BBA - Molecular Cell Research (v.1763, #2)

Rotations of a few cross-bridges in muscle by confocal total internal reflection microscopy by J. Borejdo; J. Talent; I. Akopova; T.P. Burghardt (137-140).
In order to measure the cycling of a few (∼6) myosin heads in contracting skeletal muscle, myofibrils were illuminated by Total Internal Reflection and observed through a confocal aperture. Myosin heads rotated at a rate approximately equal to the ATPase rate, suggesting that bulk ATPase of a whole muscle reflects the cycle frequency of individual heads.
Keywords: Cross-bridge; Rotational motion; Confocal microscopy; Total internal reflection microscopy;

Hsp78 chaperone functions in restoration of mitochondrial network following heat stress by Agnieszka Lewandowska; Magdalena Gierszewska; Jaroslaw Marszalek; Krzysztof Liberek (141-151).
Under physiological conditions mitochondria of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a branched tubular network, the continuity of which is maintained by balanced membrane fusion and fission processes. Here, we show using mitochondrial matrix targeted green fluorescent protein that exposure of cells to extreme heat shock led to dramatic changes in mitochondrial morphology, as tubular network disintegrated into several fragmented vesicles. Interestingly, this fragmentation did not affect mitochondrial ability to maintain the membrane potential. Cells subjected to recovery at physiological temperature were able to restore the mitochondrial network, as long as an active matrix chaperone, Hsp78, was present. Deletion of HSP78 gene did not affect fragmentation of mitochondria upon heat stress, but significantly inhibited ability to restore mitochondrial network. Changes of mitochondrial morphology correlated with aggregation of mitochondrial proteins. On the other hand, recovery of mitochondrial network correlated with disappearance of protein aggregates and reactivation of enzymatic activity of a model thermo-sensitive protein: mitochondrial DNA polymerase. Since protein disaggregation and refolding is mediated by Hsp78 chaperone collaborating with Hsp70 chaperone system, we postulate that effect of Hsp78 on mitochondrial morphology upon recovery after heat shock is mediated by its ability to restore activity of unknown protein(s) responsible for maintenance of mitochondrial morphology.
Keywords: Mitochondrial morphology; Hsp78 chaperone; Protein aggregation; Heat shock; Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae;

Short-term and long-term effects of fatty acids in rat hepatoma AS-30D cells: The way to apoptosis by Dorota Dymkowska; Joanna Szczepanowska; Mariusz R. Więckowski; Lech Wojtczak (152-163).
Arachidonic acid and, to a smaller extent, oleic acid at micromolar concentrations decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential within AS-30D rat hepatoma cells cultivated in vitro and increased cell respiration. The uncoupling effect of both fatty acids on cell respiration was partly prevented by cyclosporin A, blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Arachidonic acid increased the rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, while oleic acid decreased it. Both fatty acids induced apoptotic cell death of AS-30D cells, accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol, activation of caspase-3 and association of proapoptotic Bax protein with mitochondria; arachidonic acid being a more potent inducer than oleic acid. Trolox, a potent antioxidant, prevented ROS increase induced by arachidonic acid and protected the cells against apoptosis produced by this fatty acid. It is concluded that arachidonic and oleic acids induce apoptosis of AS-30D hepatoma cells by the mitochondrial pathway but differ in the mechanism of their action: Arachidonic acid induces apoptosis mainly by stimulating ROS production, whereas oleic acid may contribute to programmed cell death by activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.
Keywords: Fatty acid; Arachidonic acid; Oleic acid; Apoptosis; Hepatoma; Mitochondria; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); Respiration; Membrane potential;

Soluble Semicarbazide Sensitive Amine Oxidase (SSAO) catalysis induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells by Mar Hernandez; Montse Solé; Mercè Boada; Mercedes Unzeta (164-173).
Semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) metabolizes oxidative deamination of primary aromatic and aliphatic amines. It is selectively expressed in vascular cells of blood vessels, but it is also circulating in blood plasma. SSAO activity in plasma is increased in some diseases associated with vascular complications and its catalytic products may cause tissue damage. We examined the effect of the oxidation of the SSAO substrate, methylamine, on cultured smooth muscle cells. Cell incubation with methylamine plus soluble SSAO, contained in bovine serum, resulted toxic to rat aorta A7r5 and human aortic smooth muscle cells, as measured by MTT reduction. This effect was completely reverted by specific SSAO inhibitors, indicating that the toxicity was mediated by the end products generated. Moreover, SSAO-mediated deamination of methylamine induced apoptosis in A7r5 cells, detected by chromatin condensation, Caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage and cytochrome c release to cytosol. Formaldehyde, rather than H2O2, resulted to be a strong apoptotic inducer to A7r5 cells. Taken together, the results suggest that increased plasma SSAO activity in pathological conditions, could contribute to apoptosis in smooth muscle cells, leading to vascular tissue damage.
Keywords: Semicarbazide Sensitive Amine Oxidase; Methylamine; Formaldehyde; Hydrogen peroxide; Apoptosis; Aortic smooth muscle cell;

