BBA - Molecular Cell Research (v.1843, #7)

FGFR3 induces degradation of BMP type I receptor to regulate skeletal development by Huabing Qi; Min Jin; Yaqi Duan; Xiaolan Du; Yuanquan Zhang; Fangli Ren; Yinyin Wang; Qingyun Tian; Xiaofeng Wang; Quan Wang; Ying Zhu; Yangli Xie; Chuanju Liu; Xu Cao; Yuji Mishina; Di Chen; Chu-xia Deng; Zhijie Chang; Lin Chen (1237-1247).
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) play significant roles in vertebrate organogenesis and morphogenesis. FGFR3 is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis and multiple mutations with constitutive activity of FGFR3 result in achondroplasia, one of the most common dwarfisms in humans, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we found that chondrocyte-specific deletion of BMP type I receptor a (Bmpr1a) rescued the bone overgrowth phenotype observed in Fgfr3 deficient mice by reducing chondrocyte differentiation. Consistently, using in vitro chondrogenic differentiation assay system, we demonstrated that FGFR3 inhibited BMPR1a-mediated chondrogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we showed that FGFR3 hyper-activation resulted in impaired BMP signaling in chondrocytes of mouse growth plates. We also found that FGFR3 inhibited BMP-2- or constitutively activated BMPR1-induced phosphorylation of Smads through a mechanism independent of its tyrosine kinase activity. We found that FGFR3 facilitates BMPR1a to degradation through Smurf1-mediated ubiquitination pathway. We demonstrated that down-regulation of BMP signaling by BMPR1 inhibitor dorsomorphin led to the retardation of chondrogenic differentiation, which mimics the effect of FGF-2 on chondrocytes and BMP-2 treatment partially rescued the retarded growth of cultured bone rudiments from thanatophoric dysplasia type II mice. Our findings reveal that FGFR3 promotes the degradation of BMPR1a, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasia.Display Omitted
Keywords: FGFR3; BMPR1; Achondroplasia; Smurf1; Chondrocyte;

As a signaling hub, p62/sequestosome plays important roles in cell signaling and degradation of misfolded proteins. p62 has been implicated as an adaptor protein to mediate autophagic clearance of insoluble protein aggregates in age-related diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is characterized by dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Our previous studies have shown that cigarette smoke (CS) induces oxidative stress and inhibits the proteasome pathway in cultured human RPE cells, suggesting that p62-mediated autophagy may become the major route to remove impaired proteins under such circumstances. In the present studies, we found that all p62 mRNA variants are abundantly expressed and upregulated by CS induced stress in cultured human RPE cells, yet isoform1 is the major translated form. We also show that p62 silencing exacerbated the CS induced accumulation of damaged proteins, both by suppressing autophagy and by inhibiting the Nrf2 antioxidant response, which in turn, increased protein oxidation. These effects of CS and p62 reduction were further confirmed in mice exposed to CS. We found that over-expression of p62 isoform1, but not its S403A mutant, which lacks affinity for ubiquitinated proteins, reduced misfolded proteins, yet simultaneously promoted an Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response. Thus, p62 provides dual, reciprocal enhancing protection to RPE cells from environmental stress induced protein misfolding and aggregation, by facilitating autophagy and the Nrf2 mediated antioxidant response, which might be a potential therapeutic target against AMD.
Keywords: Autophagy; Aging; Nrf2; Oxidative stress; p62;

