European Journal of Pharmacology (v.704, #1-3)

Morphine deteriorates spatial memory in sodium salicylate treated rats by Mehdi Sadegh; Yaghoub Fathollahi; Nasser Naghdi; Saeed Semnanian (1-6).
Tolerance and cross-tolerance for the effects of morphine (M) and sodium salicylate on nociception and learning were examined. The anti-nociceptive effects were measured by using the classic tail flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests and learning was measured with the Morris water maze (MWM). Tolerance or cross-tolerance was induced by daily injection (i.p.) of morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg for 7 days) or sodium salicylate (300 mg/kg for 6 days). The injection of sodium salicylate increased both TF and HP latencies. This anti-nociceptive effect was progressively decreased across six injections and tolerance to sodium salicylate was developed. When M was injected to sodium salicylate-tolerant rats, a weakened anti-nociceptive effect was seen, indicating cross-tolerance to M. Acute treatment with M also increased TF latency. This anti-nociceptive effect was successively decreased across seven injections and tolerance to M was developed. When sodium salicylate was injected to M-tolerant rats, a diminished anti-nociceptive effect was seen, indicating cross-tolerance to sodium salicylate. Acute M impaired water maze performance, while chronic M and sodium salicylate had no effects on MWM performance. However, when M was injected to rats that had received sodium salicylate after each training trial for 7 days, these rats spent less time in target quadrant as compared to M and saline groups. It is concluded that chronic sodium salicylate induces tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of M and vice versa. Also chronic salicylate may produce lasting metaplastic changes in brain mechanisms behind spatial learning and memory, which can be visualized in cross-sensitization to morphine.
Keywords: Cross-tolerance; Morphine; Morris water maze; Salicylate; Spatial memory;

A ganglionic stimulant, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, caused both cholinergic and adrenergic responses in the isolated mouse atrium by Kenta Ochi; Hiroki Teraoka; Toshihiro Unno; Sei-ichi Komori; Masahisa Yamada; Takio Kitazawa (7-14).
An isolated atrial preparation of the mouse is useful for analyzing the actions of drugs on the myocardium, autonomic neurons and endocardial endothelium. The aim of the present study was to examine the functions of intrinsic neurons of the atrium using a ganglionic stimulant, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP). DMPP (1–100 μM) caused a negative chronotropic action followed by a positive chronotropic action in spontaneously beating right atria and also caused biphasic inotropic actions consisting of initial inhibition followed by potentiation of electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contraction in the left atria. Inotropic actions in the left atria induced by DMPP were characterized using some autonomic drugs and M2 and/or M3 muscarinic receptor knockout (M2R-KO, M3R-KO and M2M3R-KO) mice. Atropine and hexamethonium decreased the initial negative inotropic actions of DMPP. In the atria from pertussis toxin-treated, M2R-KO and M2/M3R-KO mice, the negative inotropic actions were abolished. On the other hand, the following positive inotropic actions were decreased by hexamethonium, atropine and atenolol. In the atria from reserpine-treated mice, positive inotropic actions were also decreased. The positive inotropic action induced by DMPP was almost the same in M2R-KO mice but was reduced in both M3R-KO mice and M2/M3R-KO mice. In conclusion, DMPP caused biphasic inotropic/chronotropic actions in the mouse atrium through activation of intrinsic cholinergic and adrenergic neurons. M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors and β1-adrenoceptor are thought to be involved in these actions.
Keywords: Mouse atrium; Nicotinic receptor; Intrinsic neurons; Cholinergic action; Adrenergic action;

The anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide is an agonist of the transient receptor potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel by Alexandru Babes; Michael J.M. Fischer; Milos Filipovic; Matthias A. Engel; Maria-Luiza Flonta; Peter W. Reeh (15-22).
The anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide inhibits K(ATP) channels in pancreatic β-cells and stimulates insulin release. It also causes adverse effects, among which are abdominal pain, gastrointestinal disturbances and nocturia. We report that glibenclamide activates human TRPA1 in a concentration range that is commonly used to induce inhibition of K(ATP) channels in vitro. Glibenclamide generates calcium transients in HEK293t cells transiently transfected with human TRPA1, which are inhibited by the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC030031 and also evokes outwardly rectifying currents mediated by recombinant TRPA1. Glibenclamide activates a subpopulation of mouse primary sensory neurons, most of which are also sensitive to the selective TRPA1 agonist mustard oil. This glibenclamide sensitivity is completely abolished by genetic ablation of TRPA1. Taken together, our data demonstrate that glibenclamide is an agonist of human TRPA1, which may explain some of the adverse effects of the drug.
Keywords: Diabetes; Pain; TRP channel; Dorsal root ganglion; Sulphonylurea;

Lovastatin-induced decrease of intracellular cholesterol level attenuates fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition in bronchial fibroblasts derived from asthmatic patients by Marta Michalik; Ewelina Soczek; Milena Kosińska; Monika Rak; Katarzyna Anna Wójcik; Sławomir Lasota; Małgorzata Pierzchalska; Jarosław Czyż; Zbigniew Madeja (23-32).
Chronic inflammation of the airways and structural changes in the bronchial wall are basic hallmarks of asthma. Human bronchial fibroblasts derived from patients with diagnosed asthma display in vitro predestination towards TGF-β-induced fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT), a key event in the bronchial wall remodelling. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and are widely used as antilipidemic drugs. The pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins, independent of their cholesterol-lowering capacity, are also well established. Since commonly used anti-asthmatic drugs do not reverse the structural remodelling of the airways and statins have tentative anti-asthmatic activity, we have studied the effect of lovastatin on FMT in populations of human bronchial fibroblasts derived from asthmatic patients. We demonstrate that the intensity of FMT induced by TGF-β1 was strongly and dose-dependently attenuated by lovastatin. Furthermore, we show that neither the suppression of prenylation of signalling proteins nor the effect on reactive oxygen species formation are important for lovastatin-induced inhibition of myofibroblast differentiation. On the other hand, we show that a squalene synthase inhibitor, zaragozic acid A, reduced the TGF-β1-induced FMT to an extent comparable to lovastatin effect. Additionally we demonstrate that in bronchial fibroblast populations, both inhibitors (lovastatin and zaragozic acid A) attenuate the TGF-β1-induced Smad2 nuclear translocation in a manner dependent on intracellular cholesterol level. Our data suggest that statins can directly, by decrease of intracellular cholesterol level, affect basic cell signalling events crucial for asthmatic processes and potentially prevent perilous bronchial wall remodelling associated with intensive myofibroblast formation.
Keywords: Lovastatin; Cholesterol; Asthma; Human bronchial fibroblasts; Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition; Transforming growth factor β;

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder and generally associated with certain psychiatric comorbidities. Among several comorbidities depressive behavior and cognitive impairment has been reported to be most debilitating comorbidity associated with epilepsy. This study was envisaged to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Curcumin on depression like behavior and cognitive impairment observed in pentylenetetrazole kindled animals. Male Swiss Albino mice were kindled with subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg, i.p.). Successfully kindled animals were used in the study to observe the effect of different treatments. Treatment groups received phenytoin (30 mg/kg) and Curcumin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 15 days. The animals were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg, i.p.) on day 5, 10 and 15 and seizure severity score, immobility period, number of mistakes and step down latency were recorded. On 15th day, all the animals were sacrificed after behavioral evaluations and their brain was isolated and homogenized to estimate brain norepinephrine, serotonin, total nitrite level and acetylcholinesterase activity. Phenytoin treatment significantly improved the depressive like behavior along with its anticonvulsant effect, however was unable to improve memory impairment. Curcumin significantly attenuated seizure severity, depression like behavior and memory impairment in kindled animals, in dose dependent manner. These results were supported by the biochemical modulation of brain monoamine, nitrosative stress level and acetylcholinesterase activity. Thus present study concluded that Curcumin has the ameliorative effect on seizure severity, depression like behavior and memory impairment in pentylenetetrazole kindled mice, possibly via central monoaminergic modulation and inhibitory effect on nitrosative stress and acetylcholinesterase activity.
Keywords: Curcumin; PTZ kindling; Epileptic comorbidities; Depression; Learning and memory deficit;

