Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.212, #C)

VOF simulations of the contact angle dynamics during the drop spreading: Standard models and a new wetting force model by Ilias Malgarinos; Nikolaos Nikolopoulos; Marco Marengo; Carlo Antonini; Manolis Gavaises (1-20).
In this study,a novel numerical implementation for the adhesion of liquid droplets impacting normally on solid dry surfaces is presented. The advantage of this new approach, compared to the majority of existing models, is that the dynamic contact angle forming during the surface wetting process is not inserted as a boundary condition, but is derived implicitly by the induced fluid flow characteristics (interface shape) and the adhesion physics of the gas–liquid-surface interface (triple line), starting only from the advancing and receding equilibrium contact angles. These angles are required in order to define the wetting properties of liquid phases when interacting with a solid surface.The physical model is implemented as a source term in the momentum equation of a Navier-Stokes CFD flow solver as an “adhesion-like” force which acts at the triple-phase contact line as a result of capillary interactions between the liquid drop and the solid substrate. The numerical simulations capture the liquid–air interface movement by considering the volume of fluid (VOF) method and utilizing an automatic local grid refinement technique in order to increase the accuracy of the predictions at the area of interest, and simultaneously minimize numerical diffusion of the interface.The proposed model is validated against previously reported experimental data of normal impingement of water droplets on dry surfaces at room temperature. A wide range of impact velocities, i.e. Weber numbers from as low as 0.2 up to 117, both for hydrophilic (θadv  = 10° – 70°) and hydrophobic (θadv  = 105° – 120°) surfaces, has been examined. Predictions include in addition to droplet spreading dynamics, the estimation of the dynamic contact angle; the latter is found in reasonable agreement against available experimental measurements.It is thus concluded that theimplementation of this model is an effective approach for overcoming the need of a pre-defined dynamic contact angle law, frequently adopted as an approximate boundary condition for such simulations. Clearly, this model is mostly influential during the spreading phase for the cases of low We number impacts (We < ˜80) since for high impact velocities, inertia dominates significantly over capillary forces in the initial phase of spreading.Display Omitted
Keywords: CFD; VOF; Dynamic contact angle; Droplet impingement; Dynamic grid refinement;

Inverse gas chromatography applications: A review by S. Mohammadi-Jam; K.E. Waters (21-44).
Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a versatile, powerful, sensitive and relatively fast technique for characterizing the physicochemical properties of materials. Due to its applicability in determining surface properties of solids in any form such as films, fibres and powders of both crystalline and amorphous structures, IGC became a popular technique for surface characterization, used extensively soon after its development. One of the most appealing features of IGC that led to its popularity among analytical scientists in early years was its similarity in principle to analytical gas chromatography (GC). The main aspect which distinguishes IGC experiments from conventional GC is the role of mobile and stationary phases. Contrary to conventional GC, the material under investigation is placed in the chromatographic column and a known probe vapour is used to provide information on the surface.In this review, information concerning the history, instrumentation and applications is discussed. Examples of the many experiments developed for IGC method are selected and described. Materials that have been analysed include polymers, pharmaceuticals, minerals, surfactants, and nanomaterials. The properties that can be determined using the IGC technique include enthalpy and entropy of sorption, surface energy (dispersive and specific components), work of co/adhesion, miscibility and solubility parameters, surface heterogeneity, glass transition temperature, and specific surface area.Display Omitted
Keywords: Inverse gas chromatography; IGC; Physicochemical characteristics; Surface free energy; Dispersive surface energy; Specific surface free energy;

A concise review of nanoscopic aspects of bioleaching bacteria–mineral interactions by Mengxue Diao; Elena Taran; Stephen Mahler; Anh V. Nguyen (45-63).
Bioleaching is a technology for the recovery of metals from minerals by means of microorganisms, which accelerate the oxidative dissolution of the mineral by regenerating ferric ions. Bioleaching processes take place at the interface of bacteria, sulfide mineral and leaching solution. The fundamental forces between a bioleaching bacterium and mineral surface are central to understanding the intricacies of interfacial phenomena, such as bacterial adhesion or detachment from minerals and the mineral dissolution. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge in the colloidal aspect of bacteria–mineral interactions, particularly for bioleaching bacteria. Special consideration is given to the microscopic structure of bacterial cells and the atomic force microscopy technique used in the quantification of fundamental interaction forces at nanoscale.Display Omitted
Keywords: Bioleaching; Bacterial adhesion; Atomic force microscopy; Interaction forces;