Airway mesenchymal cell death by mevalonate cascade inhibition: Integration of autophagy, unfolded protein response and apoptosis focusing on Bcl2 family proteins by Saeid Ghavami; Pawan Sharma; Behzad Yeganeh; Oluwaseun O. Ojo; Aruni Jha; Mark M. Mutawe; Hessam H. Kashani; Marek J. Los; Thomas Klonisch; Helmut Unruh; Andrew J. Halayko (1259-1271).
HMG-CoA reductase, the proximal rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, is inhibited by statins. Beyond their cholesterol lowering impact, statins have pleiotropic effects and their use is linked to improved lung health. We have shown that mevalonate cascade inhibition induces apoptosis and autophagy in cultured human airway mesenchymal cells. Here, we show that simvastatin also induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in these cells. We tested whether coordination of ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis determines survival or demise of human lung mesenchymal cells exposed to statin. We observed that simvastatin exposure activates UPR (activated transcription factor 4, activated transcription factor 6 and IRE1α) and caspase-4 in primary human airway fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Exogenous mevalonate inhibited apoptosis, autophagy and UPR, but exogenous cholesterol was without impact, indicating that sterol intermediates are involved with mechanisms mediating statin effects. Caspase-4 inhibition decreased simvastatin-induced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 or ATG3 knockdown significantly increased cell death. In BAX −/−/BAK −/− murine embryonic fibroblasts, simvastatin-triggered apoptotic and UPR events were abrogated, but autophagy flux was increased leading to cell death via necrosis. Our data indicate that mevalonate cascade inhibition, likely associated with depletion of sterol intermediates, can lead to cell death via coordinated apoptosis, autophagy, and ER stress. The interplay between these pathways appears to be principally regulated by autophagy and Bcl-2-family pro-apoptotic proteins. These findings uncover multiple mechanisms of action of statins that could contribute to refining the use of such agent in treatment of lung disease.
Keywords: Statin; Cell death; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Fibroblast;

Notch4 reveals a novel mechanism regulating Notch signal transduction by A.C. James; J.O. Szot; K. Iyer; J.A. Major; S.E. Pursglove; G. Chapman; S.L. Dunwoodie (1272-1284).
Notch4 is a divergent member of the Notch family of receptors that is primarily expressed in the vasculature. Its expression implies an important role for Notch4 in the vasculature; however, mice homozygous for the Notch4d1 knockout allele are viable. Since little is known about the role of Notch4 in the vasculature and how it functions, we further investigated Notch4 in mice and in cultured cells. We found that the Notch4d1 allele is not null as it expresses a truncated transcript encoding most of the NOTCH4 extracellular domain. In cultured cells, NOTCH4 did not signal in response to ligand. Moreover, NOTCH4 inhibited signalling from the NOTCH1 receptor. This is the first report of cis-inhibition of signalling by another Notch receptor. The NOTCH4 extracellular domain also inhibits NOTCH1 signalling when expressed in cis, raising the possibility that reported Notch4 phenotypes may not be due to loss of NOTCH4 function. To better address the role of NOTCH4 in vivo, we generated a Notch4 null mouse in which the entire coding region was deleted. Notch4 null mice exhibited slightly delayed vessel growth in the retina, consistent with our novel finding that NOTCH4 protein is expressed in the newly formed vasculature. These findings indicate a role of NOTCH4 in fine-tuning the forming vascular plexus.
Keywords: Notch4; Retinal angiogenesis; cis-Inhibition; Coculture;

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a chemoattractant and inducer for neural stem/progenitor (NS/P) cell migration. Although the type II transmembrane serine protease, matriptase (MTP) is an activator of the latent HGF, MTP is indispensable on NS/P cell motility induced by the active form of HGF. This suggests that MTP's action on NS/P cell motility involves mechanisms other than proteolytic activation of HGF. In the present study, we investigate the role of MTP in HGF-stimulated signaling events. Using specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) or focal adhesion kinase (FAK), we demonstrated that in NS/P cells HGF-activated c-Met induces PI3k-Akt signaling which then leads to FAK activation. This signaling pathway ultimately induces MMP2 expression and NS/P cell motility. Knocking down of MTP in NS/P cells with specific siRNA impaired HGF-stimulation of c-Met, Akt and FAK activation, blocked HGF-induced production of MMP2 and inhibited HGF-stimulated NS/P cell motility. MTP-knockdown NS/P cells cultured in the presence of recombinant protein of MTP protease domain or transfected with the full-length wild-type but not the protease-defected MTP restored HGF-responsive events in NS/P cells. In addition to functioning as HGF activator, our data revealed novel function of MTP on HGF-stimulated c-Met signaling activation.
Keywords: Neural stem cell; Migration; Hepatocyte growth factor; Transmembrane serine protease; Protein kinase signaling;

