BBA - Molecular Cell Research (v.1743, #3)

Leukemia inhibitory factor blocks early differentiation of skeletal muscle cells by activating ERK by Chulman Jo; Hyuck Kim; Inho Jo; Insun Choi; Sung-Chul Jung; Joon Kim; Sung Soo Kim; Sangmee Ahn Jo (187-197).
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the interleukin-6 family and has been shown to stimulate regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. Although LIF has been shown to stimulate muscle cell proliferation, its precise role in differentiation is unclear. Thus, we examined the effect of LIF on the differentiation of cultured C2C12 myoblast cells. In this study, we used both non-glycosylated LIF expressed in bacteria and glycosylated LIF secreted from NIH3T3 cells infected with Ad-LIF. Both non-glycosylated and glycosylated LIF blocked differentiation of myoblasts as measured by expression of myosin heavy chain and myotube formation. Treatment of myoblasts with LIF induced phosphorylation of ERK, and the LIF-induced inhibitory effect on myogenesis was blocked by pretreatment with U0126, a specific MEK inhibitor, and transient transfection with dominant negative (DN)-MEK1. In contrast, although LIF activated STAT3, the LIF-induced repression of the MCK transcriptional activity was not reversed by pretreatment with AG490, a specific Jak kinase inhibitor or transient transfection with DN-STAT3. Additionally, LIF exhibited its inhibitory effect on myogenesis only when cells were treated at earlier than 12 h after inducing differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that LIF strongly inhibited early myogenic differentiation though activation of the ERK signaling pathway and its effect is irrespective of glycosylation.
Keywords: LIF; Muscle; Differentiation; Adenovirus; ERK; Regeneration;

The molecular mechanism of protecting cells against oxidative stress by 2-selenium-bridged β-cyclodextrin with glutathione peroxidase activity by Ye Sun; Ying Mu; Shumei Ma; Pingsheng Gong; Ganglin Yan; Jiuqiu Liu; Jiacong Shen; Guimin Luo (199-204).
Ultraviolet B (UVB) induces apoptosis and lipid peroxidation of NIH3T3 cells by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) is one of the most important antioxidant enzymes in organism and it can scavenge ROS. 2-selenium-bridged β-cyclodextrin (2-SeCD) is a GPX mimic generated in our lab. Its GPX activity is 7.4 U/μmol, which is 7.5 times as much as that of ebselen. In this paper, we have established a cell damage system using UVB radiation. Using this system, we have determined antioxidant effect of 2-SeCD by comparison of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents in NIH3T3 cells before and after UVB radiation. Experimental results indicate that 2-SeCD can inhibit lipid peroxidation and protect the cells from the damage generated by UVB radiation. To evaluate the molecular mechanism of this protection, we determined the effect of 2-SeCD on the expression of p53 and Bcl-2 in NIH3T3 cells. The results showed that 2-SeCD inhibits the increase of p53 expression level and the decrease of expression of Bcl-2 induced by UVB radiation. Thus, we have concluded that protection of NIH3T3 cells against oxidative stress by 2-SeCD was carried out by regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 and p53.
Keywords: 2-SeCD; Glutathione peroxidase; 2-selenium-bridged β-cyclodextrin; Enzyme mimic; Antioxidant mechanism; p53, Bcl-2; UVB;

