BBA - Bioenergetics (v.1837, #3)

Pre-diabetes alters testicular PGC1-α/SIRT3 axis modulating mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress by Luís Rato; Ana I. Duarte; Gonçalo D. Tomás; Maria S. Santos; Paula I. Moreira; Sílvia Socorro; José E. Cavaco; Marco G. Alves; Pedro F. Oliveira (335-344).
Pre-diabetes, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes development, leads to metabolic changes at testicular level. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) and Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) are pivotal in mitochondrial function. We hypothesized that pre-diabetes disrupts testicular PGC-1α/Sirt3 axis, compromising testicular mitochondrial function. Using a high-energy-diet induced pre-diabetic rat model, we evaluated testicular levels of PGC-1α and its downstream targets, nuclear respiratory factors 1 (NRF-1) and 2 (NRF-2), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and Sirt3. We also assessed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial function, energy levels and oxidative stress parameters. Protein levels were quantified by Western Blot, mtDNA content was determined by qPCR. Mitochondrial complex activity and oxidative stress parameters were spectrophotometrically evaluated. Adenine nucleotide levels, adenosine and its metabolites (inosine and hypoxanthine) were determined by reverse-phase HPLC.Pre-diabetic rats showed increased blood glucose levels and impaired glucose tolerance. Both testicular PGC-1α and Sirt3 levels were decreased. NRF-1, NRF-2 and TFAM were not altered. Testicular mtDNA content was decreased. Mitochondrial complex I activity was increased, whereas mitochondrial complex III activity was decreased. Adenylate energy charge was decreased in pre-diabetic rats, as were ATP and ADP levels. Conversely, AMP levels were increased, evidencing a decreased ATP/AMP ratio. Concerning to oxidative stress pre-diabetes decreased testicular antioxidant capacity and increased lipid and protein oxidation. In sum, pre-diabetes compromises testicular mitochondrial function by repressing PGC-1α/Sirt3 axis and mtDNA copy number, declining respiratory capacity and increasing oxidative stress. This study gives new insights into overall testicular bioenergetics at this prodromal stage of disease.Display Omitted
Keywords: High-energy diet; Mitochondria; PGC-1α/Sirt3 axis; Pre-diabetes; Testicular bioenergetics;

Effect of constitutive expression of bacterial phytoene desaturase CRTI on photosynthetic electron transport in Arabidopsis thaliana by Denise Galzerano; Kathleen Feilke; Patrick Schaub; Peter Beyer; Anja Krieger-Liszkay (345-353).
The constitutive expression of the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI) in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to increased susceptibility of leaves to light-induced damage. Changes in the photosynthetic electron transport chain rather than alterations of the carotenoid composition in the antenna were responsible for the increased photoinhibition. A much higher level of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide was generated in the light in thylakoid membranes from the CRTI expressing lines than in wild-type while the level of singlet oxygen generation remained unchanged. The increase in reactive oxygen species was related to the activity of plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) since their generation was inhibited by the PTOX-inhibitor octyl gallate, and since the protein level of PTOX was increased in the CRTI-expressing lines. Furthermore, cyclic electron flow was suppressed in these lines. We propose that PTOX competes efficiently with cyclic electron flow for plastoquinol in the CRTI-expressing lines and that it plays a crucial role in the control of the reduction state of the plastoquinone pool.
Keywords: bacterial phytoene desaturase; plastid terminal oxidase; photosynthetic electron transport; photoinhibition; reactive oxygen species; A. thaliana;

Isoflurane modulates cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetics by selectively attenuating respiratory complexes by Bhawana Agarwal; Ranjan K. Dash; David F. Stowe; Zeljko J. Bosnjak; Amadou K.S. Camara (354-365).
Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cardiac ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury but volatile anesthetics (VA) may alter mitochondrial function to trigger cardioprotection. We hypothesized that the VA isoflurane (ISO) mediates cardioprotection in part by altering the function of several respiratory and transport proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). To test this we used fluorescence spectrophotometry to measure the effects of ISO (0, 0.5, 1, 2 mM) on the time-course of interlinked mitochondrial bioenergetic variables during states 2, 3 and 4 respiration in the presence of either complex I substrate K+-pyruvate/malate (PM) or complex II substrate K+-succinate (SUC) at physiological levels of extra-matrix free Ca2 + (~ 200 nM) and Na+ (10 mM). To mimic ISO effects on mitochondrial functions and to clearly delineate the possible ISO targets, the observed actions of ISO were interpreted by comparing effects of ISO to those elicited by low concentrations of inhibitors that act at each respiratory complex, e.g. rotenone (ROT) at complex I or antimycin A (AA) at complex III. Our conclusions are based primarily on the similar responses of ISO and titrated concentrations of ETC. inhibitors during state 3. We found that with the substrate PM, ISO and ROT similarly decreased the magnitude of state 3 NADH oxidation and increased the duration of state 3 NADH oxidation, ΔΨm depolarization, and respiration in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas with substrate SUC, ISO and ROT decreased the duration of state 3 NADH oxidation, ΔΨm depolarization and respiration. Unlike AA, ISO reduced the magnitude of state 3 NADH oxidation with PM or SUC as substrate. With substrate SUC, after complete block of complex I with ROT, ISO and AA similarly increased the duration of state 3 ΔΨm depolarization and respiration. This study provides a mechanistic understanding in how ISO alters mitochondrial function in a way that may lead to cardioprotection.
Keywords: Volatile anesthetic; Isoflurane; Mitochondrial bioenergetics; Electron transport chain; Cardiac IR injury; Cardioprotection;