Inactivation of Omi/HtrA2 protease leads to the deregulation of mitochondrial Mulan E3 ubiquitin ligase and increased mitophagy by Lucia Cilenti; Camilla T. Ambivero; Nathan Ward; Emad S. Alnemri; Doris Germain; Antonis S. Zervos (1295-1307).
Omi/HtrA2 is a nuclear encoded mitochondrial serine protease with dual and opposite functions that depend entirely on its subcellular localization. During apoptosis, Omi/HtrA2 is released into the cytoplasm where it participates in cell death. While confined in the inter-membrane space of the mitochondria, Omi/HtrA2 has a pro-survival function that may involve the regulation of protein quality control (PQC) and mitochondrial homeostasis. Loss of Omi/HtrA2's protease activity causes the neuromuscular disorder of the mnd2 (motor neuron degeneration 2) mutant mice. These mice develop multiple defects including neurodegeneration with parkinsonian features. Loss of Omi/HtrA2 in non-neuronal tissues has also been shown to cause premature aging. The normal function of Omi/HtrA2 in the mitochondria and how its deregulation causes neurodegeneration or premature aging are unknown. Here we report that the mitochondrial Mulan E3 ubiquitin ligase is a specific substrate of Omi/HtrA2. During exposure to H2O2, Omi/HtrA2 degrades Mulan, and this regulation is lost in cells that carry the inactive protease. Furthermore, we show accumulation of Mulan protein in various tissues of mnd2 mice as well as in Omi/HtrA2(−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). This causes a significant decrease of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) protein, and increased mitophagy. Our work describes a new stress-signaling pathway that is initiated in the mitochondria and involves the regulation of Mulan by Omi/HtrA2 protease. Deregulation of this pathway, as it occurs in mnd2 mutant mice, causes mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy, and could be responsible for the motor neuron disease and the premature aging phenotype observed in these animals.
Keywords: Omi/HtrA2; Mulan E3 ubiquitin ligase; Apoptosis; mnd2 mouse; Oxidative stress; Mitophagy;

CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of p19INK4d avoids DNA damage-induced neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus and prevents loss of cognitive functions by María Florencia Ogara; Laura M. Belluscio; Verónica de la Fuente; Bruno G. Berardino; Silvina V. Sonzogni; Laura Byk; Mariela Marazita; Eduardo T. Cánepa (1309-1324).
DNA damage, which perturbs genomic stability, has been linked to cognitive decline in the aging human brain, and mutations in DNA repair genes have neurological implications. Several studies have suggested that DNA damage is also increased in brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanisms connecting DNA damage with neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. CDK5, a critical enzyme in the development of the central nervous system, phosphorylates a number of synaptic proteins and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis, synaptic plasticity and learning. In addition to these physiological roles, CDK5 has been involved in the neuronal death initiated by DNA damage. We hypothesized that p19INK4d, a member of the cell cycle inhibitor family INK4, is involved in a neuroprotective mechanism activated in response to DNA damage. We found that in response to genotoxic injury or increased levels of intracellular calcium, p19INK4d is transcriptionally induced and phosphorylated by CDK5 which provides it with greater stability in postmitotic neurons. p19INK4d expression improves DNA repair, decreases apoptosis and increases neuronal survival under conditions of genotoxic stress. Our in vivo experiments showed that decreased levels of p19INK4d rendered hippocampal neurons more sensitive to genotoxic insult resulting in the loss of cognitive abilities that rely on the integrity of this brain structure. We propose a feedback mechanism by which the neurotoxic effects of CDK5-p25 activated by genotoxic stress or abnormal intracellular calcium levels are counteracted by the induction and stabilization of p19INK4d protein reducing the adverse consequences on brain functions.
Keywords: DNA damage; Neurodegeneration; Learning and memory; Neocarzinostatin; Beta amyloid peptide; Apoptosis;

