Analytica Chimica Acta (v.830, #C)

Display OmittedThe application of carbon nanotube or nanorod/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite electrospun nanofibrous stationary phase for ultrathin layer chromatography (UTLC) is described herein. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and edge-plane carbon (EPC) nanorods were prepared and electrospun with the PAN polymer solution to form composite nanofibers for use as a UTLC stationary phase. The analysis of laser dyes demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing carbon nanoparticle-filled electrospun nanofibers as a UTLC stationary phase. The contribution of MWCNT or EPC in changing selectivity of the stationary phase was studied by comparing the chromatographic behavior among MWCNT–PAN plates, EPC–PAN plates and pure PAN plates. Carbon nanoparticles in the stationary phase were able to establish strong π–π interactions with aromatic analytes. The separation of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) demonstrated enhanced chromatographic performance of MWCNT-filled stationary phase by displaying substantially improved resolution and separation efficiency. Band broadening of the spots for MWCNT or EPC-filled UTLC stationary phases was also investigated and compared with that for pure PAN stationary phases. A 50% improvement in band dispersion was noted using the MWCNT based composite nanofibrous UTLC plates.
Keywords: Thin layer chromatography; Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; Edge-plane ordered carbon; Electrospinning; Nanofibers; Stationary phase;

An appropriate and systematized procedure for validating qualitative methods: Its application in the detection of sulfonamide residues in raw milk by Carina de Souza Gondim; Otávio Augusto Mazzoni Coelho; Ronália Leite Alvarenga; Roberto Gonçalves Junqueira; Scheilla Vitorino Carvalho de Souza (11-22).
Display OmittedThe lack of well-established references for the validation of qualitative analyses and the increasing demand for reliable binary responses were the main motivating factors for this study. A detailed procedure for single-laboratory validation of qualitative methods is proposed. The experimental design and the tools for data analysis were based on the theoretical background, as well as the aspects of efficiency, convenience and simplicity. Four experimental steps were defined, as follows: (i) preliminary tests for the determination of the concentration range, (ii) a study of the rates, unreliability region, detection limit, and the accordance and concordance values, (iii) a study of the selectivity in the presence of known interferences, and (iv) a study of robustness. The applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by the validation of a qualitative commercial kit for detecting sulfonamide residues in raw milk using both the visual and instrumental reading techniques. Reliability rates of 100% were obtained for the blank samples. For the samples spiked with sulfamethazine at 10.8 and 108 μg L−1 and with sulfadimethoxine or sulfathiazole at 10 and 100 μg L−1, the reliability rates ranged from 93.3 to 100%. Selectivity was demonstrated using trimethoprim as a potential interferent. The method was considered robust for the factors of the temperature (54 and 58 °C) and time (6 and 10 min) for incubating the test strips. The estimated detection limits and unreliability regions confirmed the suitability of the kit for this purpose, based on the legislated residue limits.
Keywords: Validation; Qualitative method; Performance parameters; Sulfonamides; Residues; Milk;

Investigation of protein FTT1103 electroactivity using carbon and mercury electrodes. Surface-inhibition approach for disulfide oxidoreductases using silver amalgam powder by Renata Večerková; Lenka Hernychová; Petr Dobeš; Jiří Vrba; Bohdan Josypčuk; Martin Bartošík; Jan Vacek (23-31).
Display OmittedRecently, it was shown that electrochemical methods can be used for analysis of poorly water-soluble proteins and for study of their structural changes and intermolecular (protein–ligand) interactions. In this study, we focused on complex electrochemical investigation of recombinant protein FTT1103, a disulfide oxidoreductase with structural similarity to well described DsbA proteins. This thioredoxin-like periplasmic lipoprotein plays an important role in virulence of bacteria Francisella tularensis. For electrochemical analyses, adsorptive transfer (ex situ) square-wave voltammetry with pyrolytic graphite electrode, and alternating-current voltammetry and constant-current chronopotentiometric stripping analysis with mercury electrodes, including silver solid amalgam electrode (AgSAE) were used. AgSAE was used in poorly water-soluble protein analysis for the first time. In addition to basic redox, electrocatalytic and adsorption/desorption characterization of FTT1103, electrochemical methods were also used for sensitive determination of the protein at nanomolar level and study of its interaction with surface of AgSA microparticles. Proposed electrochemical protocol and AgSA surface-inhibition approach presented here could be used in future for biochemical studies focused on proteins associated with membranes as well as on those with disulfide oxidoreductase activity.
Keywords: Disulfide bond forming protein; Oxidoreductase; Surface inhibition; Electrochemical sensing; Membrane proteins;