Phosphorylation of NF-κB1/p105 by oncoprotein kinase Tpl2: Implications for a novel mechanism of Tpl2 regulation by Geetha R. Babu; Wei Jin; Lourdes Norman; Michael Waterfield; Mikyoung Chang; Xuefeng Wu; Minying Zhang; Shao-Cong Sun (174-181).
The oncoprotein kinase Tpl2 plays an essential role in macrophage activation by the bacterial component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In response to LPS stimulation, Tpl2 phosphorylates a downstream kinase, MEK1, leading to the activation of ERK signaling pathway. Recent studies demonstrate that the NF-κB1 precursor protein p105 functions as an inhibitor of Tpl2 and that the LPS-stimulated Tpl2 activation requires p105 degradation. However, how p105 inhibits the signaling function of Tpl2 is not completely understood. We show here that p105 does not inhibit the intrinsic kinase activity of Tpl2. When complexed with p105, Tpl2 remains catalytically active and uses p105 as a substrate. However, the p105-bound Tpl2 is unable to phosphorylate its physiological target, MEK1. These findings suggest that p105 functions as a competitive inhibitor of Tpl2 that blocks its access by MEK1.
Keywords: Tpl2; Cot; NF-κB1; p105; IKK; MAPK;

A combined treatment TNF-α/Doxorubicin alleviates the resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells to cytotoxic treatment by Wei Cao; Sheng Lin Ma; Juanjuan Tang; Jingquan Shi; Yanjun Lu (182-187).
The efficiency of anticancer therapy is often restricted by the development of drug resistance. Here, we report that the doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant MCF-7/Adr cells were more resistant to DOX-treatment than MCF-7 cells. However, an alternative treatment of DOX/TNF-α enhanced the cytotoxic effect in multidrug resistant MCF-7/Adr cell line. Treatment of cells with TNF-α following doxorubicin (DOX) resulted in a decrease of the activated Rel A/p65 in nuclei. Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) was found to interact with Rel A/p65 in the complex, suggesting that HDAC1 is involved in mediating nuclear export of Rel A/p65. The combined treatment of TNF-α/DOX also resulted in a significant decrease of mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic genes, such as the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1), and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma x gene (Bcl-xL), leading to efficient induction of caspase-8 cleavage and cell death. In previous work, we demonstrated that TNF-α promotes DOX-induced cell death and anti-cancer effect through downregulation of p21 in p53-deficient tumor cells. Thus, we proposed that alternative administration of TNF-α and DOX may be a new and efficient therapeutic strategy for patients that develop resistance to cytotoxic treatment.
Keywords: Anti-apoptotic gene; Caspase-8; Histone deacetylase 1; Rel A/p65; Tumor necrosis factor-α;

Monochloramine inhibits ultraviolet B-induced p53 activation and DNA repair response in human fibroblasts by Kazuhisa Hiramatsu; Tetsuya Ogino; Michitaka Ozaki; Shigeru Okada (188-196).
Monochloramine (NH2Cl) is one of the inflammation-derived oxidants, and has various effects on cell cycle, apoptosis and signal transduction. We studied the effects of NH2Cl on DNA repair response induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in normal human diploid fibroblasts, TIG-1. TIG-1 irradiated with 20 mJ/cm2 UVB showed marked increase in thymine dimer, which decreased by about 50% after 24 h. This decrease in thymine dimer was significantly attenuated (P  < 0.05) by the pretreatment of NH2Cl (200 μM), which indicated DNA repair inhibition. UVB induced p53 phosphorylation at Ser15, Ser20 and Ser37, and p53 accumulation, and NH2Cl also inhibited these changes. Consequently, UVB-induced increase in the downstream effectors of p53, namely p21Cip1 and Gadd45a, were almost completely inhibited by NH2Cl. Immunoprecipitation study indicated that the association of p53 and MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for p53, did not change substantially by NH2Cl and/or UVB. The phosphorylation of p53 (Ser15 and Ser37) by UVB is catalyzed by ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related kinase), which works as DNA damage sensor, and ATR also phosphorylates checkpoint kinase 1(Chk1) at Ser345. NH2Cl also inhibited the phosphorylation of Chk1 (Ser345). As UVB-induced DNA damage is repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) in human cells, these findings indicated that NH2Cl inhibited NER through the inhibition of p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and NH2Cl probably impaired DNA damage recognition and/or ATR activation. NH2Cl may facilitate carcinogenesis through the inhibition of NER that repairs DNA damages from various carcinogens.
Keywords: Monochloramine; p53; Nucleotide excision repair; Ultraviolet B; Inflammation; Carcinogenesis;