Modulation of in vivo IgG crystallization in the secretory pathway by heavy chain isotype class switching and N-linked glycosylation by Haruki Hasegawa; Carla Forte; Irene Barber; Shanon Turnbaugh; Janelle Stoops; Min Shen; Ai Ching Lim (1325-1338).
Crystalline bodies (CBs) can develop in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of antibody-producing cells. Although this phenotype is often reported in association with plasma cell dyscrasias and other hematological disorders, the details of CB biogenesis and CB's roles in pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Using an imaging-based screening method, we identified a secretion-competent human IgG2/λ clone that develops spindle-shaped intracellular crystals in transiently-transfected HEK293 cells upon Brefeldin A treatment. When stably overexpressed from CHO cells, the IgG2/λ clone spontaneously produced spindle-shaped CBs in the ER. Some CBs were released to the extracellular space while remaining enclosed by the membranes of secretory pathway origin. Structural modeling on the variable-region did not uncover prominent surface characteristics such as charge clusters. In contrast, alterations to the constant domain-encoded properties revealed their modulatory roles in CB-inducing propensities and CB morphology. For example, deletion of the entire Fc domain changed the morphology of CBs into thin filaments. Elimination of an N-linked glycan by a N297A mutation promoted Russell body biogenesis accompanied by marked reduction in IgG secretion. Isotype class switching from the original IgG2 to IgG1 and IgG4 changed the crystal morphology from spindle-shaped to long needle and acicular shaped, respectively. The IgG3 version, in contrast, suppressed the CB formation. Either the HC or LC alone or the Fc-domain alone did not trigger CB biogenesis. An IgG's in vivo crystal morphology and crystallization propensity can thus be modulated by the properties genetically and biochemically encoded in the HC constant region.
Keywords: Crystalline body; Russell body; Immunoglobulin; Protein crystallization; Protein aggregation; Endoplasmic reticulum;

Halofuginone improves muscle-cell survival in muscular dystrophies by Anna Bodanovsky; Noga Guttman; Hila Barzilai-Tutsch; Ola Genin; Oshrat Levy; Mark Pines; Orna Halevy (1339-1347).
Halofuginone has been shown to prevent fibrosis via the transforming growth factor-β/Smad3 pathway in muscular dystrophies. We hypothesized that halofuginone would reduce apoptosis—the presumed cause of satellite-cell depletion during muscle degradation—in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Six-week-old mdx mouse diaphragm exhibited fourfold higher numbers of apoptotic nuclei compared with wild-type mice as determined by a TUNEL assay. Apoptotic nuclei were found in macrophages and in Pax7-expressing cells; some were located in centrally-nucleated regenerating myofibers. Halofuginone treatment of mdx mice reduced the apoptotic nuclei number in the diaphragm, together with reduction in Bax and induction in Bcl2 levels in myofibers isolated from these mice. A similar effect was observed when halofuginone was added to cultured myofibers. No apparent effect of halofuginone was observed in wild-type mice. Inhibition of apoptosis or staurosporine-induced apoptosis by halofuginone in mdx primary myoblasts and C2 myogenic cell line, respectively, was reflected by less pyknotic/apoptotic cells and reduced Bax expression. This reduction was reversed by a phosphinositide-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in mediating halofuginone's effects on apoptosis. Halofuginone increased apoptosis in α smooth muscle actin- and prolyl 4-hydroxylase β-expressing cells in mdx diaphragm and in myofibroblasts, the major source of extracellular matrix. The data suggest an additional mechanism by which halofuginone improves muscle pathology and function in muscular dystrophies.
Keywords: Muscular dystrophy; Apoptosis; Satellite cell; Myofibroblast; Myofiber; Halofuginone;

