Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.163, #2)

This Honorary Note is dedicated to the 65th birthday of Valentin Fainerman and summarizes some of his contributions to the field of interfacial dynamics. First of all, he made the maximum bubble pressure tensiometry the most frequently used methodology in the short time range of surfactant adsorption at liquid surfaces. This work allows us now to use experimental data down to the time range of sub-milliseconds for analyzing adsorption mechanisms of surfactants and polymers and their mixtures. The contributions of V.B. Fainerman to the quantitative understanding of the thermodynamics of adsorption represent a significant step ahead and describe adsorption layers even of rather complex nature, such as mixed protein–surfactant layers. These models consider molecular interfacial reorientation and aggregation. His thermodynamic approach is able to explain various interfacial systems which includes for example also phase transitions in insoluble monolayers. Based on diffusional transport and the proposed thermodynamic models, the adsorption kinetics and dilational rheology of liquid interfacial layers have reached a new level of understanding.V.B. Fainerman made the maximum bubble pressure tensiometry an experimentally efficient tool. This is today the fastest method for studies of the dynamic surface tensions and provides data even in the sub-millisecond time range.

Solvent displacement and emulsification–diffusion are the methods used most often for preparing biodegradable submicron particles. The major difference between them is the procedure, which results from the total or partial water miscibility of the organic solvents used. This review is devoted to a critical and a comparative analysis based on the mechanistic aspects of particle formation and reported data on the influence of operating conditions, polymers, stabilizing agents and solvents on the size and zeta-potential of particles. In addition, a systematic study was carried out experimentally in order to obtain experimental data not previously reported and compare the data pertaining to the different methods. Thus the discussion of the behaviors reported in the light of the results obtained from the literature takes into account a wide range of theoretical and practical information. This leads to discussion on the formation mechanism of the particles and provides criteria for selecting the adequate method and raw materials for satisfying specific objectives in submicron particle design.Display Omitted►Comparative stat of the art of solvent displacement and emulsification–diffusion. ►The effect of recipe and process on the colloidal properties of nanoparticles. ►Polymer/solvent/water interactions are the driven mechanism in particle formation.
Keywords: Nanoparticles; Submicron particle; Solvent displacement; Nanoprecipitation; Emulsification–diffusion; Particle size; Zeta-potential;

Many biomolecules have specific binding properties in the nanostructure formation; they are attractive materials for nanotechnology. One such promising construction material for growing a well-defined nanostructure is deoxyribonucleic acid, due to its π-electron hydrophobic core and predictable recognition attributed to the specificity of Watson–Crick base-pairing. Hydrogen bonding provides the specificity behind the matching of complementary pairs of single-stranded (ss) DNA to hybridize into a double strand (ds) of helical DNA. The double-helical structure of DNA is determined by a subtle balance of noncovalent interactions among the DNA building blocks. The most prominent role is played by the interactions between the DNA bases, where two binding motifs can be recognized: planar hydrogen bonding and vertical stacking. DNA-based nanotechnology has generated interest in a number of applications due to the specificity, programmability, and reproducibility of DNA interaction with noble metal nanoparticles. 5′ and 3′ thiol moieties are used to prepare composite DNAs, DNA–gold nanoparticle conjugates and nanostructures with a variety of nanoparticle-based DNA assays. Particularly, color changes induced by the association of nanometer-sized gold particles provide a basis of a simple yet highly selective method for detecting specific biological reactions between anchored ligand molecules and receptor molecules in the milieu. Colloidal noble metal nanoparticles, in particular, have found application in a variety of assay formats in which analyte binding is coupled to particle adsorption. The extreme sensitivity of the bandwidth, the peak height, and the position of the absorption (or scattering) maximum of surface plasmon resonance spectra to environmental changes have prompted the development of approaches directly monitor the DNA hybridization. The same features that make DNA an effective molecule for the storage of genetic information also render it useful as an engineering material for the construction of smart objects at the nanometer scale because of its ability to self organize into desired structures via the specific hybridization of complementary sequences. Biocompatibility between gold nanomaterials and biological scaffolding is crucial to the development of smart biomaterials. These DNA/metal colloids are interesting for their fundamental properties as well as for applications in nanomaterials science and nanobiotechnology.Schematic illustration of the strategy for controlled formation of DNA/gold nanoparticle conjugates by immobilization of (ss) oligonucleotides (1–3) onto small (8, 9) and large (5–7, 10) gold nanoparticles to make a AuNP-multimer by hybridization/dehybridization cycles.Display Omitted► The formation of DNA/noble metal nanoparticles conjugates as a possible bionanosensor. ► Colloidal noble metal nanoparticles have found application in a conjugate formation with analytes. ► Surface plasmon resonance spectra have prompted the development of approaches directly monitor the DNA hybridization. ► These DNA/metal colloids have found applications in nanomaterials science.
Keywords: DNA; Surfactant; Gold nanoparticles; Interactions; DNA–AuNP nanoconjugates and nanoconstructs;