BBA - Molecular Cell Research (v.1589, #3)

Effect of shear stress on migration and integrin expression in macaque trophoblast cells by Arlen Soghomonians; Abdul I. Barakat; Twanda L. Thirkill; Thomas N. Blankenship; Gordon C. Douglas (233-246).
During fetal development, trophoblast cells enter endometrial capillaries, migrate within the uterine vasculature, and eventually reside within spiral arteries of the uterus. This invasive activity is accompanied by upregulation of trophoblast β1 integrin expression. Fluid mechanical shear stress regulates migration and expression of adhesion molecules in vascular endothelial cells, but nothing is known about the effects of shear stress on trophoblast cells. We tested the hypothesis that shear stress regulates the motility and β1 integrin expression of trophoblast cells. Early gestation macaque trophoblast cells were cultured in 1×1-mm square cross-section capillary tubes within which the flow field was determined using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations. Trophoblast cells in the capillary tubes were exposed to a steady shear stress of 7.5, 15, or 30 dyn/cm2 for up to 24 h. In the absence of flow, trophoblast cells were highly dynamic with constant nondirectional positional shifts but with no net cell migration. Exposure of the cells to shear stress within 24–72 h of cell plating significantly increased the level of this activity and led to net cell migration in the direction of flow. Shear stress also increased the expression and altered the topography of β1 integrin. These results suggest that shear stress regulates trophoblast motility and β1 integrin expression in vitro.
Keywords: Motility; Placenta; Invasion; Pregnancy; Flow; Shear stress;

To investigate how cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure develop, we isolated and characterized a candidate initiator, the soluble 12-kDa protein myotrophin, from rat and human hearts. Myotrophin stimulates protein synthesis and myocardial cell growth associated with increased levels of hypertrophy marker genes. Recombinant myotrophin from the cloned gene showed structural/functional motifs, including ankyrin repeats and putative phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C (PKC) and casein kinase II. One repeat, homologous with I κB, interacts with rel/NF-κB in vitro. We analyzed the interaction of recombinant myotrophin and nuclear extracts prepared from neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes; gel mobility shift assay showed that myotrophin bound to κB DNA. To define PKC's role in myotrophin-induced myocyte growth, we incubated neonatal rat myocytes (normal and stretch) with specific inhibitors and found that myotrophin inhibits [3H]leucine incorporation into myocytes and different hypertrophic gene expression in neonatal myocytes. Using confocal microscopy, we observed that a basal level of myotrophin was present in both cytoplasm and nucleus under normal conditions, but under cyclic stretch, myotrophin levels became elevated in the nucleus. Myotrophin gene levels were upregulated when myocytes underwent cyclic stretch or were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β and also when excised beating hearts were exposed to high pressure. Our data showed that the myotrophin–κB interaction was increased with age in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) only. Our data provide evidence that myotrophin–κB DNA interaction may be an important step in initiating cardiac hypertrophy.
Keywords: Myotrophin; κB DNA; Cyclic stretch; PKC;

Production and release of apolipoprotein (apo) E and cholesterol were highly upregulated in the astrocytes prepared by 1-week secondary culture after 1-month primary culture of rat fetal brain cells (M/W cells) in comparison to the cells prepared by a conventional method of 1-week primary and 1-week secondary culture (W/W cells). Both cell preparations were mostly composed of astrocytes with small population of other glial cells, except that type-2 astrocyte-like cells accounted for 5–15% of M/W cells indicating more activated and/or matured status. The conditioned medium of the 1-month primary culture stimulated W/W cells to increase the release of apoE and cholesterol into the medium. The treatment of W/W cells by acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) similarly upregulated biosyntheses and release of apoE and cholesterol. The effect of the conditioned medium was completely inhibited by pretreatment with an anti-aFGF antibody. The increase of the aFGF message was demonstrated in the brain cells after 1-month primary culture. The findings suggested that an aFGF-like trophic factor upregulates biosynthesis and secretion of apoE-high density lipoprotein (HDL) in astrocytes probably by autocrine stimulation in this culture system. Since this cytokine is highly expressed in the development or post-injury period of the brain, it putatively activates intercellular cholesterol transport to support construction or recovery of the brain.
Keywords: HDL; ApoE; aFGF; Astrocyte; Cholesterol; Brain;