Hepatitis C virus present in the sera of infected patients interferes with the autophagic process of monocytes impairing their in-vitro differentiation into dendritic cells by Marisa Granato; Valentina Lacconi; Marina Peddis; Livia Di Renzo; Sandro Valia; Daniela Rivanera; Guido Antonelli; Luigi Frati; Alberto Faggioni; Mara Cirone (1348-1355).
Autophagy has a pivotal role in the in-vitro monocyte differentiation into macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), the most powerful antigen presenting cells (APC) with the unique capacity to initiate an adaptive immune response. Autophagy is also a mechanism by which these cells of innate immunity may degrade intracellular pathogens and mediate the antigen processing and presentation, essential to clear an infection. For these reasons, pathogens have learned how to manipulate autophagy for their own survival. In this study we found that hepatitis C virus (HCV), derived from sera of infected patients, blocked the autophagic process in differentiating monocytes, seen as LC3 II and p62 expression levels. The suppression of autophagy correlated with a reduction of cathepsins D, B and proteolytic activity, and resulted in impairment of monocyte differentiation into DCs, as indicated by the reduction of CD1a acquirement. These data suggest that the block of autophagy might be one of the underlying mechanisms of the HCV-mediated immune subversion that frequently leads to viral persistence and chronic hepatitis.
Keywords: Autophagy; Cathepsin B; Cathepsin D; HCV; Dendritic cells;

Selenoprotein W enhances skeletal muscle differentiation by inhibiting TAZ binding to 14-3-3 protein by Yeong Ha Jeon; Yong Hwan Park; Jea Hwang Lee; Jeong-Ho Hong; Ick Young Kim (1356-1364).
Selenoprotein W (SelW) is expressed in various tissues, particularly in skeletal muscle. We have previously reported that SelW is up-regulated during C2C12 skeletal muscle differentiation and inhibits binding of 14-3-3 to its target proteins. 14-3-3 reduces myogenic differentiation by inhibiting nuclear translocation of transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). Phosphorylation of TAZ at Ser89 is required for binding to 14-3-3, leading to cytoplasmic retention of TAZ and a delay in myogenic differentiation. Here, we show that myogenic differentiation was delayed in SelW-knockdown C2C12 cells. Down-regulation of SelW also increased TAZ binding to 14-3-3, which eventually resulted in decreasing translocation of TAZ to the nucleus. However, phosphorylation of TAZ at Ser89 was not affected. Although phosphorylation of TAZ at Ser89 was sustained by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, nuclear translocation of TAZ was increased by ectopic expression of SelW. This result was due to decreased binding of TAZ to 14-3-3. We also found that the interaction between TAZ and MyoD was increased by ectopic expression of SelW. Taken together, these findings strongly demonstrate that SelW enhances C2C12 cell differentiation by inhibiting TAZ binding to 14-3-3.
Keywords: Selenoprotein W; TAZ; 14-3-3;

Nemo-like kinase (NLK) negatively regulates NF-kappa B activity through disrupting the interaction of TAK1 with IKKβ by Shang-Ze Li; Hui-Hui Zhang; Jun-Bo Liang; Yang Song; Bing-Xue Jin; Na-Na Xing; Guo-Chang Fan; Run-Lei Du; Xiao-Dong Zhang (1365-1372).
Stringent negative regulation of the transcription factor NF-κB is essential for maintaining cellular stress responses and homeostasis. However, the tight regulation mechanisms of IKKβ are still not clear. Here, we reported that nemo-like kinase (NLK) is a suppressor of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)-induced NF-κB signaling by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IKKβ. Overexpression of NLK largely blocked TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, p65 nuclear localization and IκBα degradation; whereas genetic inactivation of NLK showed opposing results. Mechanistically, we identified that NLK interacted with IκB kinase (IKK)-associated complex, which in turn inhibited the assembly of the TAK1/IKKβ and thereby, diminished the IκB kinase phosphorylation. Our results indicate that NLK functions as a pivotal negative regulator in TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB via disrupting the interaction of TAK1 with IKKβ.
Keywords: NLK; NF-κB; TNFα; IKKβ; TAK1;

