Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.221, #C)

Keywords: Colloid stability; Polymer/surfactant interaction; Application of dispersions;

Perturbation of cellular mechanistic system by silver nanoparticle toxicity: Cytotoxic, genotoxic and epigenetic potentials by Poornima Dubey; Ishita Matai; S. Uday Kumar; Abhay Sachdev; Bharat Bhushan; P. Gopinath (4-21).
Currently the applications of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are gaining overwhelming response due to the advancement of nanotechnology. However, only limited information is available with regard to their toxicity mechanism in different species. It is very essential to understand the complete molecular mechanism to explore the functional and long term applications of Ag NPs. Ag NPs could be toxic at cellular, subcellular, biomolecular, and epigenetic levels. Toxicity effects induced by Ag NPs have been evaluated using numerous in vitro and in vivo models, but still there are contradictions in interpretations due to disparity in methodology, test endpoints and several other model parameters which needs to be considered. Thus, this review article focuses on the progressive elucidation of molecular mechanism of toxicity induced by Ag NPs in various in vitro and in vivo models. Apart from these, this review also highlights the various ignored factors which are to be considered during toxicity studies.Display Omitted
Keywords: Silver nanoparticles; Molecular mechanisms; Nanotoxicology; Protein corona; Cytotoxicity; Epigenetic;

Many life-sustaining processes in living cells occur at the membrane–water interface. The pertinent questions that need to be asked are what is the evolutionary reason for biology to choose the membrane–water interface as the site for performing and/or controlling crucial biological reactions and what is the key physical principle that is singular to the membrane–water interface that biology exploits for regulating metabolic processes in cells? In this review, a hypothesis is developed, which espouses that cells control activities of membrane-bound enzymes and receptor activated processes via manipulating the thermodynamic activity of water at the membrane–water interfacial region. In support of this hypothesis, first we establish that the surface pressure of a lipid monolayer is a direct measure of a reduction in the thermodynamic activity of interfacial water. Second, we show that the surface pressure-dependent activation/inactivation of interfacial enzymes is fundamentally related to their dependence on interfacial water activity. We extend this argument to infer that cells might manipulate activities of membrane-associated biological processes via manipulating the activity of interfacial water via localized compression or expansion of the interface. In this paper, we critically analyze literature data on mechano-activation of large pore ion channels in Escherichia coli spheroplasts and G-proteins in reconstituted lipid vesicles, and show that these pressure-induced activation processes are fundamentally and quantitatively related to changes in the thermodynamic state of interfacial water, caused by mechanical stretching of the bilayer.Display Omitted
Keywords: Interfacial water activity; Interfacial activation of enzymes; Mechanoactivation; G-protein activation; Membrane function;

Wettability influence on the onset temperature of pool boiling: Experimental evidence onto ultra-smooth surfaces by B. Bourdon; E. Bertrand; P. Di Marco; M. Marengo; R. Rioboo; J. De Coninck (34-40).
In this article we study systematically the effect of wettability on the onset of boiling on the same nanometrically smooth surface. By grafting different monolayers of molecules, we were able to explore the wettability from the equilibrium static contact angle, θ0  = 0° to θ0  = 110°, without changing the surface topography. The superheat temperature at the onset of pool boiling was measured and eventually a non-classical trend of TONB as a function of wettability was observed. The nucleation site densities for the different grafting cases were also measured by image analysis. Moreover, we propose a novel theoretical interpretation to this phenomenon linking nucleation and the molecular diffusion coefficient. MD simulation results support this approach.Display Omitted
Keywords: Pool boiling; Wettability; Surface treatment; Superheat; Heat transfer;

With superior electrical/thermal conductivities and mechanical properties, two dimensional (2D) graphene has become one of the most intensively explored carbon allotropes in materials science. To exploit the inherent properties fully, 2D graphene sheets are often fabricated or assembled into functional architectures (e.g. hydrogels, aerogels) with desired three dimensional (3D) interconnected porous microstructures. The 3D graphene based materials show many excellent characteristics including increased active material per projected area, accessible mass transport or storage, electro/thermo conductivity, chemical/electrochemical stability and flexibility. It has paved the way for practical requirements in electronics, adsorption as well as catalysis related system. This review shows an extensive overview of the main principles and the recent synthetic technologies about fabricating various innovative 3D graphene based materials. Subsequently, recent progresses in electrochemical energy devices (lithium/lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells and solar cells) and hydrogen energy generation/storage are explicitly discussed. The up to date advances for pollutants detection and environmental remediation are also reviewed. Finally, challenges and outlooks in materials development for energy and environment are suggested.Display Omitted
Keywords: Graphene; Hydrogels; Aerogels; Energy storage and conversion; Hydrogen production; Environmental remediation;

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years with a recent increase in popularity. Despite promising biological activities of active ingredients and fractions from TCM, their poor solubility, poor stability, short biological half-life, ease of metabolism and rapid elimination hinder their clinical application. Therefore, overcoming these problems to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TCM preparations is a major focus of pharmaceutical sciences. Recently, nanocarriers have drawn increasing attention for their excellent and efficient delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions. This review discusses problems in the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions; focuses on recent advances in nanocarriers that represent potential solutions to these problems, including lipid-based nanoparticles and polymeric, inorganic, and hybrid nanocarriers; and discusses unanswered questions in the field and criteria for the development of better nanocarriers for the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions to be focused on in future studies.Performance of nanocarriers in delivering active ingredients or fractions from TCMDisplay Omitted
Keywords: Nanocarriers; Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM); Active ingredients; Active fractions; Drug delivery systems;