Peptides (v.23, #2)

Preface by Takenori Onaga (249).

Distribution of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY by Eva Ekblad; Frank Sundler (251-261).
The cellular distribution of PP and PYY in mammals is reviewed. Expression of PP is restricted to endocrine cells mainly present in the pancreas predominantly in the duodenal portion (head) but also found in small numbers in the gastro-intestinal tract. PYY has a dual expression in both endocrine cells and neurons. PYY expressing endocrine cells occur all along the gastrointestinal tract and are frequent in the distal portion. Islet cells expressing PYY are found in many species. In rodents they predominate in the splenic portion (tail) of the pancreas. A limited expression of PYY is found also in endocrine cells in the adrenal gland, respiratory tract and pituitary. Peripheral, particularly enteric, neurons also express PYY as does a restricted set of central neurons.
Keywords: Pancreatic polypeptide; PP; Peptide YY; PYY; Endocrine cells; Enteric nervous system; Gastro-intestinal tract; Pancreas; Adrenal gland; Airways; Peripheral nervous system; Central nervous system;

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY) are related neuroendocrine peptides that are expressed in specialized cells. PP is found around the time of birth in different species. PYY in mice and rats has been extensively studied. PYY is the first peptide hormone to appear in both the pancreas and the colon and is initially expressed together with all other pancreatic islet and gut hormones. This suggests that there is a PYY-producing endocrine progenitor cell, at least in rodents. Whether the same is true for other species is unknown. In chickens, however, pancreatic insulin and glucagon cells appear before PYY. After birth, PYY levels in rats and humans reflect adaptation to enteral feeding. Whereas PYY cells increase with age in rodents, no such changes have been found in humans.
Keywords: Aging; Gastrointestinal; Hormones; Ontogeny; Pancreas; PP; Progenitor cell; PYY;

It is generally accepted that the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of homologous peptides arose as a result of a series of gene duplication events. Recent advances in comparative genomics allow to formulate a hypothesis that explains, at least in part, the complexity of the family. Chromosome mapping studies reveal that the gene encoding PYY may have arisen from a common ancestral gene (termed NYY) in an ancient chromosomal duplication event that also involved the hox gene clusters. A tandem duplication of the PYY gene concomitant with or just before the emergence of tetrapods generated the PPY gene encoding PP. In the primate and ungulate lineages, the PYY-PPY gene cluster has undergone a more recent gene duplication event to create a PYY2-PPY2 gene cluster on the same chromosome. In the human and baboon, this cluster probably does not encode functional NPY family peptides but expression of the bovine PYY2 gene generates seminalplasmin, a major biologically active component of bull semen. An independent duplication of the PYY gene in the lineage of teleost fish has generated peptides of the PY family that are synthesized in the pancreatic islets of Acanthomorpha. The structural organization of the biosynthetic precursors of PYY and PP (preproPYY and preproPP) has been quite well preserved during the evolution of vertebrates but conservative pressure on individual domains in the proteins has not been uniform. The duplication of the PYY gene that generated the PPY gene appears to have resulted in a relaxation of conservative pressure on the functional domain with the result that the amino acid sequences of tetrapod PYYs are more variable than the PYYs of jawed fish. Although the primary structure of PP has been quite strongly conserved in mammals, with the exception of the rodents, the extreme variability in the sequences of amphibian and reptilian PPs means that the peptide is a useful molecular marker to study the branching order in early tetrapod evolution
Keywords: molecular evolution; gene duplication; tetraploidization; hox cluster; phylogeny;

Multiple regulation of peptide YY secretion in the digestive tract by Takenori Onaga; Romuald Zabielski; Seiyu Kato (279-290).
In the last two decades, multiple aspects of the peptide YY (PYY) secretion have been investigated. Besides fat and fatty acids, many luminal nutrients in the distal intestine appear to induce PYY release. Some studies have shown that bile acid, but not nutrients, plays a crucial role in the regulation of PYY secretion. Moreover, chyme in the proximal intestine also regulates the peptide release by indirect action through humoral and neuronal factors. Gastrin, cholecystokinin, and the vagus nerve are major candidates for mediators of these indirect actions. Several growth factors have been shown to regulate PYY synthesis in mucosa of the distal intestine. This review is aimed at presenting an overview of these recent studies on PYY secretion in the distal intestine.
Keywords: PYY; peptides; endocrine; secretion; gut; pancreas;