The peroxisomal localization of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (hereafter referred to as thiolase) was characterized in five Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant cell lines each harboring a dysfunction in the PEX2 protein. PT54 (Pex2pN100) cells carry a nonsense mutation that results in the PEX2 protein truncated at amino acid position 100. SK24 (Pex2pC258Y) cells carry a missense mutation resulting in the amino acid substitution of a cysteine residue by a tyrosine residue at amino acid position 258 of the PEX2 protein. The WSK24 (Pex2pC258Y/+wild) cell line is a stable transformant of SK24 (Pex2pC258Y) cells transfected with wild-type rat PEX2 cDNA. The SPT54 (Pex2pN100/+Pex2pC258Y) and WPT54 (Pex2pN100/+wild) cell lines are stable transformants of PT54 (Pex2pN100) cells transfected with the mutant PEX2 cDNA from SK24 (Pex2pC258Y) cells and wild-type rat PEX2 cDNA, respectively. In these cell lines, except PT54 (Pex2pN100), thiolase appeared to be localized in peroxisomes, as it is in the wild-type cells. When the molecular size of the enzyme was examined on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the peroxisome-localized enzyme exhibited a larger precursor form in these mutant cells. The characterizations with salt wash, sodium carbonate extraction and proteinase K digestion indicated that the precursor forms of the enzyme were accumulated at different states in peroxisomes of these mutant cells. The dispositions on the peroxisomal membrane were further sustained by differential permeabilization using digitonin, followed by immunocytochemical fluorescence. These results suggest that PEX2 protein functions differently on two processes of the maturation and the disposition in the import pathway of thiolase.
Keywords: Thiolase; Catalase; PEX2; Peroxisomal protein import;

We have investigated signaling pathways leading to angiotensin II (Ang II) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in hepatocytes. MAPK activation by Ang II was abolished by the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan, but not by the Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist PD123319. Ang II (100 nM) induced a rapid phosphorylation of Src (peak approximately 2 min) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, peak approximately 5 min) followed by a decrease to basal levels in 30 min. An increased association between FAK and Src in response to Ang II was detected after 1 min, which declined to basal levels after 30 min. Treatment with the Src kinase inhibitor PP-1 inhibited FAK phosphorylation. Downregulation of PKC, intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA or inhibitors of PKC, Src kinase, MAPK kinase (MEK), Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase all blocked Ang II-induced MAPK phosphorylation. In contrast to other cells, there was no evidence for the role of EGF receptor transactivation in the activation of MAPK by Ang II. However, PDGF receptor phosphorylation is involved in the Ang II stimulated MAPK activation. Furthermore, Src/FAK and Ca/CaM kinase activation serve as potential links between the Ang II receptor and MAPK activation. These studies offer insight into the signaling network upstream of MAPK activation by AT1 receptor in hepatocytes.
Keywords: Angiotensin II; Focal adhesion kinase; Hepatocyte; Mitogen-activated protein kinase; pp60c-Src;

