Peptides (v.76, #C)

Endothelium-derived intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 protects human ventricular cardiomyocytes from ischaemia-reoxygenation injury predominantly via the AM1 receptor by David Bell; Malcolm Campbell; Stephen F. McAleer; Matthew Ferguson; Liz Donaghy; Mark T. Harbinson (1-13).
Application of intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 (IMD/AM-2) protects cultured human cardiac vascular cells and fibroblasts from oxidative stress and simulated ischaemia-reoxygenation injury (I-R), predominantly via adrenomedullin AM1 receptor involvement; similar protection had not been investigated previously in human cardiomyocytes (HCM). Expression of IMD, AM and their receptor components was studied in HCM. Receptor subtype involvement in protection by exogenous IMD against injury by simulated I-R was investigated using receptor component-specific siRNAs. Direct protection by endogenous IMD against HCM injury, both as an autocrine factor produced in HCM themselves and as a paracrine factor released from HCMEC co-cultured with HCM, was investigated using peptide-specific siRNA for IMD. IMD, AM and their receptor components (CLR, RAMPs1-3) were expressed in HCM. IMD 1 nmol L−1, applied either throughout ischaemia (3 h) and re-oxygenation (1 h) or during re-oxygenation (1 h) alone, attenuated HCM injury (P  < 0.05); cell viabilities were 59% and 61% respectively vs. 39% in absence of IMD. Cytoskeletal disruption, protein carbonyl formation and caspase activity followed similar patterns. Pre-treatment (4 days) of HCM with CLR and RAMP2 siRNAs attenuated (P  < 0.05) protection by exogenous IMD. Pre-treatment of HCMEC with IMD (and AM) siRNA augmented (P  < 0.05) I-R injury: cell viabilities were 22% (and 32%) vs. 39% untreated HCMEC. Pre-treatment of HCM with IMD (and AM) siRNA did not augment HCM injury: cell viabilities were 37% (and 39%) vs. 39% untreated HCM. Co-culture with HCMEC conferred protection from injury on HCM; such protection was attenuated when HCMEC were pre-treated with IMD (but not AM) siRNA before co-culture. Although IMD is present in HCM, IMD derived from HCMEC and acting in a paracrine manner, predominantly via AM1 receptors, makes a marked contribution to cardiomyocyte protection by the endogenous peptide against acute I-R injury.
Keywords: Peptide; Ischaemia; Adrenomedullin; Oxidative stress;

Food intake and physical activity are regulated by multiple neuropeptides, including orexin and dynorphin (DYN). Orexin-A (OXA) is one of two orexin peptides with robust roles in regulation of food intake and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). DYN collectively refers to several peptides, some of which act through opioid receptors (opioid DYN) and some whose biological effects are not mediated by opioid receptors (non-opioid DYN). While opioid DYN is known to increase food intake, the effects of non-opioid DYN peptides on food intake and SPA are unknown. Neurons that co-express and release OXA and DYN are located within the lateral hypothalamus. Limited evidence suggests that OXA and opioid DYN peptides can interact to modulate some aspects of behaviors classically related to orexin peptide function. The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) is a brain area where OXA and DYN peptides might interact to modulate food intake and SPA. We demonstrate that injection of des-Tyr-dynorphin (DYN-A2−17, a non opioid DYN peptide) into the PVN increases food intake and SPA in adult mice. Co-injection of DYN-A2−17 and OXA in the PVN further increases food intake compared to DYN-A2−17 or OXA alone. This is the first report describing the effects of non-opioid DYN-A2−17 on food intake and SPA, and suggests that DYN-A2−17 interacts with OXA in the PVN to modulate food intake. Our data suggest a novel function for non-opioid DYN-A2−17 on food intake, supporting the concept that some behavioral effects of the orexin neurons result from combined actions of the orexin and DYN peptides.
Keywords: Orexin; Hypocretin; des-Tyr-dynorphin; Dynorphin; Food intake; Physical activity; PVN; Hypothalamus;