Cloned rat, human and guinea-pig Y4 pancreatic polypeptide (PP) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, as well as the rabbit Y4-like PP receptor, show a selective sensitivity to Na+ over K+ ion in PP attachment, but little sensitivity to Na+ in dissociation of bound PP peptides. Agonist binding to Y4 receptors of intact CHO cells also shows much greater sensitivity to Na+ over K+, and a tenacious attachment of the bound agonist. Binding sensitivity to K+ is greatly enhanced upon receptor solubilization. Pancreatic polypeptide sites also show large sensitivity to modulators of Na+ transport such as N5-substituted amilorides and to RFamides, as different from Y1 or Y2 receptors. Thus, PP binding is modulated by cation-induced changes in site environment (with selectivity for Na+) and ultimately results in a blocking attachment. This would support receptor operation in the presence of ion gradients, as well as prolonged agonist-delimited signaling activity (which can include partial antagonism). Also, this could point to an evolutionary adaptation enabling small numbers of PP receptors to perform extensive metabolic tasks in response to low agonist signals.
Keywords: Receptor structure; Receptor function; Cation sensitivity;

Structure and receptor binding of PYY analogs by D.A. Keire; C.W. Bowers; T.E. Solomon; J.R. Reeve (305-321).
Differences in the structure of PYY and two important analogs, PYY [3–36] and [Pro34]PYY, are evaluated. Y-receptor subtype ligand binding data are used in conjunction with structural data to develop a model for receptor subtype selective agonists. For PYY it is proposed that potent binding to Y1, Y4 and Y5 receptors requires the juxtaposition of the two termini while Y2 binding only requires the C-terminal helix. Further experiments that delineate between primary and tertiary structure contributions for receptor binding and activation are required to support the hypothesis that tertiary structure is stable enough to influence the expression of PYY’s bioactivity.
Keywords: PYY; NPY; PP; Y1 Y2 Y4 Y5 receptor binding; tertiary structure; conformation; structure-activity-relationships;

Roles of pancreatic polypeptide in regulation of food intake by Goro Katsuura; Akihiro Asakawa; Akio Inui (323-329).
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is produced in pancreatic islets of Langerhans and released into the circulation after ingestion of a meal. Peripherally administered PP suppresses food intake and gastric emptying. On the other hand, central administration of PP elicits food intake and gastric emptying. Therefore, PP actions on food intake may be, in part, attributable to gastric emptying. PP transgenic mice exhibit decreases in both food intake and gastric emptying rate that were clearly reversed by anti-PP antiserum. PP is an anorexigenic signal in the periphery and an orexigenic signal in the central nervous system.
Keywords: Pancreatic polypeptide; food intake; gastric emptying;

Pancreatic polypeptide in pancreatitis 1 1 Abbreviations: PP, pancreatic polypeptide; CP, chronic pancreatitis; AP, acute pancreatitis. by René Hennig; Panagiotis B Kekis; Helmut Friess; Thomas E Adrian; Markus W Büchler (331-338).
Pancreatitis is a disease with increasing incidence which can be divided into an acute and a chronic form. In both acute and chronic pancreatitis, changes in plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and its regulation have been reported. In daily clinical work a serologic test for the precise diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis is still desirable. Therefore, many studies have investigated plasma concentrations of PP in acute and chronic pancreatitis as a diagnostic marker and as a therapeutic option to treat pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus. Although the study results are presently inconclusive and potentially contradictory, the findings are nevertheless encouraging, and indicate that PP might have a role in diagnosis, grading and estimation of the prognosis of pancreatitis. Further data and prospective controlled studies are needed to judge whether PP is of clinical value for diagnosing, staging and predicting long-term outcome in acute and chronic pancreatitis.
Keywords: Acute pancreatitis; Chronic pancreatitis; Pancreatic polypeptide; Diabetes mellitus; surgery;

Pancreatic polypeptide-related tumors by Cesare Bordi; Cinzia Azzoni; Tiziana D’Adda; Silvia Pizzi (339-348).
PP-producing tumors are mostly located in the pancreas and may present as three pathologic lesions: pure PP-omas, mixed tumors with minor PP cell population, and PP-cell hyperplasia. These tumors are among the most common multiple adenomas frequently found in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Hypersecretion and high circulating levels of PP are frequently found. They are symptomless but may be useful for the identification of the pancreatic tumors. Numerous types of extrapancreatic endocrine tumors are able to synthesize and secrete PP. They occur mostly but not exclusively in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly in the rectum. The inactivation of the MEN 1 gene at 11q13 appears to be involved in the development of pancreatic but not of rectal PP-producing tumors.

Peptide YY (PYY) released postprandially from the ileum and colon displays a potent inhibition of cephalic and gastric phases of gastric acid secretion through both central and peripheral mechanisms. To modulate vagal regulation of gastric functions, circulating PYY enters the brain through the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract, where it exerts a stimulatory action through PYY-preferring Y1-like receptors, and an inhibitory action through Y2 receptors. In the gastric mucosa, PYY binds to Y1 receptors in the enterochromaffin-like cells to inhibit gastrin-stimulated histamine release and calcium signaling via a pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway.

