BBA - Molecular Cell Research (v.1783, #4)

Special issue: Redox regulation of protein folding by Johannes M. Herrmann; Ursula Jakob (519).

All organisms possess specific cellular machinery that introduces disulfide bonds into proteins newly synthesized and transported out of the cytosol. In E. coli, the membrane-integrated DsbB protein cooperates with ubiquinone to generate a disulfide bond, which is transferred to DsbA, a periplasmic dithiol oxido-reductase that serves as the direct disulfide bond donor to proteins folding oxidatively in this compartment. Despite the extensive accumulation of knowledge on this oxidation system, molecular details of the DsbB reaction mechanisms had been controversial due partly to the lack of structural information until our recent determination of the crystal structure of a DsbA–DsbB–ubiquinone complex. In this review we discuss the structural and chemical nature of reaction intermediates in the DsbB catalysis and the illuminated molecular mechanisms that account for the de novo formation of a disulfide bond and its donation to DsbA. It is suggested that DsbB gains the ability to oxidize its specific substrate, DsbA, having very high redox potential, by undergoing a DsbA-induced rearrangement of cysteine residues. One of the DsbB cysteines that are now reduced then interacts with ubiquinone to form a charge transfer complex, leading to the regeneration of a disulfide at the DsbB active site, and the cycle can begin anew.
Keywords: Disulfide bond generation; Membrane-bound oxidase; DsbB; Ubiquinone; Menaquinone; DsbA; Crystal structure;

Disulfide bond isomerization in prokaryotes by Stefan Gleiter; James C.A. Bardwell (530-534).
Proteins with multiple cysteine residues often require disulfide isomerization reactions before they attain their correct conformation. In prokaryotes this reaction is catalyzed mainly by DsbC, a protein that shares many similarities in structure and mechanism to the eukaryotic protein disulfide isomerase. This review discusses the current knowledge about disulfide isomerization in prokaryotes.
Keywords: Protein folding; Disulfide bond formation; Isomerization;

The human PDI family: Versatility packed into a single fold by Christian Appenzeller-Herzog; Lars Ellgaard (535-548).
The enzymes of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family are thiol–disulfide oxidoreductases of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). They contain a CXXC active-site sequence where the two cysteines catalyze the exchange of a disulfide bond with or within substrates. The primary function of the PDIs in promoting oxidative protein folding in the ER has been extended in recent years to include roles in other processes such as ER-associated degradation (ERAD), trafficking, calcium homeostasis, antigen presentation and virus entry. Some of these functions are performed by non-catalytic members of the family that lack the active-site cysteines. Regardless of their function, all human PDIs contain at least one domain of approximately 100 amino acid residues with structural homology to thioredoxin. As we learn more about the individual proteins of the family, a complex picture is emerging that emphasizes as much their differences as their similarities, and underlines the versatility of the thioredoxin fold. Here, we primarily explore the diversity of cellular functions described for the human PDIs.
Keywords: Disulfide-bond formation; Endoplasmic reticulum; Protein disulfide isomerase; PDI; Protein folding;

Ero1 and redox homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum by Carolyn S. Sevier; Chris A. Kaiser (549-556).
Living cells must be able to respond to physiological and environmental fluctuations that threaten cell function and viability. A cellular event prone to disruption by a wide variety of internal and external perturbations is protein folding. To ensure protein folding can proceed under a range of conditions, the cell has evolved transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational signaling pathways to maintain folding homeostasis during cell stress. This review will focus on oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and will discuss the features of the main facilitator of biosynthetic disulfide bond formation, Ero1. Ero1 plays an essential role in setting the redox potential in the ER and regulation of Ero1 activity is central to maintain redox homeostasis and proper ER folding activity.
Keywords: Ero1; Ero1p; Flavoprotein; Oxidase; Sulfhydryl oxidase; Chaperone; Disulfide; Thiol; Oxidation; Reduction; Cysteine; PDI; Pdi1p; Redox; Endoplasmic reticulum; ER; Protein folding; Oxidative folding; Disulfide bond formation; Glutathione; Reactive oxygen species; ROS; Oxidative stress; Posttranslational modification; Posttranslation regulation;

The Erv family of sulfhydryl oxidases by Deborah Fass (557-566).
The Erv flavoenzymes contain a compact module that catalyzes the pairing of cysteine thiols into disulfide bonds. High-resolution structures of plant, animal, and fungal Erv enzymes that function in different contexts and intracellular compartments have been determined. Structural features can be correlated with biochemical properties, revealing how core sulfhydryl oxidase activity has been tailored to various functional niches. The introduction of disulfides into cysteine-containing substrates by Erv sulfhydryl oxidases is compared with the mechanisms used by NADPH-driven disulfide reductases and thioredoxin-like oxidoreductases to reduce and transfer disulfides, respectively.
Keywords: Sulfhydryl oxidase; Erv1; Erv2; Augmenter of liver regeneration; Disulfide bond; Dithiol/disulfide exchange; Crystal structure;