Display OmittedFor the quantitative analysis of ‘compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates’ (CLASS) in environmental media, we previously introduced an effective carbon number (ECN) approach to develop an empirical equation for the prediction of their response factor (RF). In this research, a series of laboratory experiments were carried out to benchmark the reliability of an ECN approach for sorbent tube/thermal desorption/gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) applications. First, the ECN values were determined using external calibration data from 25 reference volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using two MS dectectors (quadrupole (Q) and time-of-flight (TOF)). Then, a certified standard mixture of 54 VOCs was analyzed by each system as a simulated unknown sample. The analytical bias, assessed in terms of percentage difference (PD) between the certified and ECN-predicted mass values, averaged 19.2 ± 16.1% (TOF-MS) and 28.2 ± 27.6% (Q-MS). The bias using a more simplified carbon number (CN)-based prediction increased considerably, yielding 53.4 ± 53.3% (TOF-MS) and 61.7 ± 81.3% (Q-MS). However, the bias obtained using the ECN-based prediction decreased significantly to yield average PD values of 9.84 ± 7.28% (TOF-MS) and 16.8 ± 8.35% (Q-MS), if the comparison was limited to 26 (out of 54) VOCs with CN ≥ 4 (i.e., 25 aromatics and hexachlorobutadiene).
Keywords: Volatile organic compound; Carbon number; Effective carbon number; Sorbent tube; Thermal desorption; Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry applications;

Display OmittedA new competitive-type immunosensing system based on gold nanoparticles toward catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) was developed for sensitive monitoring of antibiotic residue (chloramphenicol, CAP, used in this case) by using ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectrometry. Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) with 16 nm in diameter was initially synthesized and functionalized with CAP–bovine serum albumin (CAP–BSA) conjugate, which were used as the competitor on monoclonal anti-CAP antibody-coated polystyrene microtiter plate (MTP). In the presence of target CAP, the labeled CAP–BSA on the AuNP competed with target CAP for the immobilized antibody on the MTP. The conjugated amount of CAP–BSA–AuNP on the MTP decreased with the increase of target CAP in the sample. Upon addition of 4-NP and NaBH4 into the MTP, the carried AuNP could catalytically reduce 4-NP to 4-aminophenol (4-AP), and the as-produced 4-AP could be monitored by using UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. Experimental results indicated that the absorbance at 403 nm increased with the increment of target CAP concentration in the sample, and exhibited a dynamic range from 0.1 to 100 ng mL−1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.03 ng mL−1 at the 3sblank level. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were lower than 5.5% and 8.0%, respectively. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for CAP spiked honey and milk samples, respectively. The recovery was 92–112%.
Keywords: Chloramphenicol; Foodstuff; Gold nanocatalyst; Immunoassay; Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy;

Chiral metal–organic framework used as stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography by Zhi-Xin Fei; Mei Zhang; Jun-Hui Zhang; Li-Ming Yuan (49-55).
Display OmittedMetal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have received great attention as novel media in separation sciences because of their fascinating structures and unusual properties. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no attempt to utilize chiral MOFs as stationary phases in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). In this study, a homochiral helical MOF [Zn2(D-Cam)2(4,4′-bpy)] n (D-Cam = D-(+)-camphoric acid, 4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine) was explored as the chiral stationary phase in open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) for separation of chiral compounds and isomers. The MOFs coated column has been developed using a simple procedure via MOFs post-coated on the sodium silicate layer. The baseline separations of flavanone and praziquantel were achieved on the MOFs coated column with high resolution of more than 2.10. The influences of pH, organic modifier content and buffer concentration on separation were investigated. Besides, the separations of isomers (nitrophenols and ionones) were evaluated. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the retention time of run-to-run, day-to-day and column-to-column were 1.04%, 2.16% and 3.07%, respectively. The results demonstrated that chiral MOFs are promising for enantioseparation in CEC.
Keywords: Metal–organic framework; Stationary phase; Open tubular capillary electrochromatography; Chiral separation;