Altered subcellular distribution of IRS-1 and IRS-3 is associated with defective Akt activation and GLUT4 translocation in insulin-resistant old rat adipocytes by Margarita Villar; Rosario Serrano; Nilda Gallardo; José M. Carrascosa; Carmen Martinez; Antonio Andrés (197-206).
Insulin receptor signal transduction depends on the precise intracellular localization of signalling molecules. This study examines the compartmentalization and the insulin-induced translocation and tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 and IRS-3) in epididymal white adipose tissue from adult and insulin-resistant old rats. We found that insulin induces the translocation of IRS-1 from plasma membrane (PM) and light microsomes (LM) to cytosol, whereas IRS-3 translocates from PM to LM and cytosol upon insulin stimulation. Old rat adipocytes are characterized by higher relative levels of IRS proteins, under basal conditions, in those fractions where they are intended to translocate in response to insulin and exhibit a higher phosphotyrosine content of IRS-1 and -3 in basal conditions and a lower maximal phosphorylation in response to insulin. Furthermore, old rat adipocytes are also characterized by a reduced ability of insulin to stimulate both, Akt/PKB activity and translocation of GLUT4 to the PM. We conclude that the lower stimulation of downstream insulin signalling involved in glucose metabolism in old rat adipocytes may be explained, at least in part, by the altered subcellular distribution of IRS-1 and -3 proteins. In addition, our data suggest that the mechanism of turning on/off insulin receptor-mediated signal is impaired with aging.
Keywords: Insulin receptor substrate; Akt/PKB; GLUT4; Adipocyte; Insulin resistance; Aging;

Cellular localization and phosphorylation of Hrb1p is independent of Sky1p by Ziv Porat; Omri Erez; Chaim Kahana (207-213).
Protein phosphorylation plays a major role in regulating cellular functions. We have previously demonstrated that Sky1p, the SR protein kinase of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a regulator of polyamine transport and ion homeostasis. Since its kinase activity was demonstrated essential for fulfilling these roles, we assumed that Sky1p function via substrates phosphorylation. Using an in vitro phosphorylation assay, we have identified Hrb1p as a putative Sky1p substrate. However, phosphorylation analysis in WT and sky1Δ cells and localization studies disproved Hrb1p as a true Sky1p substrate, although a segment of the RS domain is required for determining its subcellular localization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Hrb1p and additional putative Sky1p substrates, identified by computational approach, are not involved in mediating the spermine tolerant phenotype of sky1Δ cells.
Keywords: Polyamines; SKY1; HRB1; SR proteins;

GSH depletion, protein S-glutathionylation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential hyperpolarization are early events in initiation of cell death induced by a mixture of isothiazolinones in HL60 cells by Anna Di Stefano; Simona Frosali; Alessandra Leonini; Anna Ettorre; Raffaella Priora; Francesca Cherubini Di Simplicio; Paolo Di Simplicio (214-225).
We recently described that brief exposure of HL60 cells to a mixture of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMI) and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MI) induces apoptosis at low concentrations (0.001–0.01%) and necrosis at higher concentrations (0.05–0.1%). In this study, we show that glutathione (GSH) depletion, reactive oxygen species generation, hyperpolarization of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and formation of protein–GSH mixed disulphides (S-glutathionylation) are early molecular events that precede the induction of cell death by CMI/MI. When the cells exhibit common signs of apoptosis, they show activation of caspase-9, reduction of ΔΨm and, more importantly, decreased protein S-glutathionylation. In contrast, necrosis is associated with severe mitochondrial damage and maximal protein S-glutathionylation. CMI/MI-induced cytotoxicity is also accompanied by decreased activity of GSH-related enzymes. Pre-incubation with l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) clearly switches the mode of cell death from apoptosis to necrosis at 0.01% CMI/MI. Collectively, these results demonstrate that CMI/MI alters the redox status of HL60 cells, and the extent and kinetics of GSH depletion and S-glutathionylation appear to determine whether cells undergo apoptosis or necrosis. We hypothesize that S-glutathionylation of certain thiol groups accompanied by GSH depletion plays a critical role in the molecular mechanism of CMI/MI cytotoxicity.
Keywords: Apoptosis; Mitochondrial transmembrane potential; Caspases; Reactive oxygen species; S-glutathionylation; Glutathione;