Plasma levels of intermedin (adrenomedullin-2) in healthy human volunteers and patients with heart failure by David Bell; Brian J. Gordon; Anita Lavery; Katie Megaw; Michael O. Kinney; Mark T. Harbinson (19-29).
Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 (IMD) is a member of the adrenomedullin/CGRP peptide family. Less is known about the distribution of IMD than for other family members within the mammalian cardiovascular system, particularly in humans. The aim was to evaluate plasma IMD levels in healthy subjects and patients with chronic heart failure. IMD and its precursor fragments, preproIMD25–56 and preproIMD57–92, were measured by radioimmunoassay in 75 healthy subjects and levels of IMD were also compared to those of adrenomedullin (AM) and mid-region proadrenomedullin45–92 (MRproAM45–92) in 19 patients with systolic heart failure (LVEF < 45%). In healthy subjects, plasma levels (mean + SE) of IMD (6.3 + 0.6 pg ml−1) were lower than, but correlated with those of AM (25.8 + 1.8 pg ml−1; r = 0.49, p  < 0.001). Plasma preproIMD25–56 (39.6 + 3.1 pg ml−1), preproIMD57–92 (25.9 + 3.8 pg ml−1) and MRproAM45–92 (200.2 + 6.7 pg ml−1) were greater than their respective bioactive peptides. IMD levels correlated positively with BMI but not age, and were elevated in heart failure (9.8 + 1.3 pg ml−1, p  < 0.05), similarly to MRproAM45–92 (329.5 + 41.9 pg ml−1, p  < 0.001) and AM (56.8 + 10.9 pg ml−1, p  < 0.01). IMD levels were greater in heart failure patients with concomitant renal impairment (11.3 + 1.8 pg ml−1) than those without (6.5 + 1.0 pg ml−1; p  < 0.05). IMD and AM were greater in patients receiving submaximal compared with maximal heart failure drug therapy and were decreased after 6 months of cardiac resynchronization therapy. In conclusion, IMD is present in the plasma of healthy subjects less abundantly than AM, but is similarly correlated weakly with BMI. IMD levels are elevated in heart failure, especially with concomitant renal impairment, and tend to be reduced by high intensity drug or pacing therapy.
Keywords: Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2; Adrenomedullin; Heart failure; Healthy subjects; Human; Renal function; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; Plasma levels;

Human gut endogenous proteins as a potential source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-, renin inhibitory and antioxidant peptides by Lakshmi A. Dave; Maria Hayes; Carlos A. Montoya; Shane M. Rutherfurd; Paul J. Moughan (30-44).
Keywords: Gastrointestinal endogenous proteins; Gut non-dietary proteins; Bioactive peptides; Gastrointestinal tract; Cryptome proteins; Classification of bioactive peptides; Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibition; Renin; Antioxidant peptides;

Molecular mechanisms of novel peptides from silkworm pupae that inhibit α-glucosidase by Yu Zhang; Nan Wang; Wei Wang; Junhong Wang; Zuoyi Zhu; Xue Li (45-50).
The objectives of this study were to identify peptides that inhibit α-glucosidase using a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) screening method and a database of silkworm peptides. This study compared the docking characteristics of several peptides with high inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and summarized the molecular mechanisms by which the silkworm peptides affected α-glucosidase. Four peptides that strongly inhibited α-glucosidase were obtained: Gln-Pro-Gly-Arg with IC50 at 65.8 μmol/L, Ser-Gln-Ser-Pro-Ala at 20 μmol/L, Gln-Pro-Pro-Thr at 560 μmol/L and Asn-Ser-Pro-Arg at 205 μmol/L. Studies docking the peptides to the active site of α-glucosidase (PDB ID: 2QMJ) showed that a common characteristic was Lys776 in 2QMJ, which could be a critical target for α-glucosidase trapping of inhibitory peptides. The results revealed that the four peptides, especially Ser-Gln-Ser-Pro-Ala, could be potential drugs for treating diabetes.
Keywords: Molecular mechanism; α; -glucosidase; In-silico screening; Silkworm pupae;