Generating disulfides with the Quiescin-sulfhydryl oxidases by Erin J. Heckler; Pumtiwitt C. Rancy; Vamsi K. Kodali; Colin Thorpe (567-577).
The Quiescin-sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX) family of flavoenzymes catalyzes the direct and facile insertion of disulfide bonds into unfolded reduced proteins with concomitant reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. This review discusses the chemical mechanism of these enzymes and the involvement of thioredoxin and flavin-binding domains in catalysis. The variability of CxxC motifs in the QSOX family is highlighted and attention is drawn to the steric factors that may promote efficient thiol/disulfide exchange during oxidative protein folding. The varied cellular location of these multi-domain sulfhydryl oxidases is reviewed and potential intracellular and extracellular roles are summarized. Finally, this review identifies important unresolved questions concerning this ancient family of sulfhydryl oxidases.
Keywords: Sulfhydryl oxidase; QSOX; Oxidative protein folding; Disulfide exchange; Protein disulfide isomerase;

When small B lymphocytes bind their cognate antigens in the context of suitable signals, a dramatic differentiation program is activated that leads to the formation of plasma cells. These are short-lived specialized elements, each capable of secreting several thousands antibodies per second. The massive increase in Ig synthesis and transport entails a dramatic architectural and functional metamorphosis that involves the development of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and secretory organelles. Massive Ig secretion poses novel metabolic requirements, particularly for what concerns aminoacid import, ATP synthesis and redox homeostasis. Ig H and L chains enter the ER in the reduced state, to be rapidly oxidised mainly via protein driven relays based on the resident enzymes PDI and Ero1. How do plasma cells cope with the ensuing metabolic and redox stresses? In this essay, we discuss the physiological implications that increased Ig production could have in the control of plasma cell generation, function and lifespan, with emphasis on the potential role of ROS generation in mitochondria and ER.
Keywords: Oxidative folding; Plasma cells; Differentiation; Oxidative stress; Apoptosis; Antibody secretion;

Glutaredoxins and thioredoxins in plants by Yves Meyer; Wafi Siala; Talaat Bashandy; Christophe Riondet; Florence Vignols; Jean Philippe Reichheld (589-600).
During the 70s and 80s two plant thioredoxin systems were identified. The chloroplastic system is composed of a ferredoxin-dependent thioredoxin, with two thioredoxin types (m and f) regulating the activity of enzymes implicated in photosynthetic carbon assimilation. In the cytosol of heterotrophic tissues, an NADP dependent thioredoxin reductase and a thioredoxin (h) were identified. The first plant glutaredoxin was only identified later, in 1994. Our view of plant thioredoxins and glutaredoxins was profoundly modified by the sequencing programs which revealed an unexpected number of genes encoding not only the previously identified disulfide reductases, but also numerous new types. At the same time it became clear that plant genomes encode chloroplastic, cytosolic and mitochondrial peroxiredoxins, suggesting a major role for redoxins in anti-oxidant defense. Efficient proteomics approaches were developed allowing the characterization of numerous thioredoxin target proteins. They are implicated in different aspects of plant life including development and adaptation to environmental changes and stresses. The most important challenge for the next years will probably be to identify in planta which redoxin reduces which target, a question which remains unsolved due to the low specificities of redoxins in vitro and the numerous redundancies which in most cases mask the phenotype of redoxin mutants.
Keywords: Thioredoxin; Glutaredoxin; Redox; Arabidopsis; Rice;

The compartment between the outer and the inner membranes of mitochondria, the intermembrane space (IMS), harbours a variety of proteins that contain disulfide bonds. Many of these proteins possess a conserved twin Cx3C motif or twin Cx9C motif. Recently, a disulfide relay system in the IMS has been identified which consists of two essential components, the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 and the redox-regulated import receptor Mia40/Tim40. The disulfide relay system drives the import of these cysteine-rich proteins into the IMS of mitochondria by an oxidative folding mechanism. In order to enable Mia40 to perform the oxidation of substrate proteins, the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 mediates the oxidation of Mia40 in a disulfide transfer reaction. To recycle Erv1 into its oxidized form, electrons are transferred to cytochrome c connecting the disulfide relay system to the electron transport chain of mitochondria. Despite the lack of homology of the components, the disulfide relay system in the IMS resembles the oxidation system in the periplasm of bacteria presumably reflecting the evolutionary origin of the IMS from the bacterial periplasm.
Keywords: Mitochondria; Protein oxidation; Disulfide bond; Protein import; Protein assembly; Oxidase;