Dynamic relocation of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase isoforms during radiation-induced DNA damage by Jean-François Haince; Marie-Eve Ouellet; Darin McDonald; Michael J. Hendzel; Guy G. Poirier (226-237).
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a very early cellular response to DNA damage. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) accumulation is transient since PAR is rapidly hydrolyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). PARG may play a prominent role in DNA damage response and repair by removing PAR from modified proteins including PARP-1. Using living cells, we provide evidence that in response to DNA damage induced by γ-irradiation the cytoplasmic 103 kDa PARG isoform translocates into the nucleus. We further observed that the nuclear GFP-hPARG110 enzyme relocalizes to the cytoplasm in response to DNA damage. Using different GFP-PARG fusion proteins specific for the nuclear and cytoplasmic forms, we demonstrate their dynamic distribution between cytoplasm and nucleoplasm and a high mobility of major PARG isoforms by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The dynamic relocation of all PARG isoforms presented in this report reveals a novel biological mechanism by which PARG could be involved in DNA damage response.
Keywords: Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase; Poly(ADP-ribose); FRAP; Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling; Subcellular localization; DNA damage;

Effect of erythropoietin on staurosporine-induced apoptosis and differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by Nicolás Pregi; Daniela Vittori; Gladys Pérez; Claudia Pérez Leirós; Alcira Nesse (238-246).
Since apoptosis appeared to be related to neurodegenerative processes, neuroprotection has been involved in investigation of therapeutic approaches focused upon pharmacological agents to prevent neuronal programmed cell death. In this regard, erythropoietin (Epo) seems to play a critical role. The present work was focused on the study of the Epo protective effect upon human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells subjected to differentiation by staurosporine. Under this condition, profuse neurite outgrowth was accompanied by programmed cell death (35% of apoptotic cells by Hoechst assay, showing characteristic DNA ladder pattern). A previous treatment with recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) increased the expression of the specific receptor for Epo while prevented apoptosis. Simultaneously, morphological changes in neurite elongation and interconnection induced by staurosporine were blocked by Epo. These Epo effects proved to be associated to the induction of Bcl-xL at the mRNA and protein levels (RT-PCR and Western blot after immunoprecipitation) and were mediated by activation of pathways inhibited by wortmannin. In conclusion, the fact that both events induced by staurosporine, cell apoptosis and differentiation, were prevented in SH-SY5Y cells previously exposed to rHuEpo suggests interrelated signaling pathways triggered by the Epo/EpoR interaction.
Keywords: Apoptosis; Erythropoietin; SH-SY5Y cell; Neuroprotection; Staurosporine; Bcl-X;

Previously, we found that 5–25 μg/ml safrole oxide could inhibit apoptosis and dramatically make a morphological change in human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). But the possible mechanism by which safrole oxide function is unknown. To answer this question, in this study, we first investigated the effects of it on the activity of nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), the expressions of Fas and integrin β4, which play important roles in HUVEC growth and apoptosis, respectively. The results showed that, at the low concentration (10 μg/ml), safrole oxide had no effects on NOS activity and the expressions of Fas and integrin β4. Then, we investigated whether HUVECs underwent differentiation. We examined the expressions of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and neurofilament-L (NF-L). Furthermore, we analyzed the changes of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). After 10 h of treatment with 10 μg/ml safrole oxide, some HUVECs became neuron-like cells in morphology, and intensively displayed positive NSE and NF-L. Simultaneously, ROS levels dramatically decreased during HUVECs differentiation towards neuron-like cells. At the low concentration, safrole oxide induced HUVECs differentiation into neuron-like cells. Furthermore, our data suggested that safrole oxide might perform this function by depressing intracellular ROS levels instead of by affecting cell growth or apoptosis signal pathways.
Keywords: Safrole oxide; HUVEC; Differentiation; Neuron;

Cellular functions of cholesterol probed with optical biosensors by Ye Fang; Ann M. Ferrie; Guangshan Li (254-261).
Cholesterol is an essential constituent of cell membranes and the regulation of cholesterol concentration is critical for cell functions including signaling. In this paper, we applied resonant waveguide grating (RWG) biosensor to study the cellular functions of cholesterol through real time monitoring the dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) mediated by cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD). In A431 cells, depletion of cholesterol by mβCD led to a DMR signature that was similar, but not identical to that induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF). To elucidate the cellular mechanisms of the DMR signal mediated by cholesterol depletion, a panel of modulators that specifically modulate the activities of various cellular targets were used to pretreat the cells. Results showed that the DMR signals triggered by cholesterol depletion are primarily linked to the transactivation of EGF receptor. Multiple signaling pathways including Ras/mitogenic activated protein (MAP) kinase, protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) acted synergically in the cell response, whereas the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) pathway was found to antagonize the cell response.
Keywords: Optical biosensor; Resonant waveguide grating biosensor; Cholesterol; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Transactivation;