Serum ghrelin and prediction of metabolic parameters in over 20-year follow-up by Tuija Leinonen; Y. Antero Kesäniemi; Pirjo Hedberg; Olavi Ukkola (51-56).
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone from the stomach, with an ability to release growth-hormone from the pituitary. Numerous cross-sectional studies indicate that ghrelin also has a role in metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, but evidence for long-term effect is scarce. We investigated, whether ghrelin concentration measured in middle age would predict the development or absence of metabolic disturbances subsequently. Study population consisted of 600 middle-aged persons, and the follow-up time was approximately 21 years. Plasma total ghrelin concentration was measured at the baseline, and divided to tertiles. Numerous anthropometric and other clinical measurements (including blood pressure), and laboratory test were made both at the baseline and at the follow-up. After the follow-up the prevalence of high systolic blood pressure according to MetS IDF-criteria was the lowest in the highest ghrelin tertile, and the highest in the first (p  < 0.03). When only subjects free of hypertension medication at baseline were considered, subjects belonging to the highest ghrelin tertile developed less new hypertension and high blood pressure according to IDF-criteria as well as medication for it during the follow-up (p  < 0.05). Although serum insulin levels were negatively correlated to ghrelin levels at both points in time (p  < 0.001 at baseline and p  = 0.003 at follow-up), plasma ghrelin concentration did not predict the development of abnormalities in glucose tolerance. The association with ghrelin and metabolic syndrome was lost during the follow-up. In conclusion, our results suggest high ghrelin to be protective against the development of hypertension in the long-term follow-up.
Keywords: Ghrelin; Metabolic syndrome; Hypertension; Type 2 diabetes;

Leucine-enkephalin promotes wound repair through the regulation of hemidesmosome dynamics and matrix metalloprotease by Dong Joo Yang; Kyung Suk Lee; Chang Mann Ko; Sang Hyun Moh; Jihyeok Song; Lucia C. Hur; Young Woo Cheon; Seung Ho Yang; Yun-Hee Choi; Ki Woo Kim (57-64).
The skin responds to environmental stressors by coordinated actions of neuropeptides and their receptors. An endogenous peptide for δ-opioid receptor (DOPr), Leu-enkephalin (L-ENK), is expressed in the skin and its expression is altered in pathological conditions. Although the importance of DOPr is rapidly gaining recognition, the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects on wound healing are largely undefined. We show here that L-ENK induced activation of Erk, P90RSK, and Elk-1 and promoted the disruption of hemidesmosomes and the expression of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, important processes for wound healing. Treatment with Erk inhibitor blocked activation of P90RSK and Elk-1 and significantly blunted wound repair. Therefore, our results suggest that activation of Erk and its downstream effectors, P90RSK and Elk-1, are critical for DOPr-mediated skin homeostasis.
Keywords: δ-Opioid receptor; Leucine-enkephalin; Wound healing; Hemidesmosome;

Silencing of Paralemmin-3 Protects Mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by Shaoying Li; Liang Guo; Yunfeng Zhao; Pin Qian; Xuejun Lv; Lanlan Qian; Qin wang; Guisheng Qian; Wei Yao; Xueling Wu (65-72).
Excessive inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a critical role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Paralemmin-3 (PALM3) is a novel protein that can modulate LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. However, it remains unclear whether it is involved in the progression of ALI in vivo. Therefore, we studied the role of PALM3 in the pathogenesis of ALI induced by LPS. ALI was induced by LPS peritoneal injection in C57BL/6J mice. Lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the mouse PALM3 gene and a negative control siRNA were intranasally administered to the mice. We found that the expression of PALM3 was up-regulated in the lung tissues obtained from the mouse model of LPS-induced ALI. The LPS-evoked inflammatory response (neutrophils and the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines [IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, MIP-2] in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid [BALF]), histologic lung injury (lung injury score), permeability of the alveolar capillary barrier (lung wet/dry weight ratio and BALF protein concentration) and mortality rates were attenuated in the PALM3 siRNA-treated mice. These results indicate that PALM3 contributes to the development of ALI in mice challenged with LPS. Inhibiting PALM3 through the intranasal application of specific siRNA protected against LPS-induced ALI.
Keywords: Paralemmin-3; lipopolysaccharide; Acute lung injury;