The MIA system for protein import into the mitochondrial intermembrane space by Diana Stojanovski; Judith M. Müller; Dusanka Milenkovic; Bernard Guiard; Nikolaus Pfanner; Agnieszka Chacinska (610-617).
When thinking of the mitochondrial intermembrane space we envisage a small compartment that is bordered by the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes. Despite this somewhat simplified perception the intermembrane space has remained a central focus in mitochondrial biology. This compartment accommodates many proteinaceous factors that play critical roles in mitochondrial and cellular metabolism, including the regulation of programmed cell death and energy conversion. The mechanism by which intermembrane space proteins are transported into the organelle and folded remained largely unknown until recently. In pursuit of the answer to this question a novel machinery, the Mitochondrial Intermembrane Space Assembly machinery, exploiting a unique regulated thiol–disulfide exchange mechanism has been revealed. This exciting discovery has not only put in place novel concepts for the biogenesis of intermembrane space precursors but also raises important implications on the mechanisms involved in the generation and transfer of disulfide bonds.
Keywords: Mitochondria; Intermembrane space; Disulfide bonds; Protein import and assembly;

The cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain exists within the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM). The biogenesis of the complex is a multi-faceted process requiring multiple assembly factors that function on both faces of the IM. Formation of the two copper centers of CcO occurs within the intermembrane space (IMS) and is dependent on assembly factors with critical cysteinyl thiolates. Two classes of assembly factors exist, one group being soluble IMS proteins and the second class being proteins tethered to the IM. A common motif in the soluble assembly factors is a duplicated Cx9C sequence motif. Since mitochondrial respiration is a major source of reactive oxygen species, control of the redox state of mitochondrial proteins is an important process. This review documents the role of these cysteinyl CcO assembly factors within the IMS and the necessity of redox control in their function.
Keywords: Cytochrome oxidase; Copper; Mitochondria; Intermembrane space;

Redox characteristics of the eukaryotic cytosol by H. Reynaldo López-Mirabal; Jakob R. Winther (629-640).
The eukaryotic cytoplasm has long been regarded as a cellular compartment in which the reduced state of protein cysteines is largely favored. Under normal conditions, the cytosolic low-molecular weight redox buffer, comprising primarily of glutathione, is highly reducing and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathionylated proteins are maintained at very low levels. In the present review, recent progress in the understanding of the cytosolic thiol–disulfide redox metabolism and novel analytical approaches to studying cytosolic redox properties are discussed. We will focus on the yeast model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the combination of genetic and biochemical approaches has brought us furthest in understanding the mechanisms underlying cellular redox regulation. It has been shown in yeast that, in addition to the enzyme glutathione reductase, other mechanisms may exist for restricting the cytosolic glutathione redox potential to a relatively narrow interval. Several mutations in genes involved in cellular redox regulation cause ROS accumulation but only moderate decreases in the cytosolic glutathione reducing power. The redox regulation in the cytosol depends not only on multiple cytosolic factors but also on the redox homeostasis of other compartments like the secretory pathway and the mitochondria. Possibly, the cytosol is not just a reducing compartment surrounding organelles with high oxidative activity but also a milieu for regulation of the redox status of more than one compartment. Although much has been learned about redox homeostasis and oxidative stress response several important aspects of the redox regulation in the yeast cytosol are still unexplained.
Keywords: Redox potential; Glutathione; Disulfide; Reactive oxygen species;

Thioredoxins and glutaredoxins as facilitators of protein folding by Carsten Berndt; Christopher Horst Lillig; Arne Holmgren (641-650).
Thiol–disulfide oxidoreductase systems of bacterial cytoplasm and eukaryotic cytosol favor reducing conditions and protein thiol groups, while bacterial periplasm and eukaryotic endoplasmatic reticulum provide oxidizing conditions and a machinery for disulfide bond formation in the secretory pathway. Oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin fold superfamily catalyze steps in oxidative protein folding via protein–protein interactions and covalent catalysis to act as chaperones and isomerases of disulfides to generate a native fold. The active site dithiol/disulfide of thioredoxin fold proteins is CXXC where variations of the residues inside the disulfide ring are known to increase the redox potential like in protein disulfide isomerases. In the catalytic mechanism thioredoxin fold proteins bind to target proteins through conserved backbone–backbone hydrogen bonds and induce conformational changes of the target disulfide followed by nucleophilic attack by the N-terminally located low pK a Cys residue. This generates a mixed disulfide covalent bond which subsequently is resolved by attack from the C-terminally located Cys residue. This review will focus on two members of the thioredoxin superfamily of proteins known to be crucial for maintaining a reduced intracellular redox state, thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, and their potential functions as facilitators and regulators of protein folding and chaperone activity.
Keywords: Thioredoxin; Glutaredoxin; Thiol–disulfide; Protein disulfide; Redox potential;