Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.152, #1-2)

Publisher's note by Rob van Daalen (1).

Theoretical models of sorption kinetics including a surface reaction mechanism: A review by Wojciech Plazinski; Wladyslaw Rudzinski; Anita Plazinska (2-13).
A review of a certain class of theoretical models describing the kinetics of pollutants sorption onto various sorbents is presented. These assuming the rate of surface reaction as the rate-limiting step are considered. A special attention is paid to possible theoretical grounds of the most commonly applied mathematical expressions, such as the pseudo-second and the pseudo-first order equations. Simple theoretical considerations based on some fundamental theories suggest that these two formulae do not correspond to any specific physical model. They simply approximate well the behaviours predicted by many different theoretical approaches.
Keywords: Sorption; Modeling; Kinetics; Pseudo-first order; Pseudo-second order; Pollutants removal;

The values of PZC and IEP of metal oxides reported in the literature are affected by the choice of the specimens to be studied. The specimens, which have PZC and IEP similar to the “recommended” value, are preferred by the scientists. The biased choice leads to accumulation of results for a few specimens, and the other specimens are seldom studied or they are subjected to washing procedures aimed at shift of the original IEP toward the “recommended” value. Taking the average or median of all published PZC and IEP for certain oxide as the “recommended” value leads to substantiation of previously published results due to overrepresentation of certain specimens in the sample.
Keywords: Point of zero charge; Isoelectric point; Inert electrolyte; Surface charge; Electrokinetic potential; Alumina; Titania; Silica;

Chitin and chitosan-derivatives have gained wide attention as effective biosorbents due to low cost and high contents of amino and hydroxyl functional groups which show significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of chitin- and chitosan-derivatives from vast literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants as available in the literature are presented. This paper will give an overview of the principal results obtained during the treatment of water and wastewater utilizing chitin and chitosan-derivatives for the removal of: (a) metal cations and metal anions; (b) radionuclides; (c) different classes of dyes; (d) phenol and substituted phenols; (e) different anions and other miscellaneous pollutants. The review provides a summary of recent information obtained using batch studies and deals with the various adsorption mechanisms involved. It is evident from the literature survey that chitin- and chitosan-derivatives have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of such developed adsorbents on commercial scale.
Keywords: Water treatment; Adsorption; Chitin; Chitosan; Review;

Concern about environmental protection has aroused over the years from a global viewpoint. To date, the ever-increasing importance of biomass as the energy and material resources has lately been accounted by the rising prices for the crude petroleum oil. Rice husk ash, the most appropriate representative of the high ash biomass waste, is currently obtaining sufficient attraction, owning to its wide usefulness and potentiality in environmental conservation. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of the art review of the rice milling industry, its background studies, fundamental properties and industrial applications. Moreover, the key advance on the preparation of novel adsorbents, its major challenges together with the future expectation has been highlighted and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of rice husk ash in the field of adsorption science represents a viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental preservation.
Keywords: Adsorbent; Biomass; Renewable; Rice husk; Rice husk ash;

Towards an understanding of induced-charge electrokinetics at large applied voltages in concentrated solutions by Martin Z. Bazant; Mustafa Sabri Kilic; Brian D. Storey; Armand Ajdari (48-88).
The venerable theory of electrokinetic phenomena rests on the hypothesis of a dilute solution of point-like ions in quasi-equilibrium with a weakly charged surface, whose potential relative to the bulk is of order the thermal voltage (kT/e  ≈ 25 mV at room temperature). In nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena, such as AC or induced-charge electro-osmosis (ACEO, ICEO) and induced-charge electrophoresis (ICEP), several V ≈ 100  kT/e are applied to polarizable surfaces in microscopic geometries, and the resulting electric fields and induced surface charges are large enough to violate the assumptions of the classical theory. In this article, we review the experimental and theoretical literatures, highlight discrepancies between theory and experiment, introduce possible modifications of the theory, and analyze their consequences. We argue that, in response to a large applied voltage, the “compact layer” and “shear plane” effectively advance into the liquid, due to the crowding of counterions. Using simple continuum models, we predict two general trends at large voltages: (i) ionic crowding against a blocking surface expands the diffuse double layer and thus decreases its differential capacitance, and (ii) a charge-induced viscosity increase near the surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility; each trend is enhanced by dielectric saturation. The first effect is able to predict high-frequency flow reversal in ACEO pumps, while the second may explain the decay of ICEO flow with increasing salt concentration. Through several colloidal examples, such as ICEP of an uncharged metal sphere in an asymmetric electrolyte, we show that nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena are generally ion-specific. Similar theoretical issues arise in nanofluidics (due to confinement) and ionic liquids (due to the lack of solvent), so the paper concludes with a general framework of modified electrokinetic equations for finite-sized ions.
Keywords: Nonlinear electrokinetics; Microfluidics; Induced-charge electro-osmosis; Electrophoresis; AC electro-osmosis; Concentrated solution; Modified Poisson–Boltzmann theory; Steric effects; Hard-sphere liquid; Lattice-gas; Viscoelectric effect; Solvation; Ionic liquids; Non-equilibrium thermodynamics;