S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) modulates interleukin-10 and interleukin-6, but not TNF, production via the adenosine (A2) receptor by Zhenyuan Song; Silvia Uriarte; Rashmita Sahoo; Theresa Chen; Shirish Barve; Daniell Hill; Craig McClain (205-213).
S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is the first product in methionine metabolism and serves as a precursor for glutathione (GSH) as well as a methyl donor in most transmethylation reactions. The administration of exogenous SAMe has beneficial effects in many types of liver diseases. One mechanism for the hepatoprotective action is its ability to regulate the immune system by modulating cytokine production from LPS stimulated monocytes. In the present study, we investigated possible mechanism(s) by which exogenous SAMe supplementation modulated production of TNF, IL-10 and IL-6 in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, a murine monocyte cell line. Our results demonstrated that exogenous SAMe supplementation inhibited TNF production but enhanced both IL-10 and IL-6 production. SAMe increased intracellular GSH level, however, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the GSH pro-drug, decreased the production of all three cytokines. Importantly, SAMe increased intracellular adenosine levels, and exogenous adenosine supplementation had effects similar to SAMe on TNF, IL-10 and IL-6 production. 3-Deaza-adenosine (DZA), a specific inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase, blocked the elevation of IL-10 and IL-6 production induced by SAMe, which was rescued by the addition of exogenous adenosine. Furthermore, the enhancement of LPS-stimulated IL-10 and IL-6 production by both SAMe and adenosine was inhibited by ZM241385, a specific antagonist of the adenosine (A2) receptor. Our results suggest that increased adenosine levels with subsequent binding to the A2 receptor account, at least in part, for SAMe modulation of IL-10 and IL-6, but not TNF production, from LPS stimulated monocytes.
Keywords: S-adenosylmethionine; Adenosine; Cytokine; Inflammation; Liver injury;

Regulation of cadmium-induced apoptosis by PKCδ in U937 human promonocytic cells by Begoña G. Miguel; M. Elena Rodriguez; Patricio Aller; Ana M. Martinez; Felicísima Mata (215-222).
Pulse treatment with cadmium chloride followed by recovery caused apoptosis in U937 human promonocytic cells. In addition, the treatment-induced PKCδ translocation from cytosol to membrane fraction, which was already detected at 30 min of treatment; and also caused PKCδ cleavage to give a 41-kDa fragment, which was detected at 3–6 h of recovery, concomitantly with the execution of apoptosis. All these effects were reduced by the PKCδ-specific inhibitor rottlerin. By contrast, rottlerin did not prevent the cadmium-provoked stimulation of the stress response (as measured by HSP70 expression), nor inhibited the generation of apoptosis by heat-shock, which failed to cause PKCδ translocation. Cadmium chloride rapidly induced p38MAPK activation, which was not affected by rottlerin. By contrast, the p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 reduced PKCδ translocation and cleavage, indicating that p38MAPK activation precedes and regulates PKCδ activation. It is concluded that PKCδ mediates apoptosis induction by cadmium ions via early membrane translocation, and also possibly through late kinase proteolytic cleavage and phosphorylation on tyrosine residues.
Keywords: Cadmium; Apoptosis; PKCδ translocation; PKCδ cleavage; p38MAPK activation; U937 cell;

Previously, we have found that caspase-1 activity is increased during myoblast differentiation to myotubes. Here we show that caspase-1 activity is required for PC12 differentiation to neuronal-like cells. Caspase-1 is shown to be activated (by immunoblotting and by assessing activity in cell extracts) in the PC12 cells following the initial stage of differentiation. The inhibition of caspase-1 arrests PC12 cells at an intermediate stage of differentiation and prevents neurite outgrowth in these cells; the inhibition is reversed upon the removal of the inhibitor. Calpastatin (calpain endogenous specific inhibitor, and a known caspase substrate) is diminished at the later stages of PC12 cell differentiation, and diminution is prevented by caspase-1 inhibition. The degradation of fodrin (a known caspase and calpain substrate) is found in the advanced stage of differentiation. Caspase-1 has been implicated in the activation of proinflammatory cytokines, and in cell apoptosis. The involvement of caspase-1 in two distinct differentiation processes (myoblast fusion and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells) indicates a function for this caspase in differentiation processes, and suggests some common mechanisms underlying caspase roles in such processes.
Keywords: PC12; Neuronal cell differentiation; Caspase; Calpain; Calpastatin;

