Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.211, #C)

Sample handling in surface sensitive chemical and biological sensing: A practical review of basic fluidics and analyte transport by Norbert Orgovan; Daniel Patko; Csaba Hos; Sándor Kurunczi; Bálint Szabó; Jeremy J. Ramsden; Robert Horvath (1-16).
This paper gives an overview of the advantages and associated caveats of the most common sample handling methods in surface-sensitive chemical and biological sensing. We summarize the basic theoretical and practical considerations one faces when designing and assembling the fluidic part of the sensor devices. The influence of analyte size, the use of closed and flow-through cuvettes, the importance of flow rate, tubing length and diameter, bubble traps, pressure-driven pumping, cuvette dead volumes, and sample injection systems are all discussed. Typical application areas of particular arrangements are also highlighted, such as the monitoring of cellular adhesion, biomolecule adsorption–desorption and ligand–receptor affinity binding. Our work is a practical review in the sense that for every sample handling arrangement considered we present our own experimental data and critically review our experience with the given arrangement. In the experimental part we focus on sample handling in optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) measurements, but the present study is equally applicable for other biosensing technologies in which an analyte in solution is captured at a surface and its presence is monitored. Explicit attention is given to features that are expected to play an increasingly decisive role in determining the reliability of (bio)chemical sensing measurements, such as analyte transport to the sensor surface; the distorting influence of dead volumes in the fluidic system; and the appropriate sample handling of cell suspensions (e.g. their quasi-simultaneous deposition). At the appropriate places, biological aspects closely related to fluidics (e.g. cellular mechanotransduction, competitive adsorption, blood flow in veins) are also discussed, particularly with regard to their models used in biosensing.Display Omitted
Keywords: Fluidic systems; Analyte transport; Dead volumes; Label-free detection; Optical biosensors; Fluid handling of live cells;

Structural and thermodynamic properties of water–membrane interphases: Significance for peptide/membrane interactions by E.A. Disalvo; M.F. Martini; A.M. Bouchet; A. Hollmann; M.A. Frías (17-33).
Water appears as a common intermediary in the mechanisms of interaction of proteins and polypeptides with membranes of different lipid composition. In this review, how water modulates the interaction of peptides and proteins with lipid membranes is discussed by correlating the thermodynamic response and the structural changes of water at the membrane interphases.The thermodynamic properties of the lipid–protein interaction are governed by changes in the water activity of monolayers of different lipid composition according to the lateral surface pressure. In this context, different water populations can be characterized below and above the phase transition temperature in relation to the CH2 conformers' states in the acyl chains.According to water species present at the interphase, lipid membrane acts as a water state regulator, which determines the interfacial water domains in the surface. It is proposed that those domains are formed by the contact between lipids themselves and between lipids and the water phase, which are needed to trigger adsorption–insertion processes. The water domains are essential to maintain functional dynamical properties and are formed by water beyond the hydration shell of the lipid head groups. These confined water domains probably carries information in local units in relation to the lipid composition thus accounting for the link between lipidomics and aquaomics. The analysis of these results contributes to a new insight of the lipid bilayer as a non-autonomous, responsive (reactive) structure that correlates with the dynamical properties of a living system.Display Omitted
Keywords: Lipid membranes; Aqueous interphases; Water organization; Thermodynamic response; Peptide interaction;

Microfluidic flows of wormlike micellar solutions by Ya Zhao; Perry Cheung; Amy Q. Shen (34-46).
The widespread use of wormlike micellar solutions is commonly found in household items such as cosmetic products, industrial fluids used in enhanced oil recovery and as drag reducing agents, and in biological applications such as drug delivery and biosensors. Despite their extensive use, there are still many details about the microscopic micellar structure and the mechanisms by which wormlike micelles form under flow that are not clearly understood. Microfluidic devices provide a versatile platform to study wormlike micellar solutions under various flow conditions and confined geometries. A review of recent investigations using microfluidics to study the flow of wormlike micelles is presented here with an emphasis on three different flow types: shear, elongation, and complex flow fields. In particular, we focus on the use of shear flows to study shear banding, elastic instabilities of wormlike micellar solutions in extensional flow (including stagnation and contraction flow field), and the use of contraction geometries to measure the elongational viscosity of wormlike micellar solutions. Finally, we showcase the use of complex flow fields in microfluidics to generate a stable and nanoporous flow-induced structured phase (FISP) from wormlike micellar solutions. This review shows that the influence of spatial confinement and moderate hydrodynamic forces present in the microfluidic device can give rise to a host of possibilities of microstructural rearrangements and interesting flow phenomena.Display Omitted
Keywords: Wormlike micelles; Microfluidics; Shear banding; Elastic instability; Flow-induced structured phase (FISP);