ARA 290 is an erythropoietin-derived polypeptide that possesses analgesic and tissue protective effect in many diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The analgesic effect of ARA 290 is mediated by its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions, or more specifically, by targeting the innate repair receptor (IRR) to down-regulate inflammation to alleviate neuropathic pain. However, whether other mechanisms or pathways are involved in ARA 290-mediated analgesic effect remains elusive. In this study, we are particularly interested in whether ARA 290 could directly target peripheral nociceptors by blocking or influencing receptors in pain sensation. Using calcium imaging, cell culture and behavioral tests, we demonstrated that ARA 290 was able to specifically inhibit TRPV1 channel activity, and relieve the mechanical hypersensitivity induced by capsaicin. Our study suggested that ARA 290 could potentially function as a novel antagonist for TRPV1 channel. This finding would not only contribute to the development of new pain treatment using ARA 290, but also help to improve our understanding of the integration between the immune system and the peripheral nervous system.
Keywords: ARA 290; Neuropathic pain; TRPV1; Nociception; Inflammation;

Analysis of catalytic properties of tripeptidyl peptidase I (TTP-I), a serine carboxyl lysosomal protease, and its detection in tissue extracts using selective FRET peptide substrate by Marcia Y. Kondo; Iuri E. Gouvea; Débora N. Okamoto; Jorge A.N. Santos; Caden Souccar; Kohei Oda; Luiz Juliano; Maria A. Juliano (80-86).
Tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP-I), also named ceroid lipofuscinosis 2 protease (CLN2p), is a serine carboxyl lysosomal protease involved in neurodegenerative diseases, and has both tripeptidyl amino- and endo- peptidase activities under different pH conditions. We developed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides using tryptophan (W) as the fluorophore to study TPP-I hydrolytic properties based on previous detailed substrate specificity study (Tian Y. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 2006, 281:6559–72). Tripeptidyl amino peptidase activity is enhanced by the presence of amino acids in the prime side and the peptide NH2-RWFFIQ-EDDnp is so far the best substrate described for TPP-I. The hydrolytic parameters of this peptide and its analogues indicated that the S4 subsite of TPP-I is occluded and there is an electrostatic interaction of the positively charged substrate N-terminus amino group and a negative locus in the region of the enzyme active site. KCl activated TPP-I in contrast to the inhibition by Ca2+ and NaCl. Solvent kinetic isotope effects (SKIEs) show the importance of the free N-terminus amino group of the substrates, whose absence results in a more complex solvent-dependent enzyme: substrate interaction and catalytic process. Like pure TPP-I, rat spleen and kidney homogenates cleaved NH2-RWFFIQ-EDDnp only at F―F bond and is not inhibited by pepstatin, E-64, EDTA or PMSF. The selectivity of NH2-RWFFIQ-EDDnp to TPP-I was also demonstrated by the 400 times higher k cat/K M compared to generally used substrate, NH2-AAF-MCA and by its resistance to hydrolysis by cathepsin D that is present in high levels in kidneys.
Keywords: TPP-I; Tripeptidyl amino peptidase; Endopeptidase; FRET peptides;

Application of synthetic peptides for detection of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies by Nicole Hartwig Trier; Bettina Eide Holm; Ole Slot; Henning Locht; Hanne Lindegaard; Anders Svendsen; Christoffer Tandrup Nielsen; Søren Jacobsen; Elke Theander; Gunnar Houen (87-95).
Display OmittedAnti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and represent an important tool for the serological diagnosis of RA.In this study, we describe ACPA reactivity to overlapping citrullinated Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1)-derived peptides and analyze their potential as substrates for ACPA detection by streptavidin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using systematically overlapping peptides, containing a 10 amino acid overlap, labelled with biotin C-terminally or N-terminally, sera from 160 individuals (RA sera (n  = 60), healthy controls (n  = 40), systemic lupus erythematosus (n  = 20), Sjögren’s syndrome (n  = 40)) were screened for antibody reactivity.Antibodies to a panel of five citrullinated EBNA-1 peptides were found in 67% of RA sera, exclusively of the IgG isotype, while 53% of the patient sera reacted with a single peptide, ARGGSRERARGRGRG-Cit-GEKR, accounting for more than half of the ACPA reactivity alone. Moreover, these antibodies were detected in 10% of CCP2-negative RA sera. In addition, 47% of the RA sera reacted with two or three citrullinated EBNA-1 peptides from the selected peptide panel. Furthermore, a negative correlation between the biotin attachment site and the location of citrulline in the peptides was found, i.e. the closer the citrulline was located to biotin, the lower the antibody reactivity.Our data suggest that citrullinated EBNA-1 peptides may be considered a substrate for the detection of ACPAs and that the presence of Epstein-Barr virus may play a role in the induction of these autoantibodies.
Keywords: Citrullinated epitopes; EBNA-1; Streptavidin capture ELISA; Peptides;