Proteolytic processing of TGFα redirects its mitogenic activity: the membrane-anchored form is autocrine, the secreted form is paracrine by Meejeon Roh; Andrew J. Paterson; Kan Liu; Joanne McAndrew; Edward Chin; Jeffrey E. Kudlow (231-242).
Wild-type transforming growth factor α (TGFα) expression in lactotrope cells in the pituitary gland led to lactotrope-specific pituitary hyperplasia and adenomata. To indicate whether the EGF receptor is involved in this TGFα-mediated phenotype, we bred TGFα mice with mice expressing the cytoplasmic truncated-EGF receptor (EGFR-tr), which is dominant-negative in other models. These bitransgenic mice developed pituitary pathology despite expression of the dominant-negative receptor. To further characterize this observation, we generated two lineages of transgenic mice that overexpress mutant forms of TGFα: a processed soluble form (s TGFα) and a cytoplasmic-deleted form (TGFαΔC). While sTGFα expression in lactotrope cells failed to induce autocrine lactotrope hyperplasia, the pituitary became very enlarged due to proliferation of neighboring interstitial cells. In contrast, the TGFαΔC mice did not develop a phenotype, although the mRNA and protein were present in the pituitary and this form of TGFα was confirmed to be biologically active and targeted properly to the plasma membrane of cultured CHO cells. The results suggest that the cytoplasmic domain of TGFα is required for autocrine parenchymal tumor formation in the pituitary gland. This signal cannot be inhibited by the EGFR-tr. Conversely, the released form of TGFα appears to have primarily paracrine activity.
Keywords: Pituitary; Adenoma; Hyperplasia; Fibrosis;

Inhibition of endothelial cell movement and tubulogenesis by human recombinant soluble melanotransferrin: involvement of the u-PAR/LRP plasminolytic system by Jonathan Michaud-Levesque; Yannève Rolland; Michel Demeule; Yanick Bertrand; Richard Béliveau (243-253).
We have previously demonstrated that human recombinant soluble melanotransferrin (hr-sMTf) interacts with the single-chain zymogen pro urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) and plasminogen. In the present work, the impact of exogenous hr-sMTf on endothelial cells (EC) migration and morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like structures (tubulogenesis) was assessed. hr-sMTF at 10 nM inhibited by 50% the migration and tubulogenesis of human microvessel EC (HMEC-1). In addition, in hr-sMTf-treated HMEC-1, the expression of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) are down-regulated. However, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 25% increase in cell surface u-PAR in hr-sMTf-treated HMEC-1, whereas the binding of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA)•plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) complex is decreased. This reduced u-PA-PAI-1 binding is correlated with a strong inhibition of the HMEC-1 plasminolytic activity, indicating that exogenous hr-sMTf treatment alters the internalization and recycling processes of free and active u-PAR at the cellular surface. Overall, these results demonstrate that exogenous hr-sMTf affects plasminogen activation at the cell surface, thus leading to the inhibition of EC movement and tubulogenesis. These results are the first to consider the potential use of hr-sMTf as a possible therapeutic agent in angiogenesis-related pathologies.
Keywords: Melanotransferrin; Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor; Plasminogen; Cell movement; Tubulogenesis;

Acrolein is a highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, which is a product of lipid peroxidation. It is an environmental pollutant that has been implicated in multiple respiratory diseases. Acrolein is produced by the enzymatic oxidative deamination of spermine by amine oxidase. Oxidation products of polyamines have been involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis. The present study investigates the mechanism of cell death induced by acrolein. Acrolein induced apoptosis through a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, the liberation of cytochrome c, the activation of initiator caspase-9, and the activation of the effector caspase-7. However, acrolein inhibited enzymatic activity of the effector caspase-3, although a cleavage of pro-caspase-3 occurred. The activation of caspases-9 and -7 was confirmed by the cleavage of their pro-enzyme form by acrolein. Apoptosis was inhibited by an inhibitor of caspase-9, but not by an inhibitor of caspase-3. The induction of apoptosis by acrolein was confirmed morphologically by the condensation of nuclear chromatin and by the cleavage of the inhibitor of caspase activated DNase (ICAD), which leads to the liberation of CAD that causes DNA fragmentation. These results demonstrate that acrolein causes apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway.
Keywords: Acrolein; Apoptosis; Caspase; Mitochondria; Cell; Cytotoxicity;