Recent advances in the preparation of hybrid nanoparticles in miniemulsions by Dongming Qi; Zhihai Cao; Ulrich Ziener (47-62).
In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of hybrid nanoparticles in miniemulsions since 2009. These hybrid nanoparticles include organic–inorganic, polymeric, and natural macromolecule/synthetic polymer hybrid nanoparticles. They may be prepared through encapsulation of inorganic components or natural macromolecules by miniemulsion (co)polymerization, simultaneous polymerization of vinyl monomers and vinyl-containing inorganic precursors, precipitation of preformed polymers in the presence of inorganic constituents through solvent displacement techniques, and grafting polymerization onto, from or through natural macromolecules. Characterization, properties, and applications of hybrid nanoparticles are also discussed.Display Omitted
Keywords: Hybrid nanoparticles; Miniemulsion; Nanocomposites; Polymerization;

Mesoscale models of dispersions stabilized by surfactants and colloids by R.G.M. van der Sman; M.B.J. Meinders (63-76).
In this paper we discuss and give an outlook on numerical models describing dispersions, stabilized by surfactants and colloidal particles. Examples of these dispersions are foams and emulsions. In particular, we focus on the potential of the diffuse interface models based on a free energy approach, which describe dispersions with the surface-active agent soluble in one of the bulk phases. The free energy approach renders thermodynamic consistent models with realistic sorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics. The free energy approach is attractive because of its ability to describe highly complex dispersions, such as emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants, or surfactant mixtures and dispersions with surfactant micelles. We have classified existing numerical methods into classes, using either a Eulerian or a Lagrangian representation for fluid and for the surfactant/colloid. A Eulerian representation gives a more coarse-grained, mean field description of the surface-active agent, while a Lagrangian representation can deal with steric effects and larger complexity concerning geometry and (amphiphilic) wetting properties of colloids and surfactants. However, the similarity between the description of wetting properties of both Eulerian and Lagrangian models allows for the development of hybrid Eulerian/Lagrangian models having advantages of both representations.Display Omitted
Keywords: Mesoscale simulation; Surfactants; Emulsions; Foams;

Electrophoresis and stability of nano-colloids: History, theory and experimental examples by C. Felix; A. Yaroshchuk; S. Pasupathi; B.G. Pollet; M.P. Bondarenko; V.I. Kovalchuk; E.K. Zholkovskiy (77-92).
The paper contains an extended historical overview of research activities focused on determining interfacial potential and charge of dispersed particles from electrophoretic and coagulation dynamic measurements. Particular attention is paid to nano-suspensions for which application of Standard Electrokinetic Model (SEM) to analysis of experimental data encounters difficulties, especially, when the solutions contain more than two ions, the particle charge depends on the solution composition and zeta-potentials are high. Detailed statements of Standard Electrokinetic and DLVO Models are given in the forms that are capable of addressing electrophoresis and interaction of particles for arbitrary ratios of the particle to Debye radius, interfacial potentials and electrolyte compositions. The experimental part of the study consists of two groups of measurements conducted for Pt/C nano-suspensions, namely, the electrophoretic and coagulation dynamic studies, with various electrolyte compositions. The obtained experimental data are processed by using numerical algorithms based on the formulated models for obtaining interfacial potential and charge. While analyzing the dependencies of interfacial potential and charge on the electrolyte compositions, conclusions are made regarding the mechanisms of charge formation. It is established that the behavior of system stability is in a qualitative agreement with the results computed from the electrophoretic data. The verification of quantitative applicability of the employed models is conducted by calculating the Hamaker constant from experimental data. It is proposed how to explain the observed variations of predicted Hamaker constant and its unusually high value.Display Omitted
Keywords: Electrophoresis; Coagulation dynamics; Nano-suspensions; Standard Electrokinetic Model; DLVO theory;

The remarkable increase in the number of vehicles worldwide; and the lack of both technical and economical mechanisms of disposal make waste tires to be a serious source of pollution. One potential recycling process is pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process to produce porous activated carbons.Many researchers have recently proved the capability of such carbons as adsorbents to remove various types of pollutants including organic and inorganic species. This review attempts to compile relevant knowledge about the production methods of carbon from waste rubber tires.The effects of various process parameters including temperature and heating rate, on the pyrolysis stage; activation temperature and time, activation agent and activating gas are reviewed. This review highlights the use of waste-tires derived carbon to remove various types of pollutants like heavy metals, dye, pesticides and others from aqueous media.Display Omitted
Keywords: Porous activated carbons; Waste rubber tires; Sorption; Pyrolysis;