Feedback regulation of pancreatic secretion by peptide YY by Satoru Naruse; Motoji Kitagawa; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Tetsuo Hayakawa (359-365).
The present status of our understanding of the feedback regulation of pancreatic secretion by peptide YY (PYY) released from the distal intestine is reviewed. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is primarily controlled by the cephalic (the vagus nerve), gastric (acid and pepsin secretion, and nutrients delivered into the duodenum by gastric emptying), and intestinal (secretin and CCK) mechanisms. PYY acts on the multiple sites in the brain and gut, and inhibits pancreatic secretion by regulating these primary control mechanisms. The involvement of Y1 and Y2 receptors has been suggested in the regulation of pancreatic secretion. However, it remains to be studied which site of action or receptor subtype is physiologically most important for this regulation.

An essential process for fatty acid digestion, absorption and assimilation is the constant replacement of mature intestinal epithelial cells by differentiating stem cells. Free fatty acids (FFA) and PYY may act in concert to alter mucosal cell differentiation through the cytoskeletal-extracellular matrix interactions. PYY induced expression of tetraspanins and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) may be part of a mechanism whereby FFA modulate expression of differentiation dependent proteins in the mucosa. This modulation provides a means for FFA to act as signal molecules in the feedback regulation of their own assimilation.

Peptide YY (PYY) is the most potent orexigenic peptide or substance known. However, neither the underlying physiology of this hyperphagia nor PYY’s natural role in brain are well understood. Thus, this review details the neuroanatomical sites, the neurochemical and systemic interactions, the food-related properties and the motivational factors that characterize hyperphagia elicited by central PYY. Emphasis also is given to evidence that central PYY has properties functionally distinct from neuropeptide Y. Finally, future research directions are outlined that aim at accelerating our understanding of the roles that brain PYY and PYY-preferring receptors occupy in normal and abnormal feeding behavior.
Keywords: PYY; Neuropeptide Y; Pancreatic polypeptides; Opioids; Central nervous system; Ingestive behavior; Intracerebroventricular; Orexigenic substances; Hyperphagia; Food intake; Eating disorders; Y-receptors;

Peptide YY is an abundant distal gut hormone that may play a significant role in intestinal epithelial proliferation. Gut epithelial cells express specific receptors for PYY, PYY induces proliferation in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro, and the Y1 receptor subtype couples to mitogenic signaling pathways. In addition to proposed physiologic effects on gut mucosal maintenance, PYY proliferative effects may be hypothesized to contribute to pathophysiologic consequences of stimulated growth.
Keywords: Peptide YY; Receptor; Growth; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Mitogen-activated protein kinase; Epithelium;

Peptide YY (PYY) is a naturally occurring gut hormone with mostly inhibitory actions on multiple tissue targets. PYY has been identified in several carcinoid tumors and a decreased expression of PYY may be relevant to the development and progression of colon adenocarcinoma. Treatment with PYY decreases growth in pancreatic and breast tumors, most likely through a reduction in intracellular cAMP. In cancer patients, PYY may also improve malnutrition that results from iatrogenic causes or cachexia associated with advanced disease. PYY plays a significant role in multiple aspects of cancer from regulation of cell growth to potential therapeutic applications.
Keywords: Peptide YY; Cancer; Carcinoid tumor; Tissue expression; Carcinogenesis; Cell growth; Malnutrition; Cachexia; Synthetic analogues;

Peptide YY in gastrointestinal disorders by Magdy El-Salhy; Ole Suhr; Åke Danielsson (397-402).
The changes in PYY in several gastrointestinal disorders and their possible clinical implications are reviewed. The changes in PYY seem to be an adaptive response to alterations in the patho-physiological condition caused by the disease. This becomes evident in gastrointestinal disorders such as diabetes gastroenteropathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, celiac disease, systemic sclerosis and post-intestinal resection state. On the other hand, changes in PYY in chronic idiopathic slow transit constipation appear to be primary and could be one of the etiologic factors of the disease. PYY does not seem to be involved in colorectal carcinoma. Although gastrointestinal dysmotility in neuro-muscular diseases is evident, PYY is not affected. The changes in PYY in gastrointestinal disorders could be beneficial in clinical practice. Thus, in cases where an increase or decrease in PYY is desirable, a diet that increases or decreases PYY synthesis and release can be followed, or a receptor agonist or antagonist can be utilized.
Keywords: Diabetes; Gastrointestinal disorders; Motility; Inflammatory bowel diseases; PYY; Secretion;

PYY is a gastrointestinal hormone, mainly released from the distal intestine in response to intraluminal nutrients or via a neurohormonal pathway originating in the proximal intestine. Although there are several molecular forms of circulating PYY with different bioactivity, and further more than six subtypes of Y-receptors, the function is essentially inhibitory to digestive organs located upstream of the digestive tract. These inhibitory mechanisms are named jejunal, ileal and colonic brakes, and play an important supplementary role in adaptation following intestinal resection. When massive resection of the small intestine is performed, the release of PYY from the distal intestine increases, suppressing gastric acid secretion and motility of the gastrointestinal tract, and stimulating pancreatic secretion. After total colectomy, PYY release is reduced first due to reduction of PYY-containing cells, then gradually increases with time, contributing to adaptation of the digestive organs to the new condition.