Pharmacological inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases attenuate the apoptotic action of cisplatin in human myeloid leukemia cells via glutathione-independent reduction in intracellular drug accumulation by Donna Amrán; Patricia Sancho; Carlos Fernández; Diego Esteban; Adrián M. Ramos; Elena de Blas; Milagros Gómez; María A. Palacios; Patricio Aller (269-279).
It has been reported that inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) attenuates the toxicity cisplatin (cis-platinum (II)-diammine dichloride) in some cell types. This response was here investigated using human myeloid leukemia cells. Cisplatin stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and caused apoptosis in U-937 promonocytic cells, an effect which was attenuated by the MEK/ERK inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. While ERK1/2 activation was a general phenomenon, irrespective of the used cell type or antitumour drug, the MEK/ERK inhibitors only reduced cisplatin toxicity in human myeloid cells (THP-1, HL-60 and NB-4), but not in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages and NRK-52E rat renal tubular cells; and failed to reduce the toxicity etoposide, camptothecin, melphalan and arsenic trioxide, in U-937 cells. U0126 attenuated cisplatin–DNA binding and intracellular peroxide accumulation, which are important regulators of cisplatin toxicity. Although cisplatin decreased the intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, which was restored by U0126, treatments with GSH-ethyl ester and dl-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine revealed that GSH does not regulate cisplatin toxicity in the present experimental conditions. In spite of it, PD98059 and U0126 reduced the intracellular accumulation of cisplatin. These results suggest that GSH-independent modulation of drug transport is a major mechanism explaining the anti-apoptotic action of MEK/ERK inhibitors in cisplatin-treated myeloid cells.
Keywords: Cisplatin; Apoptosis; ERK inhibitor; Drug accumulation; Glutathione; Myeloid cell;

Dictyostelium CBP3 associates with actin cytoskeleton and is related to slug migration by Chang-Hun Lee; Sun-Young Jeong; Beom-Jun Kim; Chang-Hoon Choi; Ji-Sun Kim; Byung-Mo Koo; Young-Jae Seok; Hyung-Soon Yim; Sa-Ouk Kang (281-290).
Calcium-binding protein 3 (CBP3) expression was up-regulated under the control of the actin 15 promoter and down-regulated by RNA interference in Dictyostelium discoideum. The overexpression of CBP3 accelerated cell aggregation and formed small aggregates and fruiting body. CBP3-inhibited cells showed uneven aggregation and increased slug trail lengths toward the directed light, whereas CBP3-overexpressing cells showed the opposite phenomena. Under dark condition, the enhanced slug trail length was also observed in the CBP3-inhibited cells. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified actin 8 as interacting protein with CBP3. The interaction between CBP3 and actin was confirmed by β-galactosidase assay and surface plasmon resonance. CBP3 was associated with Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeleton in the presence of Ca2+ and the interaction of CBP3 with cytoskeleton was increased by the addition of Ca2+. Using fluorescence microscopy, CBP3 was also shown to associate with the actin cytoskeleton during development. Subcellular fractionation indicated that CBP3 was enriched in cytosolic fraction. Taken together, these results suggest that CBP3 interacts with actin cytoskeleton and has a role during cell aggregation and slug migration of Dictyostelium.
Keywords: Calcium-binding protein 3; Actin cytoskeleton; Slug migration; Dictyostelium discoideum;