Versican is an extracellular chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan which functions as a structural molecule but can also regulate a variety of cellular activities. This study was designed to explore the roles of versican in the process of dermal wound repair. To elevate levels of versican, we ectopically expressed the versican 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) as a competitive endogenous RNA to modulate expression of versican. We demonstrated that wounds closed faster in transgenic mice expressing the versican 3′UTR, as compared to those in wildtype mice. We stably expressed versican 3′UTR in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and found that the 3′UTR-transfected cells showed increased migratory capacity relative to vector-transfected cells. Interestingly, we found that the 3′UTRs of versican and β-catenin shared common microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-185, miR-203*, miR-690, miR-680, and miR-434-3p. Luciferase assays showed that all of these miRNAs could target the 3′UTRs of both versican and β-catenin, when the luciferase constructs contained fragments harboring the miRNA binding sites. As a consequence, expression of both versican and β-catenin was up-regulated, which was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the versican 3′UTR abolished the 3′UTR's effects on cell migration and invasion. Taken together, these results demonstrate that versican plays important roles in wound repair and that versican messenger RNAs (mRNAs) could compete with endogenous RNAs for regulating miRNA functions.
Keywords: MicroRNA; 3′UTR; CeRNA; Transgenic mouse; Non-coding RNA;

Peroxisomes play a crucial role in regulating cellular metabolism, providing compartments where metabolic pathways can be contained and controlled. Their importance is underlined by the developmental brain disorders caused by peroxisome malfunction, while disturbances in peroxisome function also contribute to ageing. As peroxisomes do not contain DNA, they rely on an active transport system to obtain the full quota of proteins required for function. Organelle protein transport however, is rarely a one-way process and exciting recent data have demonstrated that peroxisomes can selectively export membrane and matrix proteins to fulfil specific functions. This review will summarise the current knowledge on peroxisomal membrane and matrix protein export, discussing the mechanisms underlying export as well as the role of peroxisomal protein export in peroxisomal and cellular function.
Keywords: Peroxisome; Protein export; Protein transport; Ubiquitination; Protein degradation;

Prohibitin is involved in the activated internalization and degradation of protease-activated receptor 1 by Yan-Jie Wang; Xiao-Long Guo; Sheng-An Li; Yu-Qi Zhao; Zi-Chao Liu; Wen-Hui Lee; Yang Xiang; Yun Zhang (1393-1401).
The protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is irreversibly activated by either thrombin or metalloprotease 1. Due this irrevocable activation, activated internalization and degradation are critical for PAR1 signaling termination. Prohibitin (PHB) is an evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitously expressed, pleiotropic protein and belongs to the stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain family. In a previous study, we found that PHB localized on the platelet membrane and participated in PAR1-mediated human platelet aggregation, suggesting that PHB likely regulates the signaling of PAR1. Unfortunately, PHB's exact function in PAR1 internalization and degradation is unclear. In the current study, flow cytometry revealed that PHB expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (HUVECs) but not cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Further confocal microscopy revealed that PHB dynamically associates with PAR1 in a time-dependent manner following induction with PAR1-activated peptide (PAR1-AP), though differently between HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells. Depletion of PHB by RNA interference significantly inhibited PAR1 activated internalization and led to sustained Erk1/2 phosphorylation in the HUVECs; however, a similar effect was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. For both the endothelial and cancel cells, PHB repressed PAR1 degradation, while knockdown of PHB led to increased PAR1 degradation, and PHB overexpression inhibited PAR1 degradation. These results suggest that persistent PAR1 signaling due to the absence of membrane PHB and decreased PAR1 degradation caused by the upregulation of intracellular PHB in cancer cells (such as MDA-MB-231 cells) may render cells highly invasive. As such, PHB may be a novel target in future anti-cancer therapeutics, or in more refined cancer malignancy diagnostics.
Keywords: Prohibitin; PAR1; Activated internalization; Erk1/2 signaling degradation;