Structural and kinetic properties of Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction centers containing exclusively Zn-coordinated bacteriochlorophyll as bacteriochlorin cofactors by Rafael G. Saer; Jie Pan; Amelia Hardjasa; Su Lin; Federico Rosell; A. Grant Mauk; Neal W. Woodbury; Michael E.P. Murphy; J. Thomas Beatty (366-374).
The Zn-BChl-containing reaction center (RC) produced in a bchD (magnesium chelatase) mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides assembles with six Zn-bacteriochlorophylls (Zn-BChls) in place of four Mg-containing bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and two bacteriopheophytins (BPhes). This protein presents unique opportunities for studying biological electron transfer, as Zn-containing chlorins can exist in 4-, 5-, and (theoretically) 6-coordinate states within the RC. In this paper, the electron transfer perturbations attributed exclusively to coordination state effects are separated from those attributed to the presence, absence, or type of metal in the bacteriochlorin at the HA pocket of the RC. The presence of a 4-coordinate Zn2 + ion in the HA bacteriochlorin instead of BPhe results in a small decrease in the rates of the P* → P+HA  → P+QA electron transfer, and the charge separation yield is not greatly perturbed; however coordination of the Zn2 + by a fifth ligand provided by a histidine residue results in a larger rate decrease and yield loss. We also report the first crystal structure of a Zn-BChl-containing RC, confirming that the HA Zn-BChl was either 4- or 5-coordinate in the two types of Zn-BChl-containing RCs studied here. Interestingly, a large degree of disorder, in combination with a relatively weak anomalous difference electron density was found in the HB pocket. These data, in combination with spectroscopic results, indicate partial occupancy of this binding pocket. These findings provide insights into the use of BPhe as the bacteriochlorin pigment of choice at HA in both BChl- and Zn-BChl-containing RCs found in nature.
Keywords: Bacteriochlorophyll; Reaction center; Bacteriopheophytin; Electron transfer; Rhodobacter sphaeroides; Spectroscopy;

Nitric oxide reductase (NOR) from denitrifying bacteria is an integral membrane protein that catalyses the two electron reduction of NO to N2O, as part of the denitrification process, being responsible for an exclusive reaction, the N―N bond formation, the key step of this metabolic pathway. Additionally, this class of enzymes also presents residual oxidoreductase activity, reducing O2 to H2O in a four electron/proton reaction. In this work we report, for the first time, steady-state kinetics with the Pseudomonas nautica NOR, either in the presence of its physiological electron donor (cyt. c 552) or immobilised on a graphite electrode surface, in the presence of its known substrates, namely NO or O2. The obtained results show that the enzyme has high affinity for its natural substrate, NO, and different kinetic profiles according to the electron donor used. The kinetic data, as shown by the pH dependence, is modelled by ionisable amino acid residues nearby the di-nuclear catalytic site. The catalytic mechanism is revised and a mononitrosyl-non-heme Fe complex (FeB II-NO) species is favoured as the first catalytic intermediate involved on the NO reduction.Display Omitted
Keywords: NOR; NO reduction; Enzyme kinetics; Electrochemistry;

Structural studies show energy transfer within stabilized phycobilisomes independent of the mode of rod–core assembly by Liron David; Mindy Prado; Ana A. Arteni; Dominika A. Elmlund; Robert E. Blankenship; Noam Adir (385-395).
The major light harvesting complex in cyanobacteria and red algae is the phycobilisome (PBS), comprised of hundreds of seemingly similar chromophores, which are protein bound and assembled in a fashion that enables highly efficient uni-directional energy transfer to reaction centers. The PBS is comprised of a core containing 2–5 cylinders surrounded by 6–8 rods, and a number of models have been proposed describing the PBS structure. One of the most critical steps in the functionality of the PBS is energy transfer from the rod substructures to the core substructure. In this study we compare the structural and functional characteristics of high-phosphate stabilized PBS (the standard fashion of stabilization of isolated complexes) with cross-linked PBS in low ionic strength buffer from two cyanobacterial species, Thermosynechococcus vulcanus and Acaryochloris marina. We show that chemical cross-linking preserves efficient energy transfer from the phycocyanin containing rods to the allophycocyanin containing cores with fluorescent emission from the terminal emitters. However, this energy transfer is shown to exist in PBS complexes of different structures as characterized by determination of a 2.4 Å structure by X-ray crystallography, single crystal confocal microscopy, mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained and cryogenically preserved complexes. We conclude that the PBS has intrinsic structural properties that enable efficient energy transfer from rod substructures to the core substructures without requiring a single unique structure. We discuss the significance of our observations on the functionality of the PBS in vivo.
Keywords: Photosynthesis; Cyanobacteria; X-ray crystallography; Cryo transmission electron microscopy; Complex assembly;

The crystal structures of copper-containing nitrite reductase (CuNiR) from the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 and the amino (N)-terminal 68 residue-deleted mutant were determined at resolutions of 1.3 Å and 1.8 Å, respectively. Both structures show a striking resemblance with the overall structure of the well-known CuNiRs composed of two Greek key β-barrel domains; however, a remarkable structural difference was found in the N-terminal region. The unique region has one β-strand and one α-helix extended to the northern surface of the type-1 copper site. The superposition of the Geobacillus CuNiR model on the electron-transfer complex structure of CuNiR with the redox partner cytochrome c 551 in other denitrifier system led us to infer that this region contributes to the transient binding with the partner protein during the interprotein electron transfer reaction in the Geobacillus system. Furthermore, electron-transfer kinetics experiments using N-terminal residue-deleted mutant and the redox partner, Geobacillus cytochrome c 551, were carried out. These structural and kinetics studies demonstrate that the region is directly involved in the specific partner recognition.
Keywords: Denitrification; Electron transfer; Copper nitrite reductase; Cytochrome c; X-ray crystallography;