymal transition by Aristidis Moustakas; Paraskevi Heldin (2621-2634).
The progression of cancer through stages that guide a benign hyperplastic epithelial tissue towards a fully malignant and metastatic carcinoma, is driven by genetic and microenvironmental factors that remodel the tissue architecture. The concept of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) has evolved to emphasize the importance of plastic changes in tissue architecture, and the cross-communication of tumor cells with various cells in the stroma and with specific molecules in the extracellular matrix (ECM).Among the multitude of ECM-embedded cytokines and the regulatory potential of ECM molecules, this article focuses on the cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, and their roles in cancer biology and EMT. For brevity, we concentrate our effort on breast cancer.Both normal and abnormal TGFβ signaling can be detected in carcinoma and stromal cells, and TGFβ-induced EMT requires the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Correspondingly, hyaluronan is a major constituent of tumor ECM and aberrant levels of both hyaluronan and TGFβ are thought to promote a wounding reaction to the local tissue homeostasis. The link between EMT and metastasis also involves the mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET). ECM components, signaling networks, regulatory non-coding RNAs and epigenetic mechanisms form the network of regulation during EMT-MET.Understanding the mechanism that controls epithelial plasticity in the mammary gland promises the development of valuable biomarkers for the prognosis of breast cancer progression and even provides new ideas for a more integrative therapeutic approach against disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition; Hyaluronan; Proteoglycan; Signal transduction; Transforming growth factor β; Tumor invasiveness;

The differential proliferative response of fetal and adult human skin fibroblasts to TGF-β is retained when cultured in the presence of fibronectin or collagen by Andreas A. Armatas; Harris Pratsinis; Eleni Mavrogonatou; Maria T. Angelopoulou; Anastasios Kouroumalis; Nikos K. Karamanos; Dimitris Kletsas (2635-2642).
Transforming growth factor-β is a multifunctional and pleiotropic factor with decisive role in tissue repair. In this context, we have shown previously that TGF-β inhibits the proliferation of fetal human skin fibroblasts but stimulates that of adult ones. Given the dynamic reciprocity between fibroblasts, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) in tissue homeostasis, the present study aims to investigate the role of fibronectin and collagen in the proliferative effects of TGF-β on fetal and adult cells.Human fetal and adult skin fibroblasts were grown either on plastic surfaces or on surfaces coated with fibronectin or collagen type-I, as well as, on top or within three-dimensional matrices of polymerized collagen. Their proliferative response to TGF-β was studied using tritiated thymidine incorporation, while the signaling pathways involved were investigated by Western analysis and using specific kinase inhibitors.Fetal skin fibroblast-proliferation was inhibited by TGF-β, while that of adult cells was stimulated by this factor, irrespective of the presence of fibronectin or collagen. Both inhibitory and stimulatory activities of TGF-β on the proliferation of fetal and adult fibroblasts, respectively, were abrogated when the Smad pathway was blocked. Moreover, inhibition of fetal fibroblasts was mediated by PKA activation, while stimulation of adult ones was effected through the autocrine activation of FGF receptor and the MEK–ERK pathway.Fetal and adult human skin fibroblasts retain their differential proliferative response to TGF-β when cultured in the presence of fibronectin and unpolymerized or polymerized collagen.The interplay between TGF-β and ECM supports the pleiotropic nature of this growth factor, in concordance with the different repair strategies between fetuses and adults. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: TGF-β; Human skin fibroblast; Fetal; Adult; Fibronectin; Collagen gel; Proliferation; Smad; ERK; PKA;

Glycosylation is a multi-step post-translational enzymatic process which enhances the functional diversity of secreted or membrane proteins and is implicated in physiological and pathological conditions. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains are glycosaminoglycan chains, consisting of disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, attached to proteins as part of proteoglycans.The existing knowledge on glycosylation by CS (CS glycanation) of cell membrane proteins and receptors, such as syndecans, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, betaglycan, neuropilin-1, integrins and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase β/ζ, is summarized and the importance of CS glycanation in growth factor-induced migration, angiogenesis and tumor growth and invasion is described.Identification of glycosylation so far used to be a means of further characterizing and categorizing proteins and receptors. Although there is a significant amount of information regarding the interaction of growth factors with CS chains, very little information exists on the core proteins involved. It is now evident that there is more than meets the eye regarding the addition of glycans.Future effort should focus on characterizing CS glycanation of membrane proteins and receptors of interest in an attempt to elucidate its contribution in fine-tuning growth factor-induced signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.
Keywords: Angiogenesis; Cell migration; Glycosaminoglycan; Glycosylation; Proteoglycan; Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase β/ζ;

EGFR and HER2 exert distinct roles on colon cancer cell functional properties and expression of matrix macromolecules by Maria-Ioanna Ellina; Panagiotis Bouris; Alexios J. Aletras; Achilleas D. Theocharis; Dimitris Kletsas; Nikos K. Karamanos (2651-2661).
ErbB receptors, EGFR and HER2, have been implicated in the development and progression of colon cancer. Several intracellular pathways are mediated upon activation of EGFR and/or HER2 by EGF. However, there are limited data regarding the EGF-mediated signaling affecting functional cell properties and the expression of extracellular matrix macromolecules implicated in cancer progression.Functional assays, such as cell proliferation, transwell invasion assay and migration were performed to evaluate the impact of EGFR/HER2 in constitutive and EGF-treated Caco-2 cells. Signaling pathways were evaluated using specific intracellular inhibitors. Western blot was also utilized to examine the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2. Real time PCR was performed to evaluate gene expression of matrix macromolecules.EGF increases cell proliferation, invasion and migration and importantly, EGF mediates overexpression of EGFR and downregulation of HER2. The EGF–EGFR axis is the main pathway affecting colon cancer's invasive potential, proliferative and migratory ability. Intracellular pathways (PI3K-Akt, MEK1/2-Erk and JAK-STAT) are all implicated in the migratory profile. Notably, MT1- and MT2-MMP as well as TIMP-2 are downregulated, whereas uPA is upregulated via an EGF–EGFR network. The EGF–EGFR axis is also implicated in the expression of syndecan-4 and TIMP-1. However, glypican-1 upregulation by EGF is mainly mediated via HER2.The obtained data highlight the crucial importance of EGF on the expression of both receptors and on the EGF–EGFR/HER2 signaling network, reveal the distinct roles of EGFR and HER2 on expression of matrix macromolecules and open a new area in designing novel agents in targeting colon cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties.Display Omitted
Keywords: EGFR; HER2; Migration; Extracellular matrix; Metalloproteinase; Colon cancer;