Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.242, #C)

Recent advances in biomedical applications of fluorescent gold nanoclusters by Youkun Zheng; Lanmei Lai; Weiwei Liu; Hui Jiang; Xuemei Wang (1-16).
Fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are emerging as novel fluorescent materials and have attracted more and more attention in the field of biolabeling, biosensing, bioimaging and targeted cancer treatment because of their unusual physicochemical properties, such as long fluorescence lifetime, ultrasmall size, large Stokes shift, strong photoluminescence, as well as excellent biocompatibility and photostability. Recently, significant efforts have been committed to the preparation, functionalization and biomedical application studies of fluorescent AuNCs. In this review, we have summarized the strategies for preparation and surface functionalization of fluorescent AuNCs in the past several years, and highlighted recent advances in the biomedical applications of the relevant fluorescent AuNCs. Based on these observations, we also give a discussion on the current problems and future developments of the fluorescent AuNCs for biomedical applications.“Eight diagrams” illustrating of the preparation, functionalization and biomedical applications of fluorescent gold nanoclusters.Display Omitted
Keywords: Fluorescent gold nanoclusters; Biomedical applications; Surface functionalization; Biosensing; Bioimaging; Cancer therapy;

Delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides by Randi Nordström; Martin Malmsten (17-34).
Due to rapidly increasing resistance development against conventional antibiotics, finding novel approaches for the treatment of infections has emerged as a key health issue. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted interest in this context, and there is by now a considerable literature on the identification such peptides, as well as on their optimization to reach potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects at simultaneously low toxicity against human cells. In comparison, delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerably less interest. However, such delivery systems are likely to play a key role in the development of potent and safe AMP-based therapeutics, e.g., through reducing chemical or biological degradation of AMPs either in the formulation or after administration, by reducing adverse side-effects, by controlling AMP release rate, by promoting biofilm penetration, or through achieving co-localization with intracellular pathogens. Here, an overview is provided of the current understanding of delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides, with special focus on AMP-carrier interactions, as well as consequences of these interactions for antimicrobial and related biological effects of AMP-containing formulations.Display Omitted
Keywords: Antimicrobial peptide; Drug delivery; Infection;

Valorisation of post-sorption materials: Opportunities, strategies, and challenges by D. Harikishore Kumar Reddy; K. Vijayaraghavan; Jeong Ae Kim; Yeoung-Sang Yun (35-58).
Adsorption is a facile, economic, eco-friendly and low-energy requiring technology that aims to separate diverse compounds (ions and molecules) from one phase to another using a wide variety of adsorbent materials. To date, this technology has been used most often for removal/recovery of pollutants from aqueous solutions; however, emerging post-sorption technologies are now enabling the manufacture of value-added key adsorption products that can subsequently be used for (i) fertilizers, (ii) catalysis, (iii) carbonaceous metal nanoparticle synthesis, (iv) feed additives, and (v) biologically active compounds. These new strategies ensure the sustainable valorisation of post-sorption materials as an economically viable alternative to the engineering of other green chemical products because of the ecological affability, biocompatibility, and widespread accessibility of post-sorption materials. Fertilizers and feed additives manufactured using sorption technology contain elements such as N, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn, which improve soil fertility and provide essential nutrients to animals and humans. This green and effective approach to managing post-sorption materials is an important step in reaching the global goals of sustainability and healthy human nutrition. Post-sorbents have also been utilized for the harvesting of metal nanoparticles via modern catalytic pyrolysis techniques. The resulting materials exhibited a high surface area (> 1000 m2/g) and are further used as catalysts and adsorbents. Together with the above possibilities, energy production from post-sorbents is under exploration. Many of the vital 3E (energy, environment, and economy) problems can be addressed using post-sorption materials. In this review, we summarize a new generation of applications of post-adsorbents as value-added green chemical products. At the end of each section, scientific challenges, further opportunities, and issues related to toxicity are discussed. We believe this critical evaluation not only delivers essential contextual information to researchers in the field but also stimulates new ideas and applications to further advance post-sorbent applications.Display Omitted
Keywords: Post-adsorption; Post-sorbent; Exhausted sorbent; Spent sorbent; Adsorption; Biosorption; Fertilizers; Feed-additives; Catalysis; Carbothermal synthesis; Nanoparticles; Water treatment; Aqueous medium;