Expression of intestinal ornithine decarboxylase during postnatal development in neonatal rats by Chuan-Hao Lin; Roy Vijesurier; Ye-Shih Ho; Raymond G. Schipper; Vasundhara Tolia; Jeffrey A. Moshier; Adhip P.N. Majumdar (298-304).
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) has been shown to play an essential role in intestinal growth and maturation in rats. However, the regulatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We studied the mechanisms of expression of intestinal ODC during postnatal development. Rat small intestinal mucosa was obtained from postnatal days 10, 15, 17, 19, 21, 24 and 30. Intestinal mucosa was assayed for ODC and sucrase activities. In addition, intestinal ODC mRNA, and ODC protein levels were also measured. The results showed that the intestinal sucrase activity was low before postnatal day 19. The sucrase activity then increased steadily from day 19 up to day 30. Intestinal ODC activities remained low from postnatal day 10 to day 17. A sharp increase in ODC activity was noted on day 19, which peaked on day 24 (a 20-fold increase from its low basal level) and declined on day 30. Intestinal ODC proteins followed the same pattern of postnatal expression as that of ODC activity. In contrast, ODC mRNA did not show significant change throughout the study period. The possible mechanisms by which intestinal ODC mRNA levels remain practically unchanged during postnatal development are discussed. We conclude that the ontogenic increase in sucrase activity, a marker for intestinal maturation, occurs at the same time to that of the induction of ODC activity. We also suggest that the induction of intestinal ODC activity during postnatal development is the result of post-transcriptional events or other cellular mechanisms. A better understanding of the regulation of polyamine biosynthesis during postnatal development of the small intestine will provide insights contributing to the maturation of the small intestine.
Keywords: Intestinal maturation; RT-PCR; ODC mRNA; ODC protein; Sucrase;

Nuclear PLCβ1 acts as a negative regulator of p45/NF-E2 expression levels in Friend erythroleukemia cells by Irene Faenza; Alessandro Matteucci; Alberto Bavelloni; Sandra Marmiroli; Alberto M. Martelli; R.Stewart Gilmour; Pann-Ghill Suh; Lucia Manzoli; Lucio Cocco (305-310).
It is well established that phospholipase C (PLC) β1 plays a role in the nuclear compartment and is involved in the signalling pathway that controls the switching of the erythroleukemia cells programming from an undifferentiated to a differentiated state. Constitutive overexpression of nuclear PLCβ1 has been previously shown to inhibit Friend cells differentiation.For further characterization, we investigated the localization of PLCβ1a and PLCβ1b in Friend cells by fusing their cDNA to enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). To investigate the potential target of nuclear PLCβ1 in Friend differentiation, we studied the expression of p45/NF-E2 transcription factor, which is an enhancer binding protein for expression of the β-globin gene and the expression of GATA proteins that are important for the survival and differentiation of erythroid cells. Our data suggest that the overexpression of PLCβ1 (both 1a and 1b) only in the nuclear compartment significantly reduces the expression of p45/NF-E2. The effect observed is attributable to the specific action of nuclear PLCβ1 signalling given that GATA-1 and GATA-3 are not affected at all. Here we show the existence of a unique target, i.e. the transcription factor p45/NF-E2, whose expression is specifically inhibited by the nuclear signalling evoked by PLCβ1 forms.
Keywords: Phospholipase Cβ1; Nucleus; NF-E2; Erythroleukemia; Inositol lipid; GATA family;

The 92-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-9) contributes to tumor invasion and metastases and strategies to down-regulate its expression could ultimately be of clinical utility. Although the expression of this collagenase is regulated by numerous growth factors, the signaling pathways that transduce these signals are fewer in number and therefore represent pharmacological targets. In this regard, we previously reported that MMP-9 expression was regulated by the c-jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade. Therefore, we undertook a study to determine the efficacy of a novel compound (SP600125), which binds to the ATP binding site of all known JNKs, in repressing MMP-9 expression. In OVCAR-3 cells, SP600125 inhibited the PMA-dependent secretion of MMP-9 in a time-dependent manner and over a dose range that blocked c-Jun phosphorylation and AP-1 binding. SP600125 repressed the activity of a PMA-stimulated MMP-9 promoter-driven luciferase reporter, suggesting that diminished secretion of this collagenase reflected reduced transcription. Further, the activity of a GAL4-driven reporter in PMA-treated cells, co-transfected with an expression construct encoding the trans-activation domain of c-Jun fused to the DNA binding domain of GAL4, was repressed by SP600125. These findings indicate the efficacy of SP600125 in inhibiting c-Jun activation, DNA-binding and the PMA-dependent induction of MMP-9 expression.
Keywords: MMP-9; SP600125; JNK; Collagenase;