Coumarsabin hastens C-type inactivation gating of voltage-gated K+ channels by Yi-Hung Chen; King-Chuen Wu; Chin-Tsang Yang; Yuan-Kun Tu; Chi-Li Gong; Chia-Chia Chao; Min-Fan Tsai; Yue-Hsiung Kuo; Yuk-Man Leung (41-48).
During prolonged depolarization, voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels display C-type inactivation, a process which is due to selectivity filter destabilization and serves to limit K+ flux. Here we reported that coumarsabin, a coumarin derivative isolated from Juniperus Sabina, could hasten C-type inactivation and thus cause block of Kv channels in neuronal NG108-15 cells and Kv1.2 channels heterologously expressed in lung epithelial H1355 cells. In NG108-15 cells, extracellular, but not intracellular, coumarsabin (30 μM) strongly speeded up Kv current decay and caused a left-shift in the steady-state inactivation curve. Coumarsabin inhibited end-of-pulse Kv currents with an IC50 of 13.4 μM. The kinetics and voltage-dependence of activation were not affected by coumarsabin. The degree of block by coumarsabin was not enhanced by a reduction in intracellular K+ concentration. Data reveal that coumarsabin was a closed channel blocker and it displayed a frequency-independent mode of inhibition. Coumarsabin did not accelerate current decay in a Kv1.2 mutant (V370G) defective in C-type inactivation. Taken together, our data suggest that Kv channel inhibition by coumarsabin did not appear to result from a direct obstruction of the outer pore but relied on C-type inactivation.
Keywords: Voltage-gated K+ channels; Coumarsabin; C-type inactivation; Block;

Characterization of selective Calcium-Release Activated Calcium channel blockers in mast cells and T-cells from human, rat, mouse and guinea-pig preparations by Louise V. Rice; Heather J. Bax; Linda J. Russell; Victoria J. Barrett; Sarah E. Walton; Angela M. Deakin; Sally A. Thomson; Fiona Lucas; Roberto Solari; David House; Malcolm Begg (49-57).
Loss of function mutations in the two key proteins which constitute Calcium-Release Activated Calcium (CRAC) channels demonstrate the critical role of this ion channel in immune cell function. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that inhibition of immune cell activation could be achieved with highly selective inhibitors of CRAC channels in vitro using cell preparations from human, rat, mouse and guinea-pig. Two selective small molecule blockers of CRAC channels; GSK-5498A and GSK-7975A were tested to demonstrate their ability to inhibit mediator release from mast cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from T-cells in a variety of species. Both GSK-5498A and GSK-7975A completely inhibited calcium influx through CRAC channels. This led to inhibition of the release of mast cell mediators and T-cell cytokines from multiple human and rat preparations. Mast cells from guinea-pig and mouse preparations were not inhibited by GSK-5498A or GSK-7975A; however cytokine release was fully blocked from T-cells in a mouse preparation. GSK-5498A and GSK-7975A confirm the critical role of CRAC channels in human mast cell and T-cell function, and that inhibition can be achieved in vitro. The rat displays a similar pharmacology to human, promoting this species for future in vivo research with this series of molecules. Together these observations provide a critical forward step in the identification of CRAC blockers suitable for clinical development in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
Keywords: GSK-5498A; GSK-7975A; I CRAC; Orai1; T-cell; Mast cell;