BMP-6 modulates somatostatin effects on luteinizing hormone production by gonadrotrope cells by Kishio Toma; Fumio Otsuka; Kohei Oguni; Tomohiro Terasaka; Motoshi Komatsubara; Naoko Tsukamoto-Yamauchi; Kenichi Inagaki; Hirofumi Makino (96-101).
The effects of somatostatin analogs and roles of BMP-6 in the regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion were investigated using mouse gonadotrope LβT2 cells. LH mRNA expression and LH secretion induced by GnRH were suppressed by treatments with somatostatin analogs, including octreotide and pasireotide, in LβT2 cells. Of note, the inhibitory effects of somatostatin analogs on LH secretion were enhanced by the action of BMP-6. BMP-6 increased the expression levels of somatostatin receptor (SSTR)5, suggesting that BMP-6 upregulates SSTR activity that leads to reduction of GnRH-induced LH secretion. In addition, GnRH-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs including ERK, but not P38 or SAPK, was suppressed by pasireotide in the presence of BMP-6. Given that each inhibitor of ERK, JNK or P38 signaling suppressed GnRH-induced LH transcription, MAPKs are individually involved in the induction of LH production by LβT2 cells. Somatostatin analogs also impaired BMP-6-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation by suppressing BMPRs and augmenting Smad6/7 expression. Collectively, the results indicate that somatostatin analogs have dual effects on the modulation of GnRH-induced MAPK signaling and BMP activity. The pituitary BMP system may play a regulatory role in GnRH-induced LH secretion by tuning the responsiveness to somatostatin analogs in gonadotrope cells.
Keywords: Bone morphogenetic protein; Gonadotrope; Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Luteinizing hormone; Somatostatin;

Glucose metabolism is subjected to diurnal variation, which might be mediated by alterations in the transcription pattern of clock genes and regulated by hormonal factors, as has been demonstrated for insulin. However, whether also glucagon is involved in the diurnal variation of glucose homeostasis is not known. We therefore examined glucagon secretion after meal ingestion (meal tolerance test) and during hypoglycemia (hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp at 2.5 mmol/L glucose) and in vitro from isolated islets at ZT3 versus ZT15 in normal C57BL/6J mice and, furthermore, glucose levels and the insulin response to meal ingestion were also examined at these time points in glucagon receptor knockout mice (GCGR−/−) and their wildtype (wt) littermates.We found in normal mice that whereas the glucagon response to meal ingestion was not different between ZT3 and ZT15, the glucagon response to hypoglycemia was lower at ZT3 than at ZT15 and glucagon secretion from isolated islets was higher at ZT3 than at ZT15. GCGR−/− mice displayed lower basal glucose, a lower insulin response to meal and a higher insulin sensitivity than wt mice at ZT3 but not at ZT15. We conclude that there is a time dependent variation in glucagon secretion in normal mice, which is dependent both on intraislet and extraislet regulatory mechanisms and that the phenotype characteristics of a lower glucose and reduced insulin response to meal in GCGR−/− mice are evident only during the light phase. These findings suggest that glucagon signaling is a plausible contributor to the diurnal variation in glucose homeostasis which may explain that the phenotype of the GCGR−/− mice is dependent on the time of the day when it is examined.
Keywords: Glucagon; Glucose; Oscillation; Time dependency; Hypoglycemia; Mice;