The presence of prostaglandins (PGs) has been demonstrated in the processes of carcinogenesis and inflammation. In the present study, we found that 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induced cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), but not COX-1, protein expression in HL-60 cells, and the addition of arachidonic acid (AA) in the presence or absence of TPA significantly reduced the viability of HL-60 cells, an effect that was blocked by adding the COX inhibitors, NS398 and aspirin. The AA metabolites, PGD2 and PGJ2, but not PGE2 or PGF, reduced the viability of the human HL60 and Jurkat leukemia cells according to the MTT assay and LDH release assay. Apoptotic characteristics including DNA fragmentation, apoptotic bodies, and hypodiploid cells were observed in PGD2- and PGJ2-treated leukemia cells. A dose- and time-dependent induction of caspase 3 protein procession, and PARP and D4-GDI protein cleavage with activation of caspase 3, but not caspase 1, enzyme activity was detected in HL-60 cells treated with PGD2 or PGJ2. Additionally, DNA ladders induced by PGD2 and PGJ2 were significantly inhibited by the caspase 3 peptidyl inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-FMK, but not by the caspase 1 peptidyl inhibitor, Ac-YVAD-FMK, in accordance with the blocking of caspase 3, PARP, and D4-GDI protein procession. An increase in intracellular peroxide levels by PGD2 and PGJ2 was identified by the DCHF-DA assay, and anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), mannitol (MAN), and tiron significantly inhibited cell death induced by PGD2 and PGJ2 by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The PGJ2 metabolites, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 and Δ12-PGJ2, exhibited effective apoptosis-inducing activity in HL-60 cells through ROS production via activation of the caspase 3 cascade. The proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists, rosiglitazone (RO), troglitazone (TR), and ciglitazone (CI), induced apoptosis in cells which was blocked by the addition of the PPAR-γ antagonists, GW9662 and BADGE, via blocking of caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. However, neither GW9662 nor BADGE showed any protective effect on PGD2- and PGJ2-induced apoptosis. A differential apoptotic effect of PGs through ROS production, followed by activation of the caspase 3 cascade, was demonstrated.
Keywords: Apoptosis; Caspase 3; ROS; Prostaglandin; Cyclooxygenase; PPAR-γ;

Increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) has been shown to affect the activity and translocation of certain protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. It has been suggested that this effect is due to increases in the β-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification. Herein, we demonstrate the effect of increasing the O-GlcNAc modification on the translocation of select PKC isozymes in a human astroglial cell line. Treating cells with either 8 mM d-glucosamine (GlcN), 5 mM streptozotocin (STZ), or 80 μM O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) produced a significant increase in the O-GlcNAc modification on both cytosolic and membrane proteins; however, both the level and rate of O-GlcNAc increase varied with the compound. GlcN treatment resulted in a rapid, transient translocation of PKC-βII that was maximal after 3 h (73±8%) and also produced a 48±15% decrease in membrane-associated PKC-ε after 9 h of treatment. Similar to GlcN treatment, STZ and PUGNAc treatment also resulted in decreased levels of PKC-ε in the membrane fraction. Significant decreases were seen as early as 5 h and, by 9 h of treatment, had decreased by 87±6% with STZ and 73±7% with PUGNAc. Unlike GlcN, both STZ and PUGNAc produced a decrease in PKC-α membrane levels by 9 h posttreatment (78±10% with STZ and 66±8% with PUGNAc) while neither compound produced any changes in PKC-βII translocation. In addition, none of the three compounds affected membrane levels of PKC-ι. Altogether, these results demonstrate a novel link between increased levels of the O-GlcNAc modification and the regulation of specific PKC isoforms.
Keywords: Protein kinase C (PKC); β-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc); PUGNAc; Streptozotocin (STZ); Glucosamine; Glial cell;

Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 participates in the vesicular transport of milk proteins by Christine Péchoux; Raphaël Boisgard; Eric Chanat; Françoise Lavialle (317-329).
Changes in the lipid composition of intracellular membranes are believed to take part in the molecular processes that sustain traffic between organelles of the endocytic and exocytic transport pathways. Here, we investigated the participation of the calcium-independent phospholipase A2 in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Treatment with bromoenol lactone, a suicide substrate which interferes with the production of lysophospholipids by the calcium-independent phospholipase A2, resulted in the reduction of milk proteins secretion. The inhibitor slowed down transport of the caseins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus and affected the distribution of p58 and p23, indicating that the optimal process of transport of these proteins between the endoplasmic reticulum, the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi intermediate compartment and/or the cis-side of the Golgi was dependent upon the production of lysolipids. Moreover, bromoenol lactone was found to delay the rate of protein transport from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Concomitantly, membrane-bound structures containing casein accumulated in the juxtanuclear Golgi region. We concluded from these results that efficient formation of post-Golgi carriers also requires the phospholipase activity. These data further support the participation of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 in membrane trafficking and shed a new light on the tubulo/vesicular transport of milk protein through the secretory pathway.
Keywords: Epithelial cell; Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2; Milk protein; Secretion; Membrane dynamics;