Previous studies have shown that local anesthetics have various effects on nitric oxide (NO) production, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of local anesthetics on NO production and 2-amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid (l-arginine) uptake in one cell line. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were stimulated with bradykinin and/or acetylcholine to activate endothelial NO synthase (NOS). BAEC were also incubated with interleukin-1β and lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inducible NOS. NO production was measured with the rapid spectrophotometric method, and l-arginine uptake was measured with high performance liquid chromatography. To assess the effects of local anesthetics, NO production and l-arginine uptake were measured in the presence or absence of procaine or lidocaine. NO was produced in BAEC stimulated with bradykinin and acetylcholine or interleukin-1β and lipopolysaccharide, but NO production was not affected by the addition of superoxide dismutase. In the cells stimulated with bradykinin and acetylcholine, 10 μM each of procaine and lidocaine significantly inhibited NO production by 35% and 20%, respectively. In the cells incubated with interleukin-1ß and lipopolysaccharide, the same quantities of procaine and lidocaine significantly inhibited NO production by 15% and 10%, respectively. Both procaine and lidocaine significantly suppressed l-arginine uptake in BAEC stimulated with either bradykinin/acetylcholine or interleukin-1β/lipopolysaccharide. It is suggested that inhibitory effects of procaine and lidocaine on NO production are partially due to suppression of l-arginine uptake.
Keywords: Local anesthetic; Nitric oxide; l-Arginine; Endothelial cell;

Rebamipide inhibits indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury: Possible involvement of intestinal microbiota modulation by upregulation of α-defensin 5 by Tetsuya Tanigawa; Toshio Watanabe; Koji Otani; Yuji Nadatani; Fumikazu Ohkawa; Mitsue Sogawa; Hirokazu Yamagami; Masatsugu Shiba; Kenji Watanabe; Kazunari Tominaga; Yasuhiro Fujiwara; Koji Takeuchi; Tetsuo Arakawa (64-69).
Enterobacteria play important roles in the pathophysiology of small intestinal injuries induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We investigated the effects of rebamipide, a gastrointestinal mucoprotective drug, on indomethacin-induced small intestinal injuries, intestinal microbiota, and expression levels of α-defensin 5, which is a Paneth cell-specific antimicrobial peptide and is important for the regulation of intestinal microbiota. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was orally administered to mice after oral administration of rebamipide (100 or 300 mg/kg) or vehicle for 1 week, and the small intestinal injuries were assessed. After oral administration of rebamipide, the small intestinal contents were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to assess the intestinal microbiota composition. Further, the expression levels of mRNA and protein for α-defensin 5 in the ileal tissue were determined by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis, respectively. Rebamipide inhibited indomethacin-induced small intestinal injuries and T-RFLP analysis showed that rebamipide increased the percentage of Lactobacillales and decreased the percentage of Bacteroides and Clostridium than that in vehicle-treated controls. The mice that were treated with rebamipide showed an increase in α-defensin 5 mRNA expression and protein levels in the ileal tissue compared to vehicle-treated control mice. Indomethacin reduced expression of α-defensin 5 mRNA in ileal tissue, while rebamipide reversed expression of α-defensin 5 mRNA. In conclusion, our study results suggest that rebamipide inhibits indomethacin-induced small intestinal injuries, possibly by modulating microbiota in the small intestine by upregulation of α-defensin 5.
Keywords: Enterobacteria; Lactobacillales; Bacteroides; Clostridium; Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism;

Neuroprotective effects of salvianolic acid B on an Aβ25–35 peptide-induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by Young Woo Lee; Dong Hyun Kim; Su Jin Jeon; Se Jin Park; Jong Min Kim; Jun Man Jung; Hyung Eun Lee; Shin Gil Bae; Hee Kyong Oh; Kun Ho Ho Son; Jong Hoon Ryu (70-77).
Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is a polyphenolic compound found in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge that has several anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated whether SalB has neuroprotective effects in an amyloid β (Aβ) peptide-induced Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Mice were injected with Aβ25–35 peptide intracerebroventricularly and were subsequently administered SalB once daily for 7 days. Subchronic SalB administration (10 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the Aβ25–35 peptide-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance task (P<0.05). SalB treatment also reduced the number of activated microglia and astrocytes that were observed during the inflammatory reaction after the administration of the Aβ25–35 peptide. Moreover, SalB markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, which were increased by the administration of the Aβ25–35 peptide. Furthermore, SalB administration significantly rescued the Aβ25–35 peptide-induced decrease of choline acetyltransferase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels. These results suggest that SalB exerts neuroprotective activity via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects and that SalB may be a potential candidate for Alzheimer's disease therapy.
Keywords: Salvianolic acid B; Amyloid β protein; Alzheimer's disease; Neuroprotection;