Cardiorenal fibrosis and dysfunction in aging: Imbalance in mediators and regulators of collagen by S. Jeson Sangaralingham; Bing H. Wang; Li Huang; Sirinart Kumfu; Tomoko Ichiki; Henry Krum; John C. Burnett (108-114).
Display OmittedCardiorenal fibrosis is a biological process that increases with age and contributes to dysfunction of the heart and kidney. While numerous circulating and tissue hormones, cytokines and enzymes have been identified in the development of cardiorenal fibrosis, several reports have suggested that the anti-fibrotic natriuretic peptide system (NPS), pro-fibrotic renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are fundamental regulators and mediators of this process. However, the simultaneous assessment of these components in the development of age-mediated cardiorenal fibrotic remodeling is not completely understood. Thus, we assessed cardiorenal structure and function, the circulating NPS and RAAS and the cardiorenal tissue gene expression of collagen (Col) I, Col III, TGF-β1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in 2 and 20 month old Fischer rats. Our studies determined that aging was characterized by an increase in cardiorenal fibrosis that was accompanied with cardiorenal dysfunction. These alterations were associated with lower circulating atrial and C-type natriuretic peptides and higher angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in the aged rats. Moreover, we observed a decrease in Col I and III and an increase in TIMP- mRNA expressions in the aged heart and kidney, while TGF-β1 expression increased and MMP-9 decreased only in the aged kidney. We conclude that the age-mediated alterations in these fibrotic regulator and mediator profiles favors collagen accumulation due to an imbalance between the NPS and RAAS as well as a decline in the degradative pathway, thus suggesting a therapeutic opportunity to target these components.
Keywords: Fibrosis; Cardiorenal; Natriuretic peptides; Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; Gene expression;

Cytokines and glucocorticoid receptors are associated with the antidepressant-like effect of alarin by Fuzhi Zhuang; Xue Zhou; Xin Gao; Dan Lou; Xuesheng Bi; Shoujun Qin; Chuxiao Sun; Peng Ye; Yun Wang; Tengfei Ma; Mei Li; Shuling Gu (115-129).
Little is known about the physiological or pharmacological properties of alarin, a new neuropeptide belonging to the galanin family. We previously showed that alarin has an antidepressant-like effect and is associated with a decrease in the hyperactivity of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis that is observed in patients with depression using unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) mouse model of depression. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been uncovered. Inflammatory cytokines are reportedly associated with depression. Animal studies and cytokine immune therapy in humans suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines induce depressive symptomatology and potently activate the HPA axis, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines may decrease activation. Thus, we first determined the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the blood and brain to evaluate whether the antidepressant-like effect of alarin in UCMS-treated mice is related to its regulation of these inflammatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines disrupt the function and/or expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), which mediate the negative feedback of glucocorticoids on the HPA axis to keep it from being overactivated. We next explored the expression level of GRs in the brains of mice subjected to UCMS and to the administration of alarin. We found that intracerebroventricular administration of alarin significantly ameliorated depression-like behaviors in the UCMS-treated mice. Alarin restored the UCMS-induced an increase in the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α and a decrease in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level in the blood, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Alarin also reversed the UCMS-induced down-regulation of GR expression in these brain regions. Thus, the antidepressant-like effects of alarin may be mediated by restoring altered pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels and GR expression to decrease HPA axis hyperactivity. Our findings provide additional knowledge to interpret the pathophysiology of depression.
Keywords: Alarin; Depression; Inflammatory cytokines; HPA axis; Glucocorticoid receptor;

Effect of intrahippocampal administration of anti-melanin-concentrating hormone on spatial food-seeking behavior in rats by Luciane Valéria Sita; Giovanne Baroni Diniz; Newton Sabino Canteras; Gilberto Fernando Xavier; Jackson Cioni Bittencourt (130-138).
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic peptide that plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. In this study, we investigated the potential role of dense hippocampal MCH innervation in the spatially oriented food-seeking component of feeding behavior. Rats were trained for eight sessions to seek food buried in an arena using the working memory version of the food-seeking behavior (FSB) task. The testing day involved a bilateral anti-MCH injection into the hippocampal formation followed by two trials. The anti-MCH injection did not interfere with the performance during the first trial on the testing day, which was similar to the training trials. However, during the second testing trial, when no food was presented in the arena, the control subjects exhibited a dramatic increase in the latency to initiate digging. Treatment with an anti-MCH antibody did not interfere with either the food-seeking behavior or the spatial orientation of the subjects, but the increase in the latency to start digging observed in the control subjects was prevented. These results are discussed in terms of a potential MCH-mediated hippocampal role in the integration of the sensory information necessary for decision-making in the pre-ingestive component of feeding behavior.
Keywords: Foraging; Dry-land maze; Spatial memory; Working memory; Hippocampus; Food intake;