Elevated circulating levels of saturated free fatty acids (sFFAs; e.g. palmitate) are known to provoke inflammatory responses and cause insulin resistance in peripheral tissue. By contrast, mono- or poly-unsaturated FFAs are protective against sFFAs. An excess of sFFAs in the brain circulation may also trigger neuroinflammation and insulin resistance, however the underlying signaling changes have not been clarified in neuronal cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of palmitate on mitochondrial function and viability as well as on intracellular insulin and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways in Neuro-2a and primary rat cortical neurons. We next tested whether oleate preconditioning has a protective effect against palmitate-induced toxicity. Palmitate induced both mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance while promoting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Oleate pre-exposure and then removal was sufficient to completely block subsequent palmitate-induced intracellular signaling and metabolic derangements. Oleate also prevented ceramide-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, oleate stimulated ATP while decreasing mitochondrial superoxide productions. The latter were associated with increased levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) attenuated the protective effect of oleate against palmitate, implicating PKA in the mechanism of oleate action. Oleate increased triglyceride and blocked palmitate-induced diacylglycerol accumulations. Oleate preconditioning was superior to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or linoleate in the protection of neuronal cells against palmitate- or ceramide-induced cytotoxicity. We conclude that oleate has beneficial properties against sFFA and ceramide models of insulin resistance-associated damage to neuronal cells.
Keywords: Palmitate; Oleate; Insulin resistance; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Inflammation;

Oncofetal H19 RNA promotes tumor metastasis by Imad J. Matouk; Eli Raveh; Rasha Abu-lail; Shaul Mezan; Michal Gilon; Eitan Gershtain; Tatiana Birman; Jennifer Gallula; Tamar Schneider; Moshe Barkali; Carmelit Richler; Yakov Fellig; Vladimir Sorin; Ayala Hubert; Abraham Hochberg; Abraham Czerniak (1414-1426).
The oncofetal H19 gene transcribes a long non-coding RNA(lncRNA) that is essential for tumor growth. Here we found that numerous established inducers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition(EMT) also induced H19/miR-675 expression. Both TGF-β and hypoxia concomitantly induced H19 and miR-675 with the induction of EMT markers. We identified the PI3K/AKT pathway mediating the inductions of Slug, H19 RNA and miR-675 in response to TGF-β treatment, while Slug induction depended on H19 RNA. In the EMT induced multidrug resistance model, H19 level was also induced. In a mouse breast cancer model, H19 expression was tightly correlated with metastatic potential. In patients, we detected high H19 expression in all common metastatic sites tested, regardless of tumor primary origin. H19 RNA suppressed the expression of E-cadherin protein. H19 up-regulated Slug expression concomitant with the suppression of E-cadherin protein through a mechanism that involved miR-675. Slug also up-regulated H19 expression and activated its promoter. Altogether, these results may support the existence of a positive feedback loop between Slug and H19/miR-675, that regulates E-cadherin expression. H19 RNA enhanced the invasive potential of cancer cells in vitro and enhanced tumor metastasis in vivo. Additionally, H19 knockdown attenuated the scattering and tumorigenic effects of HGF/SF. Our results present novel mechanistic insights into a critical role for H19 RNA in tumor progression and indicate a previously unknown link between H19/miR-675, Slug and E-cadherin in the regulation of cancer cell EMT programs.
Keywords: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition; E-cadherin; Slug; Positive